Objective To study the association of polymorphisms rs699947, rs2010963, rs3025039 in the VEGFA gene region and rs1870377, rs2305949, rs2071559 in the VEGFR2 gene region with the risk of primary varicose veins in ethnic Russians. Methods Genotypes were determined by real-time PCR allelic discrimination. The case group consisted of 448 patients with primary varicose veins and the control group comprised 609 individuals without a history of chronic venous disease. Association was studied by logistic regression analysis. Results Allele rs2010963 C was associated with the decreased risk of varicose veins (additive model of inheritance: odds ratio?=?0.73, 95% confidence interval?=?0.59-0.91, P?=?0.004). Conclusions Our results provide evidence that polymorphism rs2010963 located in the 5' untranslated region of the VEGFA gene can influence genetic susceptibility to primary varicose veins in Russians. Otherwise, it can be in linkage disequilibrium with another functional single nucleotide polymorphism that can alter the level of vascular endothelial growth factor A protein.
To examine the association of the interleukin 1 gene (IL1) cluster polymorphisms and their haplotypes with bilateral distal interphalangeal joint osteoarthritis (DIP OA).
Radiographs of both hands of 295 dentists and 248 teachers were examined and classified for the presence of OA using reference images. Bilateral DIP OA was defined by the presence of radiographic findings of grade 2 or more in at least 1 symmetrical pair of the DIP joints. We genotyped 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the IL1R1, IL1RL2, IL1A, IL1B, and IL1RN genes using polymerase chain reaction-based methods. Haplotypes were statistically reconstructed using the PHASE program. The association between the genotypes/diplotypes and bilateral DIP OA was examined with logistic regression analysis.
Two IL1B SNP (rs1143634 and rs1143633) were associated with bilateral DIP OA. The carriers of the IL1B rs1143634 minor allele had an increased OA risk [odds ratio (OR) 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.26] compared to the noncarriers. The association was stronger in the dentists. The distribution of the IL1B rs1143633 genotype fit a recessive mode of inheritance (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.35-6.83, p = 0.006). Two IL1B-IL1RN extended haplotype alleles (211-1 and 121-1) were associated with bilateral DIP OA. An interaction between the IL1B rs1143634 and the IL1R1-IL1RL2 and IL1B-IL1RN extended haplotypes and occupation (increased risk of OA among dentists only) was observed.
Our results provide further evidence for the role of IL1 gene cluster polymorphisms in the etiology of OA and suggest that some of these may predispose DIP joints to the effects of mechanical overload.
Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a defense collectin with inflammation-modulating properties. SP-D deficiency inhibits atherosclerosis in vivo, and the circulatory SP-D levels have been previously associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. We hypothesized that plasma SP-D (pSP-D) and SP-D gene (SFTPD) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are risk factors for atherosclerosis.
We evaluated individuals who were all 60 years old and participated in The Glostrup Population Study. Subclinical atherosclerosis was diagnosed based on the ultrasonographic measurement of intima-media thickness (IMT) and protruding plaques in the right carotid artery. Associations between cardiovascular traits and the levels of pSP-D (n = 687) or two coding SFTPD SNPs rs3088308 and rs721917 (n = 396) were investigated using multiple linear regressions and logistic regressions.
There was no significant association between pSP-D and the presence of plaques or IMT. The SFTPD SNP rs3088308 was nominally associated with the presence of plaques, and rs721917 was nominally associated with IMT. The directions of effects of associations were markedly dependent on current smoking status.
The results do not support that pSP-D levels influence the development of subclinical atherosclerosis. However, the SFTPD SNP data support previous observations from animal studies that SP-D plays a role in the etiology of atherosclerotic disease development. The nominal significant effects are likely to be mediated by structural variant SP-D modulation of effects of tobacco smoking and are independent of pSP-D levels. The data warrant confirmation in larger cohorts.
We developed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk models based on validated environmental factors (E), genetic risk scores (GRS), and gene-environment interactions (GEI) to identify factors that can improve accuracy and reclassification.
