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A 2-year entomological study of potential malaria vectors in central Italy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150651
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Dec;9(6):703-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Author
Marco Di Luca
Daniela Boccolini
Francesco Severini
Luciano Toma
Francesca Mancini Barbieri
Antonio Massa
Roberto Romi
Author Affiliation
Vector Borne Diseases and International Health Section, Department of Infectious, Parasitic, and Immuno-Mediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy. marco.diluca@iss.it
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Dec;9(6):703-11
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anopheles - genetics - parasitology - physiology
Culicidae - growth & development
Databases, Nucleic Acid
Ecosystem
Entomology
Female
Geography
Humans
Insect Vectors - genetics - parasitology - physiology
Italy
Longitudinal Studies
Malaria - parasitology - transmission
Polymerase Chain Reaction - veterinary
Population Density
Abstract
Europe was officially declared free from malaria in 1975; nevertheless, this disease remains a potential problem related to the presence of former vectors, belonging to the Anopheles maculipennis complex. Autochthonous-introduced malaria cases, recently reported in European countries, together with the predicted climatic and environmental changes, have increased the concern of health authorities over the possible resurgence of this disease in the Mediterranean Basin. In Italy, to study the distribution and bionomics of indigenous anopheline populations and to assess environmental parameters that could influence their dynamics, an entomological study was carried out in 2005-2006 in an at-risk study area. This model area is represented by the geographical region named the Maremma, a Tyrrhenian costal plain in Central Italy, where malaria was hyperendemic up to the 1950s. Fortnightly, entomological surveys (April-October) were carried out in four selected sites with different ecological features. Morphological and molecular characterization, blood meal identification, and parity rate assessment of the anophelines were performed. In total, 8274 mosquitoes were collected, 7691 of which were anophelines. Six Anopheles species were recorded, the most abundant of which were Anopheles labranchiae and An. maculipennis s.s. An. labranchiae is predominant in the coastal plain, where it is present in scattered foci. However, this species exhibits a wider than expected range: in fact it has been recorded, for the first time, inland where An. maculipennis s.s. is the most abundant species. Both species fed on a wide range of animal hosts, also showing a marked aggressiveness on humans, when available. Our findings demonstrated the high receptivity of the Maremma area, where the former malaria vector, An. labranchiae, occurs at different densities related to the kind of environment, climatic parameters, and anthropic activities.
PubMed ID
19485768 View in PubMed
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Abundance and diversity of human-biting flies (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Simuliidae) around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, northwestern Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169895
Source
J Vector Ecol. 2005 Dec;30(2):263-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2005
Author
M V Kozlov
N K Brodskaya
A. Haarto
K. Kuusela
M. Schäfer
V. Zverev
Author Affiliation
Section ofEcology, Department ofBiology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
Source
J Vector Ecol. 2005 Dec;30(2):263-71
Date
Dec-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bites and Stings - epidemiology
Ceratopogonidae - growth & development
Copper - toxicity
Culicidae - growth & development
Diptera - growth & development
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Humans
Nickel - toxicity
Population Density
Population Dynamics
Russia
Seasons
Simuliidae - growth & development
Species Specificity
Abstract
In the summers of 2001 and 2002, we quantitatively sampled human-biting flies in twelve sites located 1.6 to 63 km from a large copper-nickel smelter at Monchegorsk on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. We collected 429 specimens of three species of Ceratopogonidae, 92 specimens of seven species of Culicidae, 76 specimens of seven species of Tabanidae, and 4,788 specimens of 19 species of Simuliidae. Culicoides chiropterus was for the first time reported from the Kola Peninsula. Catches of Culicidae and Simuliidae decreased near the smelter, presumably due to the combined action of toxicity of pollutants, pollution-induced forest damage, and decline in vertebrate density. An abundance of Ceratopogonidae and Tabanidae, the size of the most common black fly species, Simulium pusillum, and the diversity of all families did not change along the pollution gradient.
