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Accumulation features and temporal trends of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90631
Source
Environ Pollut. 2009 Mar;157(3):737-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2009
Author
Imaeda Daisuke
Kunisue Tatsuya
Ochi Yoko
Iwata Hisato
Tsydenova Oyuna
Takahashi Shin
Amano Masao
Petrov Evgeny A
Batoev Valeriy B
Tanabe Shinsuke
Author Affiliation
Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2009 Mar;157(3):737-47
Date
Mar-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry - metabolism
Animals
Body Burden
Ecotoxicology - methods
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Female
Fresh Water
Male
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Seals, Earless - metabolism
Siberia
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - analogs & derivatives - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Time Factors
Abstract
This study investigated the accumulation features and temporal trends of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in the blubber of Baikal seals collected in 1992 and 2005. DL-PCBs (480-3600ng/g) and NDL-PCBs (980-35,000ng/g) were dominant contaminants. Concentrations of PCDDs and PCBs in males were significantly higher than in females. In males, age-dependent accumulation was observed for PCDDs, mono-ortho PCBs and NDL-PCBs. PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs showed no such trends, implying that exposure of seals to these contaminants has been decreasing in recent years. No decreasing temporal trend was observed for PCDDs, mono-ortho PCBs and NDL-PCBs, suggesting that Baikal seals are still exposed to PCDDs and PCBs. TEQs of PCDDs and mono-ortho PCBs in seals collected in 2005 accounted for 62-77% of total TEQs. The TEQ levels in 40% of the specimens exceeded the threshold level for immunosuppression observed in harbor seals (209pg/g).
PubMed ID
19110354 View in PubMed
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Acute infections and environmental exposure to organochlorines in Inuit infants from Nunavik.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4455
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Oct;112(14):1359-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
Frédéric Dallaire
Eric Dewailly
Gina Muckle
Carole Vézina
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Pierre Ayotte
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, and Public Health Research Unit, CHUQ-Laval University Medical Center, 945 Wolfe Street, Sainte-Foy, Québec G1V 5B3, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Oct;112(14):1359-65
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Cohort Studies
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - analysis - poisoning
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - poisoning
Female
Gastrointestinal Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Insecticides - analysis - poisoning
Inuits
Male
Otitis Media - epidemiology - etiology
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - poisoning
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Quebec - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
The Inuit population of Nunavik (Canada) is exposed to immunotoxic organochlorines (OCs) mainly through the consumption of fish and marine mammal fat. We investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on the incidence of acute infections in Inuit infants. We reviewed the medical charts of a cohort of 199 Inuit infants during the first 12 months of life and evaluated the incidence rates of upper and lower respiratory tract infections (URTI and LRTIs, respectively), otitis media, and gastrointestinal (GI) infections. Maternal plasma during delivery and infant plasma at 7 months of age were sampled and assayed for PCBs and DDE. Compared to rates for infants in the first quartile of exposure to PCBs (least exposed), adjusted rate ratios for infants in higher quartiles ranged between 1.09 and 1.32 for URTIs, 0.99 and 1.39 for otitis, 1.52 and 1.89 for GI infections, and 1.16 and 1.68 for LRTIs during the first 6 months of follow-up. For all infections combined, the rate ratios ranged from 1.17 to 1.27. The effect size was similar for DDE exposure but was lower for the full 12-month follow-up. Globally, most rate ratios were > 1.0, but few were statistically significant (p
PubMed ID
15471725 View in PubMed
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Adipose organochlorine concentrations and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal Danish women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature17245
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Jan;14(1):67-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2005
Author
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Marian Pavuk
Alain Leblanc
Pierre Dumas
Jean Philippe Weber
Anja Olsen
Anne Tjønneland
Kim Overvad
Jørgen H Olsen
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Society, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. ole@cancer.dk
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Jan;14(1):67-74
Date
Jan-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - analysis
Logistic Models
Middle Aged
Pesticide Residues - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Postmenopause
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to environmental organochlorines has been examined as a potential risk factor for human breast cancer with mixed results. Our purpose was to examine associations between organochlorines and the development of breast cancer in a large prospective study using stored adipose tissue. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of 409 postmenopausal women who developed breast cancer and 409 controls selected from the 29,875 women enrolled in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort between 1993 and 1997. We measured concentrations of 14 pesticides and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose tissue, collected upon enrollment, and estimated relative risk (RR) of breast cancer using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The results showed no higher risk of breast cancer among women with higher levels of any pesticides or polychlorinated biphenyls; the RR associated with the upper quartile of 1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene concentration was 0.7 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.5-1.2] contrasting the lower quartile, and for the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls the similar risk was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7-1.7). We observed a pattern of substantially lower risk of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer in association with higher levels of most of the pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls; the RR for the higher quartile of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene was 0.1 (95% CI, 0.0-0.5) and for the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls it was 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.9). CONCLUSION: The results do not support that higher organochlorine body levels increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The interpretation of the inverse association for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer is currently unclear.