Models including E, GRS, and GEI were developed among 317 white seropositive RA cases and 551 controls from the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) and validated in 987 white anti-citrullinated protein antibody-positive cases and 958 controls from the Swedish Epidemiologic Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA), stratified by sex. Primary analyses included age, smoking, alcohol, parity, weighted GRS using 31 non-HLA alleles and 8 HLA-DRB1 alleles, and the HLA × smoking interaction. Expanded models included reproductive, geographic, and occupational factors and additional GEI terms. Hierarchical models were compared for discriminative accuracy using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and reclassification using the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and the continuous net reclassification improvement.
The mean age at RA diagnosis was 56 years in the NHS and 51 years in the EIRA. Primary models produced AUCs of 0.716 in the NHS, 0.716 in women in the EIRA, and 0.756 in men in the EIRA. Expanded models produced improvements in discrimination with AUCs of 0.738 in the NHS, 0.724 in women in the EIRA, and 0.769 in men in the EIRA. Models including genetic factors (G) or G + GEI improved reclassification over E models; the full E + G + GEI model provided the optimal predictive ability by IDI analyses.
We have developed comprehensive RA risk models incorporating E, G, and GEI that have improved the discriminative accuracy for RA. Further work developing and assessing highly specific prediction models in prospective cohorts is still needed to inform primary RA prevention trials.
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Interleukin 8 (IL8) has been contradictorily associated with the risk of myocardial infarction (MI).
To investigate the association of IL8 serum levels with the risk of MI and the association of the IL8 (IL8) and IL8 receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2) genetic variants with IL8 levels and MI risk in a large case control study, the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program.
IL8 levels (pg/mL) were divided into quartiles and the MI risk was calculated by logistic regression and expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Two IL8 SNPs (rs4073A/T, rs2227306C/T) and three SNPs tagging CXCR1 and CXCR2 (rs4674258C/T, rs1008563C/T, rs6723449T/C) were analyzed for association with IL8 levels and with MI risk. Multivariate adjusted ORs for MI risk by IL8 levels in the highest quartiles indicated reduced point estimates in both women (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.2-0.8) and men when compared to the lowest quartile. In female cases, IL8 levels decreased progressively in the six months after MI (p=0.03). IL8, CXCR1 and CXCR2 genetic variants were not associated with IL8 levels. In men, the T allele at the IL8 SNP rs4073 was associated with a slight increase in the MI risk under an additive and a recessive model of inheritance.
IL8 serum levels were associated with a reduced occurrence of MI among women, whereas IL8 was associated with a slightly increased risk among men, possibly through different mechanisms. These data suggest that the biological effects of IL8 on MI risk may vary over time and warrant further cohort studies with repetitive IL8 measurements.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene was reported recently to be associated with ischemic stroke in an Icelandic population. The association was found predominately with large vessel and cardioembolic stroke. However, 2 recent reports were unable to confirm this association, although a trend toward association with cardioembolic stroke was reported. None of the reports included significant proportions of blacks. We tested for genotype and haplotype association of polymorphisms of the PDE4D gene with ischemic stroke in a population-based, biracial, case-control study. METHODS: A total of 357 cases of ischemic stroke and 482 stroke-free controls from the same community were examined. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen based on significant associations reported previously. Linkage disequilibrium (LD), SNP, and haplotype association analysis was performed using PHASE 2.0 and Haploview 3.2. RESULTS: Although several univariate associations were identified, only 1 SNP (rs2910829) was found to be significantly associated with cardioembolic stroke among both whites and blacks. The rs152312 SNP was associated with cardioembolic stroke among whites after multiple comparison corrections. The same SNP was not associated with cardioembolic stroke among blacks. However, significant haplotype association was identified for both whites and blacks for all ischemic stroke, cardioembolic stroke, and stroke of unknown origin. Haplotype association was identified for small vessel stroke among whites. CONCLUSIONS: PDE4D is a risk factor for ischemic stroke and, in particular, for cardioembolic stroke, among whites and blacks. Further study of this gene is warranted.
Genome wide association studies have shown an association between rs2200733 at 4q25 and atrial fibrillation (AF). In this case-control study we investigate the association of rs2200733 and lone AF in young patients.
