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Alterations of visual evoked potentials in preschool Inuit children exposed to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls from a marine diet.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82445
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2006 Jul;27(4):567-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2006
Author
Saint-Amour Dave
Roy Marie-Sylvie
Bastien Célyne
Ayotte Pierre
Dewailly Eric
Després Christine
Gingras Suzanne
Muckle Gina
Author Affiliation
Département d'ophtalmologie, CHU Sainte-Justine, 3175, Côte Sainte-Catherine, Montréal, Que., Canada H3T 1C5.
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2006 Jul;27(4):567-78
Date
Jul-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antioxidants - pharmacology
Child
Child, Preschool
Confidence Intervals
Diet
Evoked Potentials, Visual - drug effects
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - pharmacology
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Inuits
Male
Methylmercury Compounds - toxicity
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Reaction Time - drug effects - physiology
Regression Analysis
Selenium - pharmacology
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury on visual brain processing in Inuit children from Nunavik (Northern Québec, Canada). Concentrations of total mercury in blood and PCB 153 in plasma had been measured at birth and they were again measured at the time of testing in 102 preschool aged children. Relationships between contaminants and pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were assessed by multivariate regression analyses, taking into account several potential confounding variables. The possible protective effects of selenium and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids against methylmercury and PCB toxicity were also investigated. Results indicate that exposure to methylmercury and PCBs resulting from fish and sea mammal consumption were associated with alterations of VEP responses, especially for the latency of the N75 and of the P100 components. In contrast, the concomitant intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with a shorter latency of the P100. However, no significant interactions between nutrients and contaminants were found, contradicting the notion that these nutrients could afford protection against environmental neurotoxicants. Interestingly, significant associations were found with concentrations of neurotoxicants in blood samples collected at the time of testing, i.e. at the preschool age. Our findings suggest that VEP can be used as a valuable tool to assess the developmental neurotoxicity of environmental contaminants in fish-eating populations.
PubMed ID
16620993 View in PubMed
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Altered menstrual cycles in women with a high dietary intake of persistent organochlorine compounds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61535
Source
Chemosphere. 2004 Aug;56(8):813-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2004
Author
Anna Axmon
Lars Rylander
Ulf Strömberg
Lars Hagmar
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden. anna.axmon@ymed.lu.se
Source
Chemosphere. 2004 Aug;56(8):813-9
Date
Aug-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Animals
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Diet
Female
Fishes
Food Contamination
Geography
Humans
Insecticides - toxicity
Life Style
Menstrual Cycle - drug effects
Oceans and Seas
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Smoking
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine compounds (POCs) has been found to affect the menstrual cycle in both animals and humans. In Sweden, the major exposure route for POCs is the consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea. Thus, women who eat relatively large amounts of this fish constitute a suitable study group when investigating a possible association between dietary exposure to POC and menstrual cycle disruption. Questionnaires were sent to the exposed women, as well as to a socioeconomically similar cohort of controls, and information was collected on their menstrual cycles. Since the exposed women tended to smoke more than the controls, all results were adjusted for smoking habits. A cohort comparison found that the exposed women on average had 0.46 (95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.89) days shorter menstrual cycles than controls. However, within the exposed cohort no effects were found of the proxy variables early life exposure and high consumption of Baltic Sea fatty fish. The results give some support to previous results from studies on women with similar exposure, but are not conclusive with respect to whether there is a causal association between POC exposure and menstrual cycle disruption.
