Occupational exposure to combustion products rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particles is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. This study aimed to evaluate whether the risk depended on the age at which the individuals were exposed.
Data from 1042 lung cancer cases and 2364 frequency-matched population controls selected from all men aged 40-75 years residing in Stockholm County, Sweden, at any time between 1985 and 1990, included detailed questionnaire information on occupational, residential, and smoking history. Occupational exposures were assessed by an occupational hygienist, and exposure to air pollution from road traffic was estimated based on dispersion models.
We found that individuals exposed to combustion products in their twenties were at higher risk than those never exposed (adjusted OR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.02, 2.10). The association was still evident after adjusting for a number of potential confounders, including lifetime cumulative exposure and latency. No clear association was found in those exposed at older ages.
Exposure to combustion products at a young age was associated with elevated risk of lung cancer. Exposure-reduction programs should be aware of the susceptibility of the younger employees.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons' (PAHs) toxicity is enhanced by the presence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which levels have arisen due to the thinning of the ozone layer. In this study, PAHs' phototoxicity for natural marine phytoplankton was tested. Different concentrations of a mixture of 16 PAHs were added to natural phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Oceans and exposed to natural sunlight received in situ, including treatments where the UVR bands were removed. PAHs' toxicity was observed for all the phytoplankton groups studied in all the waters and treatments tested, but only for the pico-sized group a synergetic effect of the mixture and UVR was observed (p=0.009). When comparing phototoxicity in phytoplankton from oligotrophic and eutrophic waters, synergy was only observed at the oligotrophic communities (p=0.02) where pico-sized phytoplankton dominated. The degree of sensitivity was related to the trophic degree, decreasing as Chlorophyll a concentration increased.
Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. However, the role of diet, the main source of PAH exposure among non-smokers, remains uncertain.
To assess associations between maternal exposure to dietary intake of the genotoxic PAH benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] during pregnancy and birth weight, exploring potential effect modification by dietary intakes of vitamins C, E and A, hypothesized to influence PAH metabolism.
This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Dietary B(a)P and nutrient intakes were estimated based on total consumption obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and estimated based on food composition data. Data on infant birth weight were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). Multivariate regression was used to assess associations between dietary B(a)P and birth weight, evaluating potential interactions with candidate nutrients.
The multivariate-adjusted coefficient (95%CI) for birth weight associated with maternal energy-adjusted B(a)P intake was -20.5g (-31.1, -10.0) in women in the third compared with the first tertile of B(a)P intake. Results were similar after excluding smokers. Significant interactions were found between elevated intakes of vitamin C (>85mg/day) and dietary B(a)P during pregnancy for birth weight (P
Identifying the potential effects of industrially formed wetlands on waterfowl populations is important for assessing the suitability of such wetlands in industrial reclamation strategies. Mallard ducklings were held in situ on two industrially formed wetlands and one reference wetland in northern Alberta, Canada. Duckling mass and skeletal size were measured at regular intervals over 33 d, and blood was collected to investigate the analysis of plasma metabolites (triglyceride and glycerol) as an indicator of physiological condition. In repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), multivariate ANOVA, and subsequent multiple-comparisons tests, body mass and skeletal size were significantly lower in ducklings maintained on the industrial wetland after 2, 5, 9, and 13 d of exposure. In this situation, plasma metabolite analysis did not provide additional information on mass-independent condition. We conclude that if the observed differences in growth and size translate into a decreased survival of juvenile waterfowl inhabiting these wetlands, then populations of these birds in the area could be negatively affected. We emphasize the importance of field-based ecological research in toxicological studies of wildlife.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to illustrate, by means of case reports on occupational exposure in four men with cancer, the hazards of previous and ongoing carcinogenic exposures in ships' engine rooms. Several cases of cancer occurred within a few years among the engine room crew of a passenger ferry. An investigation was undertaken to establish the number of cases, the types of cancers involved, and their possible relation to work. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Nine cases of cancer among crew members of the ferry were reported between 2001 and 2006, six of which occurred in crew working in the engine room. During the investigated time period, 65 men had been employed in the engine room (mean age 40, range 16-65, years). Four cases were referred to our department. Medical history, personal risk factors and specific diagnoses were collected by medical examinations and from the medical files. An experienced occupational hygienist evaluated work-related exposure to carcinogens. RESULTS: Two engine room ratings contracted lung cancer at the age of 54 and 61, respectively. Both men had been smokers for many years (33 and 45 years, respectively). One engine room rating and one electrical engineer were diagnosed with mesothelioma at the age of 61 and 63, respectively. All four had started to work in engine rooms between 1959 and 1967. Carcinogenic exposure included asbestos, with an estimated cumulative exposure of 2-5 fibreyears/mL, as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitroarenes from oils, soot and engine exhaust. CONCLUSIONS: For the lung cancer cases, smoking and asbestos exposure were considered clear risk factors, and PAHs and nitroarenes possible risk factors. For the mesothelioma cases, former asbestos exposure was considered a causal factor. Asbestos can still be present on ships. Steps should be taken to reduce the exposure to asbestos, PAHs and nitroarenes, and smoking.
Alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), which are rich in dibenzothiophenes, are present in natural and reclaimed aquatic environments in the oil sands region of northern Alberta (Canada). An oil sands-derived PAC extract has been shown to induce signs of blue sac disease in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos. Information regarding exposure to and effects of oil sands PACs is available, but little of this information concerns the impact of modifying factors. The present study focuses on the effect of simulated solar radiation on oil sands-derived PAC toxicity to Japanese medaka embryos. Photomodification of the oil sands PAC extract caused reduced toxicity with an increase in the duration of ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Generally, mortality and developmental endpoints and, to a lesser extent, growth were affected by photomodification. Coexposures of the PAC mixture and UV caused slight increases in toxicity for mortality and embryonic developmental endpoints at the longest duration of UV exposure tested (16 h). Based on the modest phototoxicity of the oil sands PAC extract to Japanese medaka embryos, enhanced toxicity associated with UV irradiation may not be a concern for embryos of fish species that are common to the oil sands region. However, testing the effects of differing levels of UV irradiation on larval fish and invertebrates that may differ in their PAC bioaccumulation would improve our understanding concerning the importance of UV irradiation as a modifying factor in oil sands environmental risk assessment.
Exposure to environmental contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), life style and nutritional status of a population are important factors that may influence normal serum levels of antioxidants and the insulin-like growth factor system. In this study we examined serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1(IGFBP-1), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) and vitamin E in healthy female populations (n=4 x 100) aged 19-59 years from Poland (PL), Sweden (SE), Serbia I (SR I) and Serbia II (SR II). The last group lived in an environmental emergency area affected by the bombings of 1999 in Serbia. The Polish and SR I cohorts exhibited low IGFSD-score levels, (-2 to +/-0), compared to females from SE with IGFSD-score 0. In the SR II population, the IGFSD range was between -1 and 1. The IGFBP-1 levels of the Polish and SR I groups were lower than in the Swedish population, while the SR II levels showed a broader distribution, 20-80 microg/l. The CoQ values in the Swedish and Polish samples were around 1 nmol/ml. In contrast, the SR I cohorts exhibited higher concentrations, 1.5-3.5 nmol/ml and the SR II group had extremely low levels,
A panel of HepG2-derived cell lines (CAT-Tox [L] assay, Xenometrix), harboring stress genes consisting of a sequence for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) under the transcriptional regulation from mammalian promoters and response elements, was exposed for 18-24 hr to aqueous suspensions of urban dusts (SRM-1648, SRM-1649, EHC-93) or PM2.5 particles (particulate matter
Previously we have demonstrated the rapid screening potential of a newly developed solid-phase microalgal bioassay with spiked sands. In this paper, we report further comparative results using both PAHs and DDTs spiked sands and field-collected acrisols soils. Toxicity responses obtained from standard higher plant tests with three species of plants (Lolium perenne, Cynodon dactylon and Brassica chinensis) were compared with those obtained from a cocktail of microalgae (Selenastrum capricornutum, Chlorococcum hypnosporum and the indigenous Chlorococcum meneghini). The 5-day seed germination/root elongation tests were not sensitive at all in contrast to the 4-day solid-phase microalgal tests and the 28-day early seedling growth tests in both spiked sands and contaminated soils. Sensitivities of microalgal tests were generally higher than the seedling growth tests in spiked sands. Concerning the assays with contaminated soil, the responses of microalgae and higher plants varied. However, the results demonstrated that microalgae could generally act as effective surrogates to screen xenobiotic compounds at toxic level to higher plants, with the local species C. meneghini especially sensitive to reveal phytotoxic effects. This promising rapid screening solution is possible to be used in accompany with standard seedling growth tests when assessing phytotoxicities of contaminated areas, especially for acrisols soil.