PubMed ID
16599161 View in PubMed
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Access to an outpatient cardiology consultation in southwestern Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201158
Source
Can J Cardiol. 1999 Aug;15(8):879-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1999
Author
D. Massel
Author Affiliation
The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. dmassel@lhsc.on.ca
Source
Can J Cardiol. 1999 Aug;15(8):879-83
Date
Aug-1999
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Academic Medical Centers - statistics & numerical data
Ambulatory Care - statistics & numerical data
Cardiology - statistics & numerical data
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Ontario
Population Density
Private Practice - statistics & numerical data
Referral and Consultation - statistics & numerical data
Waiting Lists
Abstract
To determine whether there were differences in waiting time for a consultation for a nonurgent cardiology problem among specialists in an academic centre compared with those in community practice.
Cross-sectional telephone survey.
Southwestern Ontario.
Academically affiliated and community-based specialists in cardiology or internal medicine with an interest in cardiology.
Waiting period in weeks for outpatient consultation.
Among community specialists, those with cardiology training had significantly longer waiting times than those without for nonurgent cardiology consultation (median 8.6 versus 3.8 weeks, P=0.0077). Waiting times for consultation were significantly longer for academic specialists than for those in community practice (median 9.1 versus 4.1 weeks, P=0.0013). Significantly longer waiting times exist in communities with a population greater than 100,000 (median 9.1 versus 4.0 weeks, P=0.0005).
Waiting times for consultation for a nonurgent cardiology problem are long. Waiting times are longer for physicians with certification in cardiology, in the academic medical centre and in larger communities.
PubMed ID
10446435 View in PubMed
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Accurate Non-parametric Estimation of Recent Effective Population Size from Segments of Identity by Descent.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268195
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 2015 Sep 3;97(3):404-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-3-2015
Author
Sharon R Browning
Brian L Browning
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 2015 Sep 3;97(3):404-18
Date
Sep-3-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chromosomes - genetics
Computer simulation
Finland
Genetics, Population - methods
Great Britain
Humans
Linkage Disequilibrium
Models, Genetic
Pedigree
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Population Density
Software
Abstract
Existing methods for estimating historical effective population size from genetic data have been unable to accurately estimate effective population size during the most recent past. We present a non-parametric method for accurately estimating recent effective population size by using inferred long segments of identity by descent (IBD). We found that inferred segments of IBD contain information about effective population size from around 4 generations to around 50 generations ago for SNP array data and to over 200 generations ago for sequence data. In human populations that we examined, the estimates of effective size were approximately one-third of the census size. We estimate the effective population size of European-ancestry individuals in the UK four generations ago to be eight million and the effective population size of Finland four generations ago to be 0.7 million. Our method is implemented in the open-source IBDNe software package.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26299365 View in PubMed
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[A complex of blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the focus of West Nile fever in the Volgograd Region. III. Species feeding on birds and man and the rhythms of their nocturnal activity].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158763
Source
Med Parazitol (Mosk). 2007 Oct-Dec;(4):37-43
Publication Type
Article
Author
Iu V Lopatina
O V Bezzhonova
M V Fedorova
T V Bulgakova
A E Platonov
Source
Med Parazitol (Mosk). 2007 Oct-Dec;(4):37-43
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Chickens
Circadian Rhythm
Culicidae - classification
Disease Vectors - classification
Ecosystem
Humans
Insect Bites and Stings - classification
Population Density
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Seasons
Species Specificity
West Nile Fever - prevention & control
Abstract
The rate and nocturnal rhythm of mosquito attacks of birds and human beings were studied in the open biotopes of Volgograd and its vicinity in 2004. Thirteen and 11 species of the subfamily Culicinae were collected under the Berezantsev bell and from the traps containing a chicken (a hen), respectively; of them 9 species were common. The mosquitoes of an Anopheles maculipennis complex were caught in a small portion to the traps of both types. Most species of Aedes were highly anthropophilic, showed the minimum activity at night and their abundance considerably decreased by the early transmission period. Among the species that were active during the transmission period, Ae. vexans, Coq. richiardii, and Cx. modestus more intensively attacked a human being than birds and Cx. pipiens was frequently attracted into the hen traps. The attraction of each species of the caught varied during the transmission period. The maximum attacks of Cx. modestus and Cx. pipiens on man and birds coincide and those of Coq. Richiardii and Cx. pipiens on man was observed earlier than on birds. A possible role of mosquitoes of different species in the epizootic and epidemiological processes is discussed.