PubMed ID
15251296 View in PubMed
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Assessing health effects of environmental contaminants by molecular markers. Studies on methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls as examples of translational research in environmental toxicology.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96998
Source
G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2010 Jan-Mar;32(1):5-12
Publication Type
Article
Author
T. Coccini
E. Roda
D A Sarigiannis
L. Manzo
Author Affiliation
Salvatore Maugeri Foundation IRCCS, Toxicology Division, Pavia, Italy. teresa.coccini@fsm.it
Source
G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2010 Jan-Mar;32(1):5-12
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biological Markers
Ecotoxicology
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Female
Gene Expression - drug effects
Humans
Male
Methylmercury Compounds - toxicity
Monoamine Oxidase - drug effects - physiology
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Rats
Receptors, Muscarinic - drug effects - genetics - physiology
Translational Research
Abstract
Evaluating the human effects of combinations of neurotoxicants is extremely difficult. Parallel studies correlating exposure parameters and "surrogate" indicators of neural cell function may represent a promising strategy. Molecular markers such as cholinergic muscarinic receptors (MRs) and monoamine oxidase activity (MAO-B) are expressed not only in brain but also in peripheral blood cells. Measurements of MRs and MAO-B in these easily accessible matrices can provide valuable information on early sub-clinical effects of drugs and chemicals in the CNS. In this paper, examples of application of lymphocyte-MRs and platelet-MAO-B as surrogate markers of CNS function in humans are described. They include (i) neuroepidemiological studies examining 7-year-old members of a birth-cohort at the Faroe-Islands prenatally exposed to elevated concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls; (ii) clinical investigations in a series of unmedicated children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The neurochemical markers were examined in association with exposure indicators and neuropsychological tests (Faroe Islands Study) or with specific disease symptoms (ADHD children). Studies of this type have produced valuable information on subclinical responses to low/moderate perinatal exposures to MeHg and/or PCBs, and in addition further supported the applicability of these biomarkers in children with subtle neuropsychiatric disorders. Additional studies investigated the ability of MeHg and/or PCBs to modify the expression of genes codifying for the MR subtypes in rat offspring cerebellum at distinct developmental stages. The results demonstrated persistent gender- and age-related differences in MR density and their associated gene expression pathways. Studies on pathways and metabolic networks involved in developmental toxicity may contribute to elucidate the mode of action of environmental pollutant mixtures and also considerably impact on the risk assessment process.
PubMed ID
20464972 View in PubMed
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Association between levels of persistent organic pollutants in adipose tissue and cryptorchidism in early childhood: a case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272722
Source
Environ Health. 2015;14:78
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Jaakko J Koskenniemi
Helena E Virtanen
Hannu Kiviranta
Ida N Damgaard
Jaakko Matomäki
Jørgen M Thorup
Timo Hurme
Niels E Skakkebaek
Katharina M Main
Jorma Toppari
Source
Environ Health. 2015;14:78
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Benzofurans - toxicity
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Cryptorchidism - chemically induced - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Dioxins - toxicity
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - toxicity
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced - epidemiology
Abstract
Congenital cryptorchidism, i.e. failure of the testicular descent to the bottom of the scrotum, is a common birth defect. The evidence from epidemiological, wildlife, and animal studies suggests that exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal development may play a role in its pathogenesis. We aimed to assess the association between cryptorchidism and prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).
We conducted a case-control study consisting of 44 cryptorchid cases, and 38 controls operated for inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, or hydrocele at the Turku University Hospital or Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen in 2002-2006. During the operation a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy was taken. Samples were analysed for 37 PCBs, 17 PCDD/Fs and 14 PBDEs by gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Chemical concentrations were adjusted for postnatal variation introduced by differences in duration of breastfeeding, age at the operation, and country of origin with a multiple linear regression. Association between adjusted and unadjusted chemical concentrations and the risk of cryptorchidism were analysed with logistic regression to get an estimate for odds ratio (OR) of cryptorchidism per multiplication of chemical concentrations with ca. 2.71 (Napier's constant).
Total-TEq i.e. the WHO-recommended 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent quantity of 17 dioxins and 12 dioxin-like PCBs and sum of PCDD/Fs were positively associated with cryptorchidism [OR 3.21 (95% CI 1.29-9.09), OR 3.69 (95% CI 1.45-10.9), respectively], when adjusting for country of origin, the duration the child was breastfed, and age at operation. The association between the sum of PCBs and cryptorchidism was close to significant [OR 1.92 (95% CI 0.98-4.01)], whereas the association between the sum of PBDEs and cryptorchidism was not [OR 0.86 (95% CI 0.47-1.54)]. There were no associations between unadjusted chemical concentrations and the risk of cryptorchidism.
