The realization of the package of measures directed at the consecutive decrease of the negative effect of hazardous chemical and biological factors on the population and environment to the acceptable risk level stipulates the development of standard legal regulation in the field of ensuring the chemical and biological safety. For this purpose article presents substantiation and conceptual approaches to the creation of legislation in the field of the chemical and biological security of the Russian Federation within the pursued state policy. In determination of conceptual approaches, in the article there are reported: the main idea, the purpose, a subject of legal regulation, the circle of people who will be subjected to the laws, the place offuture laws in the system of current legislation, the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Federal backbone laws of the Russian Federation to realization of which laws are directed, there is given the general characteristic and an assessment of a condition of legal regulation in this field, results of the analysis of the information on the need for correspondence of Russian laws to provision of international treaties, concerning prohibitions of the biological and chemical weapon, safe handling with biological agents and chemicals, and also the development of uniform procedures of ensuring chemical and biological safety. The major aspect in the shaping of the legislation is the global character ofproblems of chemical and biological safety in this connection in article there is indicated the need of rapprochement of rules of law for this area with partners in economic cooperation and integration. Taking into account an orientation of future laws on the decrease in the level of the negative impact of dangerous chemical and biological factors on the population and environment, there are designated medical, social, economic and political consequences of their implementation. There are presented the proposed structure for bills: “About biological safety”, “On Chemical Safety” and “On the National collection of pathogens.
Health care policy in Canada is based on providing public funding for medically necessary physician and hospital-based services free at the point of delivery ("first-dollar public funding"). Studies consistently show that the introduction of public funding to support the provision of health care services free at the point of delivery is associated with increases in the proportionate share of services used by the poor and in population distributions of services that are independent of income. Claims about the success of Canada's health care policy tend to be based on these findings, without reference to medical necessity. This article adopts a needs-based perspective to reviewing the distribution of health care services. Despite the removal of user prices, significant barriers remain to services being distributed in accordance with need-the objective of needs-based access to services remains elusive. The increased fiscal pressures imposed on health care in the 1990s, together with the failure of health care policy to encompass the changing nature of health care delivery, seem to represent further departures from policy objectives. In addition, there is evidence of increasing public dissatisfaction with the performance of the system. A return to modest increases in public funding in the new millennium has not been sufficient to arrest these trends. Widespread support for first-dollar public funding needs to be accompanied by greater attention to the scope of the legislation and the adoption of a needs-based focus among health care policymakers.
We surveyed American and Canadian medical schools to assess the extent to which occupational health professionals provided services to their own institutions. Ninety-two of 155 schools (60 percent) responded to a mailed questionnaire. Forty-six (51 percent) of the respondents had an occupational health service distinct from an employee health service. Two thirds of the respondents provided occupational health services to business and industry. Such professionals based in nonclinical departments were more likely to provide educational and epidemiologic services for hospital employees than were professionals based in clinical departments. In those institutions with risk management, biohazards, or health and safety committees, less than one half of the occupational health professionals in those institutions were members of those committees. Five respondents felt that there were financial disincentives to providing occupational health services to their institution's employees. We conclude that academic-based occupational health professionals have inadequate input into the provision of such services at their own institutions.
Numerous policies have been proposed to address the public health problem of obesity, resulting in a policy cacophony. The noise of so many policy options renders it difficult for policymakers to determine which policies warrant implementation. This has resulted in calls for more and better evidence to support obesity policy. However, it is not clear that evidence is the solution. This paper argues that to address the policy cacophony it is necessary to rethink the problem of obesity, and more specifically, how the problem of obesity is framed. This paper argues that the frame "obesity" be replaced by the frame "caloric overconsumption", concluding that the frame caloric overconsumption can overcome the obesity policy cacophony.
Frames are important because they influence public policy. Understood as packages that define issues, frames influence how best to approach a problem. Consequently, debates over public policy are considered battles over framing, with small shifts in how an issue is framed resulting in significant changes to the policy environment. This paper presents a rationale for reframing the problem of obesity as caloric overconsumption. The frame "obesity" contributes to the policy cacophony by including policies aimed at both energy output and energy input. However, research increasingly demonstrates that energy input is the primary cause of obesity, and that increases in energy input are largely attributable to the food environment. By focusing on policies that aim to prevent increases in energy input, the frame caloric overconsumption will reduce the noise of the obesity policy cacophony. While the proposed frame will face some challenges, particularly industry opposition, policies aimed at preventing caloric overconsumption have a clearer focus, and can be more politically palatable if caloric overconsumption is seen as an involuntary risk resulting from the food environment.
The paper concludes that policymakers will be able to make better sense of the obesity policy cacophony if the problem of obesity is reframed as caloric overconsumption. By focusing on a specific cause of obesity, energy input, the frame caloric overconsumption allows policymakers to focus on the most promising obesity prevention policies.
Road traffic injury is the leading cause of death among adolescents in high-income countries. Researchers attribute this threat to driver risk taking, which driver education (DE) attempts to reduce. Many North American authorities grant DE graduates earlier access to unsupervised driving despite no evidence of this being a safety benefit. This theoretical article examines risk taking and DE in relation to an apparent mobility bias (MB) in policymaking.
The MB is defined, the history and sources of driver risk taking are examined, and the failure of DE to reduce collision risk is analyzed in relation to a potential MB in licensing policies.
The author argues that DE's failure to reduce adolescent collision risk is associated with a MB that has produced insufficient research into DE programs and that influences public policymakers to grant earlier licensure to DE graduates. Recommendations are made regarding future research on DE and risk taking, coordinated improvements to DE and driver licensing, and a plan to reduce collision risk by encouraging parental supervision after adolescent licensure.
Research on adolescent driver risk taking would have direct applications in DE curricula development, driver's license evaluation criteria, graduated licensing (GDL) policies, as well as other aspects of human factor research into the crash-risk problem.
To determine the prevalence and content of existing or developing policies and guidelines of medical associations and colleges regarding after-hours care by family physicians and general practitioners, especially legal requirements.
Telephone survey in fall 2002, updated in fall 2004.
All national and provincial medical associations, Colleges of Family Physicians, Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, local government offices for the north, and the Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA).
RESPONSE TO THE QUESTION: "Does your agency have a policy in place regarding after-hours health care coverage by FPs/GPs, or are there active discussions regarding such a policy?"
The College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia was the first to institute a policy, in 1995, requiring physicians to make "specific arrangements" for after-hours care of their patients. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta adopted a similar policy in 1996 along with a guideline to aid implementation. In 2002, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Nova Scotia approved a guideline on the Availability of Physicians After Hours. The Saskatchewan Medical Association and the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan formulated a joint policy on medical practice coverage that was released in 2003. Many agencies actively discussed the topic. Provincial and national Colleges of Family Physicians did not have any policies in place. The CMPA does not generate guidelines but released in an information letter in May 2000 a section entitled "Reducing your risk when you're not available."
There is increasing interest Canada-wide in setting policy for after-hours care. While provincial Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons have traditionally led the way, a trend toward more collaboration between associations was identified. The effect of policy implementation on physicians' coverage of patients is unclear.
Cites: CMAJ. 2000 Oct 17;163(8):1047-5411068585
Cites: Can Fam Physician. 1997 Jul;43:1235-99241461