The fat mass and obesity associated gene ( FTO) is associated with bodyweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate if FTO genotype affects weight gain in adulthood. We investigated the weight development over a period of 11 years in a case-control study, consisting of 1,632 cases (BMI=35 kg/m (2)) and 3,379 normal weight controls (BMI 20-24.9 kg/m (2)) from a Norwegian population based cohort, the HUNT study. Subjects were aged 20-80 at baseline, 25% men and 75% women. FTO genotype was assessed by genotyping of the SNP rs1421085. A strong association between FTO and obesity was found, consistent with an additive gene effect. Cases had an average weight gain of 11.1 kg, whereas controls had an average weight gain of 1.4 kg. Genotype was neither associated with weight gain in obese, nor controls. Cases had an average weight gain of 10.7 kg for individuals with zero risk alleles, 11.3 for one risk allele and 11.1 kg for two risk alleles. Controls had an average weight gain of 1.4 kg, 1.4 and 1.3 for the respective genotypes. In conclusion, FTO was associated with obesity, but not with weight gain in adults during 11 years of follow-up.
Circadian clocks guide the metabolic, cell-division, sleep-wake, circadian and seasonal cycles. Abnormalities in these clocks may be a health hazard. Circadian clock gene polymorphisms have been linked to sleep, mood and metabolic disorders. Our study aimed to examine polymorphisms in four key circadian clock genes in relation to seasonal variation, reproduction and well-being in a sample that was representative of the general population, aged 30 and over, living in Finland.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the ARNTL, ARNTL2, CLOCK and NPAS2 genes were genotyped in 511 individuals. 19 variants were analyzed in relation to 31 phenotypes that were assessed in a health interview and examination study. With respect to reproduction, women with ARNTL rs2278749 TT genotype had more miscarriages and pregnancies, while NPAS2 rs11673746 T carriers had fewer miscarriages. NPAS2 rs2305160 A allele carriers had lower Global Seasonality Scores, a sum score of six items i.e. seasonal variation of sleep length, social activity, mood, weight, appetite and energy level. Furthermore, carriers of A allele at NPAS2 rs6725296 had greater loadings on the metabolic factor (weight and appetite) of the global seasonality score, whereas individuals with ARNTL rs6290035 TT genotype experienced less seasonal variation of energy level.
ARNTL and NPAS2 gene variants were associated with reproduction and with seasonal variation. Earlier findings have linked ARNTL to infertility in mice, but this is the first time when any polymorphism of these genes is linked to fertility in humans.
Cites: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Apr 7;233(1):258-649144434
Cites: Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010 Mar 5;153B(2):570-8119693801
Cites: Lancet. 1998 Oct 24;352(9137):1369-749802288
Physical activity exerts anti-inflammatory effects, but genetic variation may modify its influence. In particular, the rs1800629 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the tumor necrosis factor ( TNF) gene and the rs1800795 SNP in the interleukin-6 ( IL6) gene have been found to modify the effect of exercise training on circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6, respectively. We assessed whether rs1800629 and rs1800795 modified the effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on changes in serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6 in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). Genotype and 1-year data on changes in physical activity, serum CRP and IL-6 were available for 390 overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. The rs1800629 SNP in TNF interacted with the 1-year change in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on changes in CRP among those who had high (=3 mg/L) baseline CRP levels ( P = 0.034 for interaction). Carriers of the GG genotype showed a greater decrease in CRP with increasing physical activity than the individuals with the A allele. No interaction between the rs1800795 SNP in IL6 and changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on the 1-year change in serum IL-6 was found. In conclusion, the rs1800629 SNP in the TNF gene may modify the effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on serum levels of CRP.