Prenatal exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCDD/F-like PCBs may be associated with increased risk for cryptorchidism. Our finding does not exclude the possibility of an association between the exposure to PBDEs and cryptorchidism.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26403566 View in PubMed
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Bone mineral density changes in relation to environmental PCB exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92021
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Sep;116(9):1162-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2008
Author
Hodgson Susan
Thomas Laura
Fattore Elena
Lind P Monica
Alfven Tobias
Hellström Lennart
Håkansson Helen
Carubelli Grazia
Fanelli Roberto
Jarup Lars
Author Affiliation
Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. susan.hodgson@ncl.ac.uk
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Sep;116(9):1162-6
Date
Sep-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bone Density - drug effects
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Female
Humans
Male
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Bone toxicity has been linked to organochlorine exposure following a few notable poisoning incidents, but epidemiologic studies in populations with environmental organochlorine exposure have yielded inconsistent results. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether organochlorine exposure was associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in a population 60-81 years of age (154 males, 167 females) living near the Baltic coast, close to a river contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). METHODS: We measured forearm BMD in participants using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; and we assessed low BMD using age- and sex-standardized Z-scores. We analyzed blood samples for five dioxin-like PCBs, the three most abundant non-dioxin-like PCBs, and p,p'-dichloro-phenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE). RESULTS: In males, dioxin-like chlorobiphenyl (CB)-118 was negatively associated with BMD; the odds ratio for low BMD (Z-score less than -1) was 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.12) per 10 pg/mL CB-118. The sum of the three most abundant non-dioxin-like PCBs was positively associated with BMD, but not with a decreased risk of low BMD. In females, CB-118 was positively associated with BMD, but this congener did not influence the risk of low BMD in women. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental organochlorine exposures experienced by this population sample since the 1930s in Sweden may have been sufficient to result in sex-specific changes in BMD.
PubMed ID
18795157 View in PubMed
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Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) strain in the mouse model with concurrent exposure to PCB 153.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259939
Source
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014 May;37(3):195-204
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Ingebjørg H Nymo
Carlos G das Neves
Morten Tryland
Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen
Renato Lima Santos
Andreia Pereira Turchetti
Andrew M Janczak
Berit Djønne
Elisabeth Lie
Vidar Berg
Jacques Godfroid
Source
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014 May;37(3):195-204
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration, Oral
Animals
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Atlantic Ocean
Brucella - drug effects - immunology - pathogenicity
Brucellosis - immunology - microbiology - pathology - veterinary
Disease Models, Animal
Female
Immunoglobulins - blood
Mice
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Norway
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Population Dynamics
Reproduction - drug effects - physiology
Seals, Earless - microbiology
Spleen - drug effects - immunology - microbiology
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Abstract
Brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis, is linked to reproductive problems in primary hosts. A high proportion of Brucella-positive hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) have been detected in the declined Northeast Atlantic stock. High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also been discovered in top predators in the Arctic, including the hooded seal, PCB 153 being most abundant. The aim of this study was to assess the pathogenicity of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in the mouse model and to evaluate the outcome of Brucella spp. infection after exposure of mice to PCB 153. BALB/c mice were infected with B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain or Brucella suis 1330, and half from each group was exposed to PCB 153 through the diet. B. pinnipedialis showed a reduced pathogenicity in the mouse model as compared to B. suis 1330. Exposure to PCB 153 affected neither the immunological parameters, nor the outcome of the infection. Altogether this indicates that it is unlikely that B. pinnipedialis contribute to the decline of hooded seals in the Northeast Atlantic.
PubMed ID
24534631 View in PubMed
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Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer in a prospective cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282790
Source
Br J Cancer. 2016 Oct 25;115(9):1113-1121
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-25-2016
Author
Carolina Donat-Vargas
Agneta Åkesson
Marika Berglund
Anders Glynn
Alicja Wolk
Maria Kippler
Source
Br J Cancer. 2016 Oct 25;115(9):1113-1121
Date
Oct-25-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Diet
Endometrial Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Food Contamination - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Middle Aged
Ovarian Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Observational studies on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and hormone-related cancer risk are either inconsistent or lacking. We aimed to assess associations of dietary PCB exposure with breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer risk in middle-aged and elderly women.
We included 36?777 cancer-free women at baseline in 1997 from the prospective population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort. Validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire. Incident cancer cases were ascertained through register linkage.
During 14 years of follow-up, we ascertained 1593, 437 and 195 incident cases of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer. We found no overall association between dietary PCB exposure and any of these cancer forms. The multivariable-adjusted relative risks comparing women in the highest and lowest tertile of PCB exposure were 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75, 1.24), 1.21 (95% CI: 0.73, 2.01) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.45, 1.79) for breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer. In analyses stratified by factors influencing oestrogen exposure, possibly masking associations with PCBs, indications of higher risks were observed for endometrial cancer.
This study suggests that dietary exposure to PCBs play no critical role in the development of breast, endometrial or ovarian cancer during middle-age and old ages.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27632375 View in PubMed
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Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of myocardial infarction in men - A population-based prospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277017
Source
Environ Int. 2016 Mar;88:9-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
Charlotte Bergkvist
Marika Berglund
Anders Glynn
Bettina Julin
Alicja Wolk
Agneta Åkesson
Source
Environ Int. 2016 Mar;88:9-14
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Diet
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage
Food Contamination
Food Habits
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Myocardial Infarction - chemically induced - epidemiology
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Seafood - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Major food contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are proposed to play a role in the etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but to date the impact of PCBs on cardiovascular health need to be explored.
