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An epidemiologic assessment of exposure of children to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a Toronto community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature230302
Source
Can J Public Health. 1989 Sep-Oct;80(5):325-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
B A Yaffe
B A Reeder
Source
Can J Public Health. 1989 Sep-Oct;80(5):325-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aroclors - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure
Food Contamination
Humans
Industrial Waste - analysis
Lipids - blood
Ontario
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Abstract
In 1985, the human exposure from a site of PCB (Aroclor 1260) contamination in a Toronto community was assessed. The primary source of potential exposure was soil. Extensive surface soil sampling revealed levels greater than expected (geometric mean level = 0.19 ppm). Children under age 6 were considered to be at greatest risk of exposure as they may absorb PCBs from ingested soil or skin contact. A sample of children aged 1-5 was recruited from the community (n = 30) and from a socio-demographically similar control area (n = 23) that had significantly lower but detectable soil PCB levels (geometric mean level = 0.12 ppm). Exposure to PCBs from breastfeeding, food consumption, contact with soil, and parental occupation was comparable in the two groups. Geometric mean blood PCB levels did not differ significantly between the study (1.5 ppb) and control (1.9 ppb) group. Levels ranged up to 5 ppb in both groups and are comparable to those described in children elsewhere in North America.
PubMed ID
2509058 View in PubMed
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Assessment of pre- and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: lessons from the Inuit Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4473
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jul;111(9):1253-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2003
Author
Pierre Ayotte
Gina Muckle
Joseph L Jacobson
Sandra W Jacobson
Eric Dewailly
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University and Public Health Research Unit, CHUQ-Laval University Medical Centre, Québec, Québec, Canada. pierre.ayotte@inspq.qc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jul;111(9):1253-8
Date
Jul-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Biological Markers - analysis
Breast Feeding
Chromatography, Gas
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood
Epidemiologic Studies
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Forecasting
Humans
Indians, North American
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Milk, human - chemistry
Models, Theoretical
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Pregnancy
Quebec - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Abstract
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are food-chain contaminants that have been shown to induce adverse developmental effects in humans. In the course of an epidemiologic study established to investigate neurodevelopmental deficits induced by environmental PCB exposure in the Inuit population of northern Québec (Nunavik, Canada), we compared three biomarkers of prenatal exposure and models to predict PCB plasma concentration at 6 months postpartum. Concentrations of 14 PCB congeners were measured by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection in lipids extracted from maternal plasma, cord plasma, breast milk (collected at approximately 1 month postpartum), and 6-month-old infant plasma samples. Similar congener profiles were observed in all biologic samples, and PCB-153, the most abundant and persistent PCB congener, was strongly correlated with other frequently detected PCB congeners in all biologic media. When expressed on a lipid basis, maternal plasma, cord plasma, and milk concentrations of this congener were strongly intercorrelated, indicating that PCB concentration in any of these biologic media is a good indicator of prenatal exposure to PCBs. A multivariate model that included maternal PCB-153 plasma lipid concentration, breast-feeding duration, and the sum of two skin-fold thicknesses (an index of infant body fat mass) explained 72% of PCB-153 plasma concentration variance at 6 months postpartum (p
PubMed ID
12842782 View in PubMed
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Assessment of xenoestrogenic exposure by a biomarker approach: application of the E-Screen bioassay to determine estrogenic response of serum extracts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61592
Source
Environ Health. 2003 Oct 15;2(1):12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-2003
Author
Thomas Høj Rasmussen
Flemming Nielsen
Helle Raun Andersen
Jesper Bo Nielsen
Pal Weihe
Philippe Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Medicine, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. thoj@health.sdu.dk
Source
Environ Health. 2003 Oct 15;2(1):12
Date
Oct-15-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Assay - methods
Biological Markers - blood
Chromatography, Gas
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Diet
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood
Estrogens, Non-Steroidal - analysis - blood
Female
Humans
In Vitro
Maternal Exposure
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Pregnancy
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Women's health
Xenobiotics - analysis - blood
