[20th century view of Poland by Russian historians. An account of: Pol'sza XX wiekie w: oczerki politiczeskoj istorii [Poland in the twentieth century: political history essays], Indryk, Moskwa, 2012, 949 p].
Between 1888 and 1892, Mikulicz as well as Fuchs observed each a case of oculo-salivary glandular syndrome. Ten years later, Heerfordt described uveitis complicated by swelling of the lacrimal and salivary glands. Within 100 years, the interpretation of this disease changed repeatedly and considerably: infection of particularly exposed organs--non-avirulent tuberculosis--salivotropic virus--Boeck's disease--allergic-hyperergic reaction--diencephalic and nervous dystrophy with segmental projection--(auto)immune disease--oculo-salivary complex including Sjøgren's syndrome--all these were discussed as possible aetiologies. Short biographies of Johannes von Mikulicz-Radecki, surgeon at Austrian and Prussian universities; Ernst Fuchs, ophthalmologist of Vienna; Christian Frederik Heerfordt, a Danish ophthalmologist particularly fond of publicity.
Uncertainty exists whether the 4154delA mutation of the BRCA1 gene detected in unrelated individuals from Latvia, Poland and Russia is a founder mutation with a common ancestral origin. To trace back this problem we analysed the mutation-associated haplotype of the BRCA1 intragenic SNPs as well as intragenic and nearby STR markers in mutation carriers from the aforementioned populations. The mutation-associated SNP alleles were found to be "T-A-A-A-A-G" for six intragenic SNPs of the BRCA1 gene (IVS8-58delT, 3232A/G, 3667A/G, IVS16-68A/G, IVS16-92A/G, IVS18+66G/A, respectively). The alleles 195, 154, 210 and 181 were found to be associated with the 4154delA mutation for STR markers D17S1325, D17S855, D17S1328 and D17S1320, correspondingly. Further analysis of markers in the 4154delA mutation carriers from all three populations allows us to assert that all analysed mutation carriers share a common ancestry.
A doctor who performed an abortion in Poland faces two years in prison and the loss of his medical license for up to 10 years if he is found guilty of violating the new abortion laws introduced in 1993 after a lengthy campaign by the Catholic church and the Christian Democratic Union party. The new laws permit abortion when the pregnancy threatens the life of the mother, presents a serious health threat to the mother, is the result of rape or incest, or will result in the birth of a irreversibly and seriously malformed fetus. In this case, the woman had the abortion because she could not afford to support the child on her own; her former lover faces two years in prison if he is convicted of having paid for the operation. The new law follows a 40-year period of liberal abortion laws under the communist regime when abortion was seen as a form of contraception; an estimated 100,000 abortions occurred in the 1980s. The number of recorded abortions decreased to 777 (nine were in contravention of the law) in 1993. However, some abortions have gone underground; this one surfaced because of an angry former lover. Doctors can now charge two months' salary for the illegal operation, forcing many of the women go to Russia, Belarus, or the Ukraine where the operation is cheaper. Other women take matters into their own hands; one woman murdered the baby she would have aborted earlier.
BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate compliance by ethnic groups to the mammography screening programme in the City of Copenhagen over six years and to look at developments over time. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mammography screening has, since 1 April 1991, been offered free of charge to all women between 50 and 69 years of age in the City of Copenhagen. Data on women born in Poland, Turkey, Yugoslavia, and Pakistan divided into five-year groups were compared to that of women born in Denmark and all other foreign-born women. Data from 1991 to 1997 were grouped according to the mammography performed, the offer refused, or non-appearance. RESULTS: Whereas 71% of Danish-born women accepted mammography, compliance by foreign-born women was significantly lower. The offer was accepted by 36% of Pakistanis, 45% of Yugoslavians, 53% of Turks, and 64% of Poles. Compliance fell in all ethnic groups with advancing age. Of the Danish women, 16% failed to keep the appointment. The corresponding percentages were 52 for Pakistanis, 48 for Yugoslavians, 41 for Turks, and 23 for Poles. The proportion of women who actively refused the offer was similar in all groups. The number of invited women fell during the period. CONCLUSIONS: The lower participation of women from the countries under study might have various explanations: among them the language barrier, procedure-related factors, and a lower incidence of breast cancer in the countries of origin.
Presented in this paper is result of the study of the bioconcentration potential of mercury (Hg) by Suillus luteus mushroom collected from regions within Central, Eastern, and Northern regions of Europe. As determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy, the Hg content varied from 0.13 ? 0.05 to 0.33 ? 0.13 mg kg(-1) dry matter for caps and from 0.038 ? 0.014 to 0.095 ? 0.038 mg kg(-1) dry matter in stems. The Hg content of the soil substratum (0-10 cm layer) underneath the fruiting bodies showed generally low Hg concentrations that varied widely ranging from 0.0030 to 0.15 mg kg(-1) dry matter with mean values varying from 0.0078 ? 0.0035 to 0.053 ? 0.025 mg kg(-1) dry matter, which is below typical content in the Earth crust. The caps were observed to be on the richer in Hg than the stems at ratio between 1.8 ? 0.4 and 5.3 ? 2.6. The S. luteus mushroom showed moderate ability to accumulate Hg with bioconcentration factor (BCF) values ranging from 3.6 ? 1.3 to 42 ? 18. The consumption of fresh S. luteus mushroom in quantities up to 300 g week(-1) (assuming no Hg ingestion from other foods) from background areas in the Central, Eastern, and Northern part of Europe will not result in the intake of Hg exceeds the provisional weekly tolerance limit (PTWI) of 0.004 mg kg(-1) body mass.
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2002 Apr 22;289(1-3):41-712049405
Cites: Environ Int. 2002 Nov;28(5):421-712437292
Cites: Z Lebensm Unters Forsch. 1976;160(3):303-12988688