PubMed ID
15668478 View in PubMed
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Adipose tissue PCB levels and CYP1B1 and COMT genotypes in relation to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal Danish women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258362
Source
Int J Environ Health Res. 2014;24(3):256-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Elvira V Bräuner
Steffen Loft
Anja Wellejus
Herman Autrup
Anne Tjønneland
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Author Affiliation
a Danish Building Research Institute, Construction and Health, Aalborg University , Copenhagen , Denmark .
Source
Int J Environ Health Res. 2014;24(3):256-68
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases - genetics
Breast Neoplasms - chemically induced - enzymology - genetics
Case-Control Studies
Catechol O-Methyltransferase - genetics
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Denmark
Female
Genotype
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Humans
Middle Aged
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics - toxicity
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Postmenopause - metabolism
Prospective Studies
Risk
Abstract
Exposure to PCBs may be an etiologic factor for breast cancer. The cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzymes are involved in estrogen metabolism and PCB metabolism, both of which may relate to breast cancer susceptibility. Polymorphisms in genes regulating these enzymes control efficiency. Our objective was to assess whether CYP1B1 and COMT gene polymorphisms modulate the effect of PCBs in breast cancer risk, among postmenopausal Danish women. Neither CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphisms nor adipose tissue PCBs were independently associated with breast cancer risk. When assessing the independent effect of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, we observed reduced risk for breast cancer amongst hormone replacement therapy using women who were homozygous carriers of the variant allele compared with those carrying the wild-type variant (RR?=?0.41; 95% CI: 0.29-0.89). We found no statistically significant interactions between any of the PCB groups and CYP1B1 or COMT polymorphisms on the risk of breast cancer.
PubMed ID
23869875 View in PubMed
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The agricultural use of municipal sewage.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature240307
Source
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1984 Aug;62(8):1049-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1984
Author
D L Hamilton
R P Brockman
J E Knipfel
Source
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1984 Aug;62(8):1049-55
Date
Aug-1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Animals
Canada
Cattle
Cereals - analysis
Fertilizers - toxicity
Humans
Metals - analysis
Poaceae
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Sewage
Sheep
Soil - analysis
Swine
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
The reuse of municipal sewage for agricultural purposes is becoming more prevalent. The literature concerning the impact of this practice is reviewed. It is readily apparent that agricultural reuse of municipal sewage is preferable to other common methods of disposal both from the point of view of ecological influence and economical waste utilization. There is a need to establish guidelines for the agricultural use of municipal sewage which will serve the variable conditions found in Canada and meet the public health concerns associated with an extensive agricultural use.
