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678 records – page 1 of 68.

A 9-year follow-up study of participants and nonparticipants in sigmoidoscopy screening: importance of self-selection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93168
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 May;17(5):1163-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2008
Author
Blom Johannes
Yin Li
Lidén Annika
Dolk Anders
Jeppsson Bengt
Påhlman Lars
Holmberg Lars
Nyrén Olof
Author Affiliation
Division of Surgery, Department for Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital, K53, Huddinge, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden. johannes.blom@ki.se
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 May;17(5):1163-8
Date
May-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cause of Death
Colorectal Neoplasms - mortality - prevention & control
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms - mortality
Health Behavior
Humans
Incidence
Lung Neoplasms - mortality
Male
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
Poisson Distribution
Registries
Sigmoidoscopy - utilization
Smoking - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Self-selection may compromise cost-effectiveness of screening programs. We hypothesized that nonparticipants have generally higher morbidity and mortality than participants. METHODS: A Swedish population-based random sample of 1,986 subjects ages 59 to 61 years was invited to sigmoidoscopy screening and followed up for 9 years by means of multiple record linkages to health and population registers. Gender-adjusted cancer incidence rate ratio (IRR) and overall and disease group-specific and mortality rate ratio (MRR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated for nonparticipants relative to participants. Cancer and mortality rates were also estimated relative to the age-matched, gender-matched, and calendar period-matched Swedish population using standardized incidence ratios and standardized mortality ratios. RESULTS: Thirty-nine percent participated. The incidence of colorectal cancer (IRR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-5.9), other gastrointestinal cancer (IRR, 2.7; 95% CI, 0.6-12.8), lung cancer (IRR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-5.9), and smoking-related cancer overall (IRR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.7-2.5) tended to be increased among nonparticipants relative to participants. Standardized incidence ratios for most of the studied cancers tended to be >1.0 among nonparticipants and
PubMed ID
18483338 View in PubMed
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A 20-year ecological study of the temporal association between influenza and meningococcal disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30400
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19(2):181-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Elise Snitker Jensen
Søren Lundbye-Christensen
Susanne Samuelsson
Henrik Toft Sørensen
Henrik Carl Schønheyder
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Arhus, Denmark. esjensen@dadlnet.dk
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19(2):181-7
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Child
Child, Preschool
Comorbidity
Confidence Intervals
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Humans
Infant
Influenza, Human - diagnosis - epidemiology
Male
Meningococcal Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology
Periodicity
Poisson Distribution
Prognosis
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Seasons
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Abstract
Both influenza and meningococcal disease (MD) show seasonal variation with peak incidence rates during the winter. We examined whether fluctuations in occurrence of influenza were associated with changes in the incidence rate of MD, either simultaneously or with a delay of one or 2 weeks, and whether age had an impact on these associations. This ecological study was based on weekly surveillance data on influenza and a complete registration of MD cases (n = 413) in North Jutland County, Denmark, during 1980-1999. A total of 379 MD cases occurred during weeks with influenza registration. The analysis was done using a Poisson regression model taking into account the seasonal variation and trend over time in incidence rate of MD, and stratified by age: or = 14 years (n = 152). An increase of 100 registered cases of influenza per 100,000 inhabitants was associated with a 7% (95% CI: -1 to 15%) increase in the number of MD cases during the same week. The association was most marked for
PubMed ID
15074574 View in PubMed
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Academic Alternate Relationship Plans for internal medicine: a lever for health care transformation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129973
Source
Open Med. 2011;5(1):e28-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Allison Bichel
Maria Bacchus
Jon Meddings
John Conly
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Calgary Health Region, and University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.