PubMed ID
18277420 View in PubMed
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Adding cows to the reference population makes a small dairy population competitive.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263440
Source
J Dairy Sci. 2014 Sep;97(9):5822-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
J R Thomasen
A C Sørensen
M S Lund
B. Guldbrandtsen
Source
J Dairy Sci. 2014 Sep;97(9):5822-32
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Breeding - economics - methods
Cattle - genetics - growth & development
Dairying - economics - methods
Denmark
Female
Genomics - methods
Genotype
Male
Models, Genetic
Population Density
Reproducibility of Results
Selection, Genetic
Abstract
Small dairy breeds are challenged by low reliabilities of genomic prediction. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of including cows in the reference population for small dairy cattle populations with a limited number of sires in the reference population. Using detailed simulations, 2 types of scenarios for maintaining and updating the reference population over a period of 15yr were investigated: a turbo scheme exclusively using genotyped young bulls and a hybrid scheme with mixed use of genotyped young bulls and progeny-tested bulls. Two types of modifications were investigated: (1) number of progeny-tested bulls per year was tested at 6 levels: 15, 40, 60, 100, 250, and 500; and (2) each year, 2,000 first-lactation cows were randomly selected from the cow population for genotyping or, alternatively, an additional 2,000 first-lactation cows were randomly selected and typed in the first 2yr. The effects were evaluated in the 2 main breeding schemes. The breeding schemes were chosen to mimic options for the Danish Jersey cattle population. Evaluation criteria were annual monetary genetic gain, rate of inbreeding, reliability of genomic predictions, and variance of response. Inclusion of cows in the reference population increased monetary genetic gain and decreased the rate of inbreeding. The increase in genetic gain was larger for the turbo schemes with shorter generation intervals. The variance of response was generally higher in turbo schemes than in schemes using progeny-tested bulls. However, the risk was reduced by adding cows to the reference population. The annual genetic gain and the reliability of genomic predictions were slightly higher with more cows in the reference population. Inclusion of cows in the reference population is a rapid way to increase reliabilities of genomic predictions and hence increase genetic gain in a small population. An economic evaluation shows that genotyping of cows is a profitable investment.
PubMed ID
24996280 View in PubMed
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Adoption of innovations by Canadian radiologists.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217207
Source
Can Assoc Radiol J. 1994 Oct;45(5):377-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1994
Author
R N Rankin
R D Fox
I J Parboosingh
Author Affiliation
Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, London, Ont.
Source
Can Assoc Radiol J. 1994 Oct;45(5):377-80
Date
Oct-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Data Collection
Diffusion of Innovation
Faculty, Medical
Humans
Physician's Practice Patterns
Population Density
Radiology
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that help or hinder the adoption of new procedures and practices by Canadian radiologists. Canadian radiologists were asked, by means of a mail survey, for information about innovations in practice adopted during the previous 2 years or planned for the next 2 years. Surveys were sent to the 1077 practising radiologists registered in the Canadian Association of Radiologists as of Sept. 30, 1991; 325 responded (30.2%). The responses were correlated with demographic information obtained in the same survey and through the Maintenance of Competence Program of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was more likely to be adopted in larger communities (those with a population of more than 500,000), computed tomography in medium-sized and larger communities (more than 100,000), mammography in medium-sized and smaller communities (500,000 or less) and ultrasonography (US) in smaller communities (100,000 or less). Radiologists with a faculty appointment at a university were more likely to adopt MRI and digital imaging, whereas those with no faculty status were more likely to adopt US and structural changes to a practice. The authors conclude that the size of the community in which a practice is located and the practitioner's faculty status both play a role in the adoption of innovations.