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological documentation of endocrine disruption is complicated by imprecise exposure assessment, especially when exposures are mixed. Even if the estrogenic activity of all compounds were known, the combined effect of possible additive and/or inhibiting interaction of xenoestrogens in a biological sample may be difficult to predict from chemical analysis of single compounds alone. Thus, analysis of mixtures allows evaluation of combined effects of chemicals each present at low concentrations. METHODS: We have developed an optimized in vitro E-Screen test to assess the combined functional estrogenic response of human serum. The xenoestrogens in serum were separated from endogenous steroids and pharmaceuticals by solid-phase extraction followed by fractionation by high-performance liquid chromatography. After dissolution of the isolated fraction in ethanol-DMSO, the reconstituted extract was added with estrogen-depleted fetal calf serum to MCF-7 cells, the growth of which is stimulated by estrogen. After a 6-day incubation on a microwell plate, cell proliferation was assessed and compared with the effect of a 17-beta-estradiol standard. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: To determine the applicability of this approach, we assessed the estrogenicity of serum samples from 30 pregnant and 60 non-pregnant Danish women thought to be exposed only to low levels of endocrine disruptors. We also studied 211 serum samples from pregnant Faroese women, whose marine diet included whale blubber that contain a high concentration of persistent halogenated pollutants. The estrogenicity of the serum from Danish controls exceeded the background in 22.7 % of the cases, while the same was true for 68.1 % of the Faroese samples. The increased estrogenicity response did not correlate with the lipid-based concentrations of individual suspected endocrine disruptors in the Faroese samples. When added along with the estradiol standard, an indication of an enhanced estrogenic response was found in most cases. Thus, the in vitro estrogenicity response offers a promising and feasible approach for an aggregated exposure assessment for xenoestrogens in serum.
PubMed ID
14613489 View in PubMed
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Blood concentrations of some persistent organohalogens in free-ranging spotted seals (Phoca largha) from Bristol Bay, Alaska

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83899
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007 Oct;70(20):1776-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2007
Author
Neale, JCC
Small, RJ
Schmelzer, KR
Tjeerdema, RS
Author Affiliation
Department of Natural Resources, American River College, Sacramento, California 95841, USA. nealej@arc.losrios.edu
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007 Oct;70(20):1776-8
Date
Oct-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Female
Male
Phoca
Polybrominated Biphenyls - blood
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Seawater
Water Pollutants, Chemical - blood
Abstract
In recent years, the relatively high levels of organochlorine contaminants and increasing levels of brominated flame retardants found in tissues of marine mammals have raised concerns that exposure to these marine pollutants may compromise individual health. In this pilot study, levels of 11 polychlorinated biphenyls, 3 polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and the DDT metabolite p,p'-diphenyldichloroethylene were analyzed in whole blood of 7 free-ranging spotted seals (Phoca largha) from Bristol Bay, Alaska, sampled during 2000 and 2001. Blood concentrations of analytes were generally low (
PubMed ID
17885935 View in PubMed
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Breast adipose tissue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines and breast cancer risk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199563
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000 Jan;9(1):55-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2000
Author
K J Aronson
A B Miller
C G Woolcott
E E Sterns
D R McCready
L A Lickley
E B Fish
G Y Hiraki
C. Holloway
T. Ross
W M Hanna
S K SenGupta
J P Weber
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. aronson@post.queensu.ca
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000 Jan;9(1):55-63
Date
Jan-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Age Factors
Biopsy
Breast - chemistry
Breast Neoplasms - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - analysis
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood - classification
Female
Humans
Insecticides - analysis - blood - classification
Logistic Models
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Ontario
Pesticide Residues - analysis
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood - classification
Postmenopause
Premenopause
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Abstract
Numerous studies have examined the relationship between organochlorines and breast cancer, but the results are not consistent. In most studies, organochlorines were measured in serum, but levels in breast adipose tissue are higher and represent cumulative internal exposure at the target site for breast cancer. Therefore, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Ontario, Canada to evaluate the association between breast cancer risk and breast adipose tissue concentrations of several organochlorines. Women scheduled for excision biopsy of the breast were enrolled and completed a questionnaire. The biopsy tissue of 217 cases and 213 benign controls frequency matched by study site and age in 5-year groups was analyzed for 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, total PCBs, and 10 other organochlorines, including p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the magnitude of risk. While adjusting for age, menopausal status, and other factors, odds ratios (ORs) were above 1.0 for almost all organochlorines except five pesticide residues. The ORs were above two in the highest concentration categories of PCB congeners 105 and 118, and the ORs for these PCBs increased linearly across categories (Ps for trend
PubMed ID
10667464 View in PubMed
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Change in levels of persistent organic pollutants in human plasma after consumption of a traditional northern Norwegian fish dish-mølje (cod, cod liver, cod liver oil and hard roe).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71408
Source
J Environ Monit. 2003 Feb;5(1):160-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
Torkjel M Sandanger
Magritt Brustad
Eiliv Lund
Ivan C Burkow
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute for Air Research, The Polar Environmental Centre, No-9296 Tromsø, Norway. torkjel.sandanger@nilu.no