We included 196 young patients with lone AF and the first episode before the age of 40 years. We analyzed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2200733 for the lone AF patients and compared them to a control group of 176 age matched healthy individuals.
No significant differences, in neither genotype distribution, nor minor allele frequencies were found between the lone AF patients and the healthy controls.
Our results suggest that the rs220733 is not a risk factor for AF in patients with no other cardiovascular disease and with early onset of the arrhythmia.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious, incurable neurological disease. In 2009, the ANZgene studies detected the suggestive association of located upstream of CD40 gene in chromosome 20q13 (p?=?1.3×10(-7)). Identification of the causal variant(s) in the CD40 locus leads to a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the development of autoimmune pathologies. We determined the genotypes of rs6074022, rs1883832, rs1535045, and rs11086996 in patients with MS (n?=?1684) and in the control group (n?=?879). Two SNPs were significantly associated with MS: rs6074022 (additive model C allele OR?=?1.27, 95% CI?=?[1.12-1.45], p?=?3×10(-4)) and rs1883832 (additive model T allele OR?=?1.20, 95% CI?=?[1.05-1.38], p?=?7×10(-3)). In the meta-analysis of our results and the results of four previous studies, we obtain the association p-value of 2.34×10(-12), which confirmed the association between MS and rs6074022 at a genome-wide significant level. Next, we demonstrated that the model including rs6074022 only sufficiently described the association. From our analysis, we can speculate that the association between rs1883832 and MS was induced by LD, whereas rs6074022 was a marker in stronger LD with the functional variant or was the functional variant itself. Our results indicated that the functional variants were located in the upstream region of the gene CD40 and were in higher LD with rs6074022 than LD with rs1883832.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable disorder affecting some 5-10% of children and 4-5% of adults. The cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) is a positional candidate gene due to its location near an identified ADHD linkage peak on chromosome 6, its role in stress and dopamine regulation, its association with other psychiatric disorders that co-occur with ADHD, and its function in learning and memory. We tested SNP variants at the CNR1 gene in two independent samples-an unselected adolescent sample from Northern Finland, and a family-based sample of trios (an ADHD child and their parents). In addition to using the trios for association study, the parents (with and without ADHD) were used as an additional case/control sample of adults for association tests. ADHD and its co-morbid psychiatric disorders were examined. A significant association was detected for a SNP haplotype (C-G) with ADHD (P = 0.008). A sex by genotype interaction was observed as well with this haplotype posing a greater risk in males than females. An association of an alternative SNP haplotype in this gene was found for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (P = 0.04 for C-A, and P = 0.01 for C-G). These observations require replication, however, they suggest that the CNR1 gene may be a risk factor for ADHD and possibly PTSD, and that this gene warrants further investigation for a role in neuropsychiatric disorders.
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The association between established risk factors for breast cancer and subtypes or prognosis of the disease is not well known. We analyzed whether the Tyrer-Cuzick-predicted 10-year breast cancer risk score (TCRS), mammographic density (MD), and a 77-single nucleotide polymorphism polygenic risk score (PRS) were associated with breast cancer tumor prognosticators and risk of distant metastasis.
We used a case-only design in a population-based cohort of 5,500 Swedish patients with breast cancer. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression of outcomes, estrogen receptor (ER) status, lymph node involvement, tumor size, and grade was performed with TCRS, PRS, and percent MD as exposures. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of distant metastasis.
Women at high risk for breast cancer based on PRS and/or TCRS were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with favorable prognosticators, such as ER-positive and low-grade tumors. In contrast, PRS weighted on ER-negative disease was associated with ER-negative tumors. When stratifying by age, the associations of TCRS with favorable prognosticators were restricted to women younger than age 50. Women scoring high in both TCRS and PRS had a lower risk of distant metastasis (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.98). MD was not associated with any of the examined prognosticators.
Women at high risk for breast cancer based on genetic and lifestyle factors were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancers with a favorable prognosis. Better knowledge of subtype-specific risk factors could be vital for the success of prevention programs aimed at lowering mortality.