Regular vaccination against poliomyelitis was started in 1960 with oral polio vaccine (OPV). Since 1992 a trivalent OPV has been administered in five doses within a nationwide vaccination campaign. The immunization coverage varies between 96.8% and 98.2% after 4 OPV doses, reaching 98.0% to 98.9% after the fifth dose. No case of indigenous poliomyelitis has been reported in the Czech Republic since the second half of 1960. In 2001, 3,230 sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against poliovirus of types 1, 2 and 3 using a virus neutralization microassay. The prevalence rates of antibodies vary between 96.0% and 100% for types 1 and 2 and between 95.1% and 100% for type 3, with the exception of the highest age group, in which the prevalence rates of antibodies against poliovirus of all three types are 92.2%.
Decision-making on the use of poliomyelitis vaccines in the WHO Expanded Immunization Programme, and particularly in the developing nations, needs to be based on an understanding of the epidemiology of poliomyelitis in different parts of the globe. Even with two safe and effective kinds of poliomyelitis vaccine available, poliomyelitis has by no means been eradicated from the world. In developed countries that are considered well-vaccinated, certain sectors of the population may be inadequately protected against risk of infection by indigenous or imported wild polioviruses. In developing nations that are in transition toward an epidemic phase of poliomyelitis, wild polioviruses will continue to be a threat until thorough immunization is established and maintained. Killed-virus poliomyelitis vaccines have proved to be effective in certain countries that have used them exclusively; these are small countries with excellent public health systems, where coverage by the killed vaccine has been wide and frequent. Live vaccines, administered to hundreds of millions of persons during the past decade, have also been remarkably safe and effective. However, in certain warm-climate countries induction of antibodies in a satisfactorily high proportion of vaccinees has been difficult to accomplish. The advantages and disadvantages of each kind of poliomyelitis vaccine need to be weighed with respect to the particular setting in which a vaccine has been or will be used.
Cites: Am J Hyg. 1951 Nov;54(3):354-8214885155
Cites: Science. 1977 Mar 4;195(4281):834-47320661
Cites: Br Med J. 1977 Apr 16;1(6067):1012-4856397
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1967 May;85(3):469-784290523
Cites: Bull World Health Organ. 1970;42(3):405-175310207
Cites: Bull World Health Organ. 1972;46(3):329-364537851
Alaska Medical Library - From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1480.
Andreas Christian Bull was a Norwegian district physician who started his medical career in 1867. Contemporary physicians' interests were focused upon the cause of the diseases they encountered. Infectious diseases were dominating. The official opinion was that the cause could be a coincidence, relating to natural phenomena and bad sanitation, though some held the view that epidemic diseases were developing from contagious substances. Bull was an acute observer. In a medical report from 1868, he describes a peculiar epidemic disease diagnosed as meningitis cerebrospinalis acuta. He treated 14 patients, 12 of them children. His report is a comprehensive description of a poliomyelitis epidemic and the different states of the disease. At the time, physicians had no knowledge of an infectious disease localised in the spinal marrow. Bull's report was the first description of a poliomyelitis epidemic in Europe. In 1882 he published a report about trichina poisoning, the first diagnosis of trichinosis in human beings in Norway.