Source
J Environ Monit. 2003 Feb;5(1):160-5
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Animals
Cod Liver Oil - chemistry
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - analysis - blood
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood
Female
Fishes
Food Contamination
Humans
Insecticides - analysis - blood
Liver - chemistry
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Public Health
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
The traditional northern Norwegian fish dish "mølje", consisting of boiled cod, cod liver, cod liver oil and hard roe, is still consumed frequently during the winter months January to March. The liver of the cod is rich in lipids and the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are relatively high. To better understand the short-term consequences of this traditional meal on the plasma levels of PCBs and p,p'-DDE, individual intake of liver and cod liver oil during one meal was measured. Blood samples were collected from 33 participants before the meal, and then 4 h, 12 h and 5 days after it. Lipid-weight and wet-weight levels of 10 PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE were determined in the plasma samples and the food. The plasma levels of p,p'-DDE was found to increase significantly from 0 to 4 h, both when expressed as wet-weight (35% change) and lipid-weight (20% change). The corresponding changes (0-4 h) in wet-weight levels of the most prevalent PCB congeners were non significant. By contrast, PCB congeners with low levels in the food showed a significant drop in lipid-weight levels during the first 4 h. The observed changes were independent of amount consumed. Significant differences in fasting and non-fasting samples were found for most PCBs and p,p'-DDE. For the lipid weight levels of sum PCBs there was a significant decrease of 16% from non-fasting to fasting samples. To obtain reliable data on human levels of POPs it is, on the basis of these findings, recommended that blood samples should be collected from fasting individuals and both wet-weight and lipid-weight levels should be reported.
PubMed ID
12619772 View in PubMed
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Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107789
Source
Pages 967-977 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):967-977
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
  1 document  
Author
Pamela K Miller
Viola Waghiyi
Gretchen Welfinger-Smith
Samuel Carter Byrne
Jane Kava
Jesse Gologergen
Lorraine Eckstein
Ronald Scrudato
Jeff Chiarenzelli
David O Carpenter
Samarys Seguinot-Medina
Author Affiliation
Alaska Community Action on Toxics, Anchorage, AK 99503, USA. pamela@akaction.org
Source
Pages 967-977 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):967-977
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Community-Based Participatory Research - methods - organization & administration
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Environmental Health - methods - organization & administration
Fishes
Geologic Sediments - analysis
Health Policy
Humans
Islands - epidemiology
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Abstract
This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 2000-2012.
As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b-d) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape--using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e) a study of traditional foods.
Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north.
An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations.
As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23977641 View in PubMed
Documents
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Dioxin-like activity in environmental and human samples from Greenland and Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121983
Source
Chemosphere. 2012 Nov;89(8):919-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Manhai Long
Eva C Bonefeld-Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Cellular & Molecular Toxicology, Centre of Arctic Health, Department of public Health, Arhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. ml@mil.au.dk
Source
Chemosphere. 2012 Nov;89(8):919-28
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark
Dioxins - analysis - blood
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood
Greenland
Humans
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon - agonists - metabolism
Waste Water - chemistry
Abstract
Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) compounds are some of the most toxic chemicals being highly persistent in the environment. The toxicological effects of dioxins are mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Compounds of diverse structure and lipophility can bind and activate AhR. The AhR transactivation bioassay is utilized in an array of projects to study the AhR-mediated activities of individual chemicals and mixtures and for epidemiological purposes. This review summarizes a series of studies regarding the DL-activity of single compounds and complex compound mixtures in the environment and humans. We found that some pesticides, plasticizers and phytoestrogens can activate the AhR, and the combined effect of compounds with no or weak AhR potency cannot be ignored. The significant DL-activity in the wastewater effluent indicates the treatment is not sufficient to prevent contamination of surface waters with dioxins. Our results from human studies suggest that the serum DL-activity reflect the complex mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Greenlandic Inuit had lower serum DL-activity level compared to Europeans, probably due to long distance from the dioxin sources and UV degradation of the high potent dioxin and/or the inhibitory effect of the high level of non-DL POPs. Selective bioaccumulation of PCBs in the food chain may contribute to the negative correlation between serum POPs and DL-activity observed in Greenlandic Inuit. Hence the AhR transactivation bioassay provides a cost-effective and integrated screening tool for measurement of the DL-activity in human, environmental and commercial samples.