We assessed the association between validated food frequency questionnaire-based estimates of dietary PCB exposure and risk of myocardial infarction, ascertained through register-linkage, among 36,759 men from the population-based Swedish Cohort of Men, free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer at baseline (1997). Relative risks were adjusted for known cardiovascular risk factors, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) and methyl mercury exposure. During 12years of follow-up (433,243 person-years), we ascertained 3005 incident cases of myocardial infarction (654 fatal). Compared with the lowest quintile of dietary PCB exposure (median 113ng/day), men in the highest quintile (median 436ng/day) had multivariable-adjusted relative risks of 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-2.33; p-trend
PubMed ID
26690540 View in PubMed
Less detail

Environmental contaminants and chromosomal damage associated with beak deformities in a resident North American passerine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263403
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2015 Feb;34(2):314-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2015
Author
Colleen M Handel
Caroline Van Hemert
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2015 Feb;34(2):314-27
Date
Feb-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Beak - abnormalities - drug effects
Benzofurans - toxicity
Chromosome Aberrations
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Environmental pollution - analysis
Hexachlorobenzene - toxicity
Nesting Behavior - drug effects
Ovum - drug effects - metabolism
Passeriformes - abnormalities
Pesticides - toxicity
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - analogs & derivatives - toxicity
Trace Elements
Abstract
A large cluster of beak abnormalities among black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska raised concern about underlying environmental factors in this region. Metals and trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD-Fs) were analyzed in adults, nestlings, and eggs of the affected population; local bird seed was also tested for organochlorine pesticides. The results offered no support for the hypothesis that selenium or any other inorganic element was responsible for beak deformities among chickadees, but some evidence that organochlorine compounds may be contributing factors. Adults with beak deformities had an elevated level of chromosomal damage, which was correlated with lipid level and concentrations of several organochlorine compounds. Multivariate analyses of pesticides and PCBs did not distinguish abnormal from normal adults, but subsequent univariate analysis demonstrated higher concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and PCB-123 in abnormal adults. Concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were low, and none is known to cause beak or keratin abnormalities. Patterns of PCB congener concentrations differed between nestlings with normal and abnormal parents. Eggs from clutches with low hatchability had higher concentrations of hexachlorobenzene and PCDD-Fs than those with high hatching success, and hexachlorobenzene was found in seeds. Additional testing for PCDD-Fs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other emerging contaminants, including brominated compounds, is needed to rule out environmental contaminants as a cause of beak deformities in chickadees in Alaska.
PubMed ID
25376148 View in PubMed
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Exposure to oxychlordane is associated with shorter telomeres in arctic breeding kittiwakes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290784
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Sep 01; 563-564:125-30
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-01-2016
Author
Pierre Blévin
Frédéric Angelier
Sabrina Tartu
Stéphanie Ruault
Paco Bustamante
Dorte Herzke
Børge Moe
Claus Bech
Geir Wing Gabrielsen
Jan Ove Bustnes
Olivier Chastel
Author Affiliation
Centre d'Etudes Biologiques de Chizé (CEBC), UMR 7372 - CNRS & Université de la, Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois, France. Electronic address: blevin.pierre@gmail.com.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Sep 01; 563-564:125-30
Date
Sep-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Charadriiformes - genetics - metabolism
Chlordan - analogs & derivatives - toxicity
Female
Insecticides - toxicity
Male
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Svalbard
Telomere Shortening - drug effects
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Abstract
Telomeres are DNA-protein complexes located at the end of chromosomes, which play an important role in maintaining the genomic integrity. Telomeres shorten at each cell division and previous studies have shown that telomere length is related to health and lifespan and can be affected by a wide range of environmental factors. Among them, some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have the potential to damage DNA. However, the effect of POPs on telomeres is poorly known for wildlife. Here, we investigated the relationships between some legacy POPs (organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls) and telomere length in breeding adult black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), an arctic seabird species. Our results show that among legacy POPs, only blood concentration of oxychlordane, the major metabolite of chlordane mixture, is associated with shorter telomere length in females but not in males. This suggests that female kittiwakes could be more sensitive to oxychlordane, potentially explaining the previously reported lower survival rate in most oxychlordane-contaminated kittiwakes from the same population. This study is the first to report a significant and negative relationship between POPs and telomere length in a free-living bird and highlights sex-related susceptibility to banned pesticides.
PubMed ID
27135574 View in PubMed
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