PubMed ID
7922718 View in PubMed
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Advantage of specialism: reproductive output is related to prey choice in a small raptor.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271544
Source
Oecologia. 2015 Sep;179(1):129-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Andreas Otterbeck
Andreas Lindén
Éric Roualet
Source
Oecologia. 2015 Sep;179(1):129-37
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Choice Behavior - physiology
Diet
Falconiformes - growth & development - physiology
Female
Male
Norway
Population Density
Predatory Behavior - physiology
Reproduction - physiology
Species Specificity
Abstract
Predatory species' usage of different prey types is affected by both prey availability and selectivity. The diet during the breeding season may affect the reproductive success of individual pairs. We studied the prey use of a small reversed size-dimorphic raptor, the Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus, with respect to prey weight on two organizational levels. Using 13 years of data from southern Norway, we related reproductive output of individual breeding events to prey size taken. Further, we assessed the regional variation in prey usage between five Fennoscandian populations. This was done by fitting optimum-type functions to the prey species' numbers or relative predation risks. Pairs that successfully completed the season with more fledglings displayed less variation in prey size, suggesting a possible adaptive benefit of diet specialism, or possibly a correlative effect due to higher prey availability or lower female hunting effort. This finding contrasts with earlier raptor studies, which have suggested benefits of dietary (and hence nutritional) diversity. Indeed, our results might be limited to nutritionally substitutable prey items. We also found a tendency suggesting that older females raised more fledglings than 1-year-old females. In the population-level analysis, we found that optimum-type functions with constant width and spatially variable average best described the relationship between relative predation risk and log weight. This can reflect local conditions, such as prey availability. Our findings and new methodological tools could apply to a broader spectrum of predators. They also highlight the role of viewing usage or choice of prey at several spatial scales.
PubMed ID
25943192 View in PubMed
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Adverse health indicators correlating with sparsely populated areas in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature79158
Source
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2007 Feb;16(1):71-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Hallberg Orjan
Author Affiliation
Hallberg Independent Research, Trångsund, Sweden. oerjan.hallberg@swipnet.se
Source
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2007 Feb;16(1):71-6
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alzheimer Disease - mortality
Breast Neoplasms - surgery
Cellular Phone
Electricity - adverse effects
Female
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
Myocardial Infarction - therapy
Population Density
Prostatic Neoplasms - epidemiology
Recovery of Function
Rural Population
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Earlier studies on health characteristics in Sweden have pointed at a sudden trend change in general health indicators around 1997. The decline was worse in areas with less estimated coverage by the mobile phone system; that is, areas where the average output power from mobile phone handsets is expected to be higher. In this study, health parameters were related to the population density, which is a well defined, rather than an estimated variable. Statistics were obtained from different authorities in Sweden. Data were correlated to the population densities in the 21 different counties of Sweden as well as to estimates of average mobile phone output power. Several health quality measures showed that people in sparsely populated counties in Sweden (as well as in Denmark and Norway) have suffered more illness, and lengthier recovery than people in more densely populated areas since 1997. This is in strong contrast to the situation 20 years ago, when the countryside was the healthiest place in which to live. The indicators strongly correlated with estimated mobile phone area coverage and estimated power output. The indicator statistics suggest that the decline in health in Sweden is not a primary consequence of low population density by itself, but that other factors related to population density are causative. The two factors having the strongest correlation with decreased health quality were the estimated average power output from mobile phones (positive correlation) and the reported coverage from the global system for mobile communication base stations (negative correlation) in each county.
PubMed ID
17220707 View in PubMed
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Amateur photographs reveal population history of a colonial seabird.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278256
Source
Curr Biol. 2016 Mar 21;26(6):R226-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-21-2016

476 records – page 1 of 48.