PubMed ID
6091855 View in PubMed
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An epidemiologic assessment of exposure of children to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a Toronto community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature230302
Source
Can J Public Health. 1989 Sep-Oct;80(5):325-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
B A Yaffe
B A Reeder
Source
Can J Public Health. 1989 Sep-Oct;80(5):325-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aroclors - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure
Food Contamination
Humans
Industrial Waste - analysis
Lipids - blood
Ontario
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Abstract
In 1985, the human exposure from a site of PCB (Aroclor 1260) contamination in a Toronto community was assessed. The primary source of potential exposure was soil. Extensive surface soil sampling revealed levels greater than expected (geometric mean level = 0.19 ppm). Children under age 6 were considered to be at greatest risk of exposure as they may absorb PCBs from ingested soil or skin contact. A sample of children aged 1-5 was recruited from the community (n = 30) and from a socio-demographically similar control area (n = 23) that had significantly lower but detectable soil PCB levels (geometric mean level = 0.12 ppm). Exposure to PCBs from breastfeeding, food consumption, contact with soil, and parental occupation was comparable in the two groups. Geometric mean blood PCB levels did not differ significantly between the study (1.5 ppb) and control (1.9 ppb) group. Levels ranged up to 5 ppb in both groups and are comparable to those described in children elsewhere in North America.
PubMed ID
2509058 View in PubMed
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Assessing environmental exposure to PCBs among Mohawks at Akwesasne through the use of geostatistical methods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202772
Source
Environ Res. 1999 Feb;80(2 Pt 2):S189-S199
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
S A Hwang
E F Fitzgerald
M. Cayo
B Z Yang
A. Tarbell
A. Jacobs
Author Affiliation
New York State Department of Health, Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology, Albany, New York, 12203, USA.
Source
Environ Res. 1999 Feb;80(2 Pt 2):S189-S199
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Epidemiologic Methods
Geography
Humans
Indians, North American
Mathematical Computing
New York
Ontario
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Quebec
Reproducibility of Results
Sampling Studies
Sensitivity and specificity
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Abstract
The Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne is a Native American community located along the St. Lawrence River in New York State, Ontario, and Quebec. One component of a multiphase human health study was to assess the impact of different pathways of human exposure resulting from the off-site migration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in this area. This paper illustrates how mapped residential information and environmental sampling data can be united to assist in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies using geographic information system (GIS) technology and statistical methods. A proportional sampling scheme was developed to collect 119 surface soils. Using a method of cross validation, the average estimated error can be computed and the best estimator can be selected. Seven spatial methods were examined to estimate surface soil PCB concentrations; the lowest relative mean error was 0.42% for Inverse 3 nearest neighbor weighted according to the inverse distance, and the highest relative mean error was 4.4% for Voronoi polygons. Residual plots indicated that all methods performed well except near some of the sampling points that formed the outer boundaries of the sampling distribution.
PubMed ID
10092433 View in PubMed
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Assessing human polychlorinated biphenyl contamination for epidemiologic studies: lessons from patterns of congener concentrations in Canadians in 1992.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185987
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Apr;111(4):437-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2003
Author
Beth C Gladen
Josée Doucet
Larry G Hansen
Author Affiliation
Biostatistics Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. gladen@niehs.nih.gov
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Apr;111(4):437-43
Date
Apr-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Epidemiologic Studies
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Milk, human - chemistry
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Reproducibility of Results
Specimen Handling
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Humans are always exposed to mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), so assessment of their health effects is complicated. Because the original sources are relatively standard mixtures that change in predictable ways while traversing the environment, there is substantial uniformity in the congener mixtures people carry. To the extent that concentrations are highly correlated, measuring multiple congeners within correlated groups would be unnecessary and estimation of separate biologic effects would be impossible. We examined correlation patterns in previously collected data on 38 congeners (and 14 other organochlorines) from 497 human milk samples from Canada from 1992. Congeners 138, 153, 156, 157, 170, 183, 187, 194, 199, and 203 were highly intercorrelated; 180 had slightly lower correlations with this group. Congeners 74, 105, and 118 were highly intercorrelated and moderately to highly correlated with the first group. Congener 99 had moderate correlations with both these groups, and congener 66 had lesser correlations with the primary group. In contrast, congeners 28, 44, 49, 60, 90/101, 128, 137, and 193 showed little correlation with any other congeners. The remaining 14 congeners were uninformative; they were quantified in fewer than 30% of samples, and varying lipid concentrations meant that those quantified were not necessarily at higher concentrations than those not quantified. In study of human health effects of PCBs, the congener pattern present in the population under study should be examined when deciding which congeners to measure; instead of solely redundant or uninformative congeners, attention should be given to other congeners that may be more useful in addressing the question of interest.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12676596 View in PubMed
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Assessing PCB pollution in the Baltic Sea - An equilibrium partitioning based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290670
Source
Chemosphere. 2018 Jan; 191:886-894
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2018
Author
Susann-Cathrin Lang
Philipp Mayer
Andrew Hursthouse
Danijela Kötke
Ines Hand
Detlef Schulz-Bull
Gesine Witt
Author Affiliation
University of Applied Sciences Hamburg, Department of Environmental Engineering, Ulmenliet 20, 21033 Hamburg, Germany; Institute of Biomedical and Environmental Health Research, School of Science & Sport, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley Campus, Paisley PA 1 2BE, United Kingdom. Electronic address: susann-cathrin.lang@agilent.com.