PubMed ID
22858370 View in PubMed
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Epidemiologic studies of PCB congener profiles in North American fish consuming populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4740
Source
J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2004 May;22(1):13-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2004
Author
Arthur Chiu
Jefferson Beaubier
Jessica Chiu
Laurie Chan
Shawn Gerstenberger
Author Affiliation
National Center for Environment Assessment, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection, Agency, Washington, DC, USA. Chiu.Arthur@epa.gov
Source
J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2004 May;22(1):13-36
Date
May-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Comparative Study
Diet
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiologic Studies
Fishes
Food chain
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Fresh Water
Humans
Indians, North American
Inuits
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood - metabolism
United States - epidemiology
Water Pollutants, Chemical - blood - metabolism
Abstract
Long range atmospheric and stream transport and oceanic currents drive the ecologic process of PCB deposition in the abiotic environment. In contrast short range transport via bioaccumulation-biomagnification up the food chain determines PCB congener profiles and concentrations and their adverse effects in biological organisms. Two research approaches to congeners, with potential to associate specific adverse human health effects with PCB concentrations in indigenous small populations, are summarized in this study. The field epidemiological approach includes giving questionnaires to target population groups in conjunction with sampling for PCBs (and selected persistent organic pollutants and metals), in foods purchased or hunted and collected by Inuit peoples. Direct determination of contaminant levels in food sources and among individuals in selected comparative subpopulations is also presented.
PubMed ID
15845220 View in PubMed
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Estimations of past male and female serum concentrations of biomarkers of persistent organochlorine pollutants and their impact on fecundability estimates.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83017
Source
Environ Res. 2006 Jul;101(3):387-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2006
Author
Axmon Anna
Rignell-Hydbom Anna
Author Affiliation
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine and Psychiatric Epidemiology, Lund University Hospital, Lund 221 85, Sweden. anna.axmon@med.lu.se
Source
Environ Res. 2006 Jul;101(3):387-94
Date
Jul-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Markers - blood
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - blood
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood
Female
Fertility - drug effects - physiology
Food chain
Half-Life
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - analysis - blood
Male
Models, Biological
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Pregnancy - blood - physiology
Seafood - analysis
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) have been suggested to have negative effects on a number of hormonal systems. Several studies performed retrospectively have reported a possible association between POP exposure and fertility, measured as time to pregnancy (TTP). However, these studies lack biomarkers of exposure at the time when the women tried to conceive. It has previously been found that past female serum concentrations of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) can be estimated using a complex decay model, assuming that the biological half-life is 5 years, the yearly environmental reduction of the compound has been 3% since 1976, and the reduction of body burden due to lactation is 20% for periods up to 6 months and 30% for periods exceeding 6 months. In the present study, it is established that the model is valid also for estimations of past male serum concentrations of CB-153. Furthermore, the complex decay model was found to be useful also for estimating past serum concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE), assuming that the biological half-life of the compound is 8 years, the yearly reduction between 1971 and 1981 was 20% and after that 9%, and the reduction of body burden due to lactation is the same as that for CB-153. However, even though the estimated past serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE were found to be better proxy measures of actual past concentrations than current serum concentrations, there was little change in the rank order of the population investigated. Thus, the effect estimate for TTP was similar for both proxy measures when using categorized measures of exposure.
PubMed ID
16352301 View in PubMed
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20 records – page 1 of 2.