Definition of dysregulated immune components in multiple sclerosis may help in the identification of new therapeutic targets. Deviation of the interleukin 18 receptor 1 (IL18R1) is of particular interest since the receptor is critical for experimental neuroinflammation. The objective of this study was to determine whether expression of IL18R1 varies between multiple sclerosis patients and controls, and to test genetic association of IL18R1 with multiple sclerosis. We used quantitative real-time PCR to assess mRNA levels of IL18R1 in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 191 patients with multiple sclerosis, 61 patients with clinically isolated syndrome and 168 controls having other neurological disorders. Association was tested in 2153 patients with multiple sclerosis and 1733 controls using 13 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms within the IL18R1 gene. We found that patients with multiple sclerosis had increased IL18R1 mRNA expression in both cerebrospinal fluid cells (p
Retinoic acid (RA) is a critical regulator of gene expression during embryonic development. In rodents, moderate maternal vitamin A deficiency leads to subtle morphogenetic defects and inactivation of RA pathway genes causes major disturbances of embryogenesis. In this study, we quantified RA in umbilical cord blood of 145 healthy full-term Caucasian infants from Montreal. Sixty seven percent of values were
PURPOSE Choroid plexus carcinomas are pediatric tumors with poor survival rates and a strong, but poorly understood, association with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Currently, with lack of biologic predictors, most children are treated with aggressive chemoradiation protocols. PATIENTS AND METHODS We established a multi-institutional tissue and clinical database, which enabled the analysis of specific alterations of the TP53 tumor suppressor and its modifiers in choroid plexus tumors (CPTs). We conducted high-resolution copy-number analysis to correlate these genetic parameters with family history and outcome. Results We studied 64 patients with CPTs. All individuals with germline TP53 mutations fulfilled LFS criteria, whereas all patients not meeting these criteria harbored wild-type TP53 (P
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may yield insights into longevity.
We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS in Caucasians from four prospective cohort studies: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Rotterdam Study participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Longevity was defined as survival to age 90 years or older (n = 1,836); the comparison group comprised cohort members who died between the ages of 55 and 80 years (n = 1,955). In a second discovery stage, additional genotyping was conducted in the Leiden Longevity Study cohort and the Danish 1905 cohort.
There were 273 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with p
Increased mammographic density is one of the strongest independent risk factors for breast cancer. It is believed that one third of breast cancers are derived from breasts with more than 50% density. Mammographic density is affected by age, BMI, parity, and genetic predisposition. It is also greatly influenced by hormonal and growth factor changes in a woman's life cycle, spanning from puberty through adult to menopause. Genetic variations in genes coding for hormones and growth factors involved in development of the breast are therefore of great interest. The associations between genetic polymorphisms in genes from the IGF pathway on mammographic density and circulating levels of IGF1, its binding protein IGFBP3, and their ratio in postmenopausal women are reported here.
Samples from 964 postmenopausal Norwegian women aged 55-71 years were collected as a part of the Tromsø Mammography and Breast Cancer Study. All samples were genotyped for 25 SNPs in IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R, IGFALS and IGFBP3 using Taqman (ABI). The main statistical analyses were conducted with the PROC HAPLOTYPE procedure within SAS/GENETICS (SAS 9.1.3).
The haplotype analysis revealed six haploblocks within the studied genes. Of those, four had significant associations with circulating levels of IGF1 or IGFBP3 and/or mammographic density. One haplotype variant in the IGF1 gene was found to be associated with mammographic density. Within the IGF2 gene one haplotype variant was associated with levels of both IGF1 and IGFBP3. Two haplotype variants in the IGF2R were associated with the level of IGF1. Both variants of the IGFBP3 haplotype were associated with the IGFBP3 level and indicate regulation in cis.
Polymorphisms within the IGF1 gene and related genes were associated with plasma levels of IGF1, IGFBP3 and mammographic density in this study of postmenopausal women.
Cites: Hum Mol Genet. 2006 Jan 1;15(1):1-1016306136
Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common genetic disease that causes both deafness and blindness. USH is divided into three types, USH1, USH2 and USH3, depending on the age of onset, the course of the disease, and on the degree of vestibular dysfunction. By homozygosity mapping of a consanguineous Danish family of Dutch descent, we have identified a novel locus for a rare USH3-like syndrome. The affected family members have a unique association of retinitis pigmentosa, progressive hearing impairment, vestibular dysfunction, and congenital cataract. The phenotype is similar, but not identical to that of USH3 patients, as congenital cataract has not been reported for USH3. By homozygosity mapping, we identified a 7.3 Mb locus on chromosome 15q22.2-23 with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 2.0. The locus partially overlaps with the USH1 locus, USH1H, a novel unnamed USH2 locus, and the non-syndromic deafness locus DFNB48.