Source
Chemosphere. 2018 Jan; 191:886-894
Date
Jan-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental pollution - analysis
Finland
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Geologic Sediments - chemistry
Organic Chemicals - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Seawater - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Sediment cores and bottom water samples from across the Baltic Sea region were analyzed for freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree), total sediment concentrations (CT) and the dissolved aqueous fraction in water of seven indicator PCBs. Ex-situ equilibrium sampling of sediment samples was conducted with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated glass fibers that were analyzed by automated thermal desorption GC-MS, which yielded PCB concentrations in the fiber coating (CPDMS). Measurements of CPDMS and CT were then applied to determine (i) spatially resolved freely dissolved PCB concentrations; (ii) baseline toxicity potential based on chemical activities (a); (iii) site specific mixture compositions; (iv) diffusion gradients at the sediment water interface and within the sediment cores; and (vi) site specific distribution ratios (KD). The contamination levels were low in the Gulf of Finland and moderate to elevated in the Baltic Proper, with the highest levels observed in the western Baltic Sea. The SPME method has been demonstrated to be an appropriate and sensitive tool for area surveys presenting new opportunities to study the in-situ distribution and thermodynamics of hydrophobic organic chemicals at trace levels in marine environments.
PubMed ID
29107230 View in PubMed
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Assessment of human exposure to chemical contaminants in foods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature221939
Source
Food Addit Contam. 1993 Jan-Feb;10(1):5-15
Publication Type
Article
Author
H B Conacher
J. Mes
Author Affiliation
Food Research Division, Health & Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Food Addit Contam. 1993 Jan-Feb;10(1):5-15
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Cadmium - administration & dosage - analysis
Canada
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Food analysis
Food Contamination
Humans
Lead - administration & dosage - analysis
Mercury - administration & dosage - analysis
Milk, human - chemistry
Pesticides - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Abstract
One of the most important factors in assessing risk to human health from potentially harmful chemicals in foods is the availability of good data on the exposure of the public to such substances. The means of acquiring these data generally involves monitoring programmes using appropriate sampling procedures and reliable analytical methods for measuring the compounds of concern in a variety of substrates. Two approaches are generally employed: a biological monitoring programme which measures substances in human fluids and tissues, and a food analysis monitoring programme, preferably a total diet study, wherein food is prepared for consumption prior to analysis. The choice of approach to use and chemicals to monitor depend on the situation within a particular country. The analysis of food has the advantage of short term impact since problems can be identified relatively quickly and control measures established. Biological monitoring on the other hand tends to indicate both accumulated and current exposure from all sources, including air, water and food. In Canada both approaches have been used for a number of years with major surveys of human milk and adipose tissue, and the total diet study, being conducted approximately every five years. Details of these programmes together with some of the pertinent findings are presented.
PubMed ID
8504874 View in PubMed
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243 records – page 1 of 25.