Source
Open Med. 2011;5(1):e28-32
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Diffusion of Innovation
Health Care Reform - methods
Health Care Surveys
Health Services Accessibility - organization & administration
Health services needs and demand
Humans
Internal Medicine - education
Poisson Distribution
Program Development
Schools, Medical - organization & administration - trends
Notes
Cites: Can Fam Physician. 2000 Jul;46:1438-4410925758
Cites: Can Respir J. 2009 Mar-Apr;16(2):49-5419399308
Cites: Can J Cardiol. 2008 Mar;24(3):195-818340388
Cites: CMAJ. 1999 Jun 15;160(12):1710-410410632
PubMed ID
22046217 View in PubMed
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Accident prediction models with random corridor parameters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149229
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2009 Sep;41(5):1118-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Karim El-Basyouny
Tarek Sayed
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4. basyouny@civil.ubc.ca
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2009 Sep;41(5):1118-23
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Analysis of Variance
Bayes Theorem
British Columbia
Humans
Markov Chains
Models, Statistical
Models, Theoretical
Poisson Distribution
Risk assessment
Statistics as Topic
Abstract
Recent research advocates the use of count models with random parameters as an alternative method for analyzing accident frequencies. In this paper a dataset composed of urban arterials in Vancouver, British Columbia, is considered where the 392 segments were clustered into 58 corridors. The main objective is to assess the corridor effects with alternate specifications. The proposed models were estimated in a Full Bayes context via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation and were compared in terms of their goodness of fit and inference. A variety of covariates were found to significantly influence accident frequencies. However, these covariates resulted in random parameters and thereby their effects on accident frequency were found to vary significantly across corridors. Further, a Poisson-lognormal (PLN) model with random parameters for each corridor provided the best fit. Apart from the improvement in goodness of fit, such an approach is useful in gaining new insights into how accident frequencies are influenced by the covariates, and in accounting for heterogeneity due to unobserved road geometrics, traffic characteristics, environmental factors and driver behavior. The inclusion of corridor effects in the mean function could also explain enough variation that some of the model covariates would be rendered non-significant and thereby affecting model inference.
PubMed ID
19664455 View in PubMed
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Acute and long-term increase in fracture risk after hospitalization for stroke.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195446
Source
Stroke. 2001 Mar;32(3):702-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
J. Kanis
A. Oden
O. Johnell
Author Affiliation
Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases (World Health Organization Collaborating Center), University of Sheffield Medical School (UK). w.j.pontefract@sheffield.ac.uk
Source
Stroke. 2001 Mar;32(3):702-6
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Comorbidity
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Fractures, Bone - epidemiology
Hip Fractures - epidemiology
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Poisson Distribution
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk
Risk Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Sex Distribution
Stroke - epidemiology - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Time
Abstract
The aims of this study were to determine the magnitude of the increase in fracture risk after hospitalization for stroke, and in particular to determine the time course of this risk.
The records of the Swedish register of patients admitted during 1987-1996 were examined to identify all patients who were admitted to the hospital for stroke. Patients were followed for subsequent hospitalizations for hip and all fractures combined. We analyzed 16.3 million hospitalizations, from which 273 288 individuals with stroke were identified. A Poisson model was used to determine the absolute risk of subsequent fractures and the risk compared with that of the general population.
After hospitalization for stroke, there was a >7-fold increase in fracture risk, including that for hip fracture within the first year after hospitalization for stroke. Thereafter, fracture risk declined toward, but did not attain, the baseline risk except in men and women aged >/=80 years.
The high incidence of new fractures within the first year of hospitalization for stroke suggests that such patients should be preferentially targeted for treatment. It is possible that short courses of treatment at the time of stroke would provide important therapeutic dividends.
PubMed ID
11239190 View in PubMed
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Acute and long-term increase in fracture risk after hospitalization for vertebral fracture.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194968
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2001;12(3):207-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
O. Johnell
A. Oden
F. Caulin
J A Kanis
Author Affiliation
Department of Orthopaedics, Malmö General Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2001;12(3):207-14
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Chronic Disease
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Hip Fractures - epidemiology
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Osteoporosis - complications
Poisson Distribution
Risk factors
Spinal Fractures - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The aims of this study were to determine the magnitude of the increase in risk of further fracture following hospitalization for vertebral fracture, and in particular to determine the time course of this risk. The records of the Swedish Patient Register were examined from 1987 to 1994 to identify all patients who were admitted to hospital for thoracic or lumbar vertebral fractures. Vertebral fractures were characterized as due to high- or low-energy trauma. Patients were followed for subsequent hospitalizations for hip fracture, and for all fractures combined. A Poisson model was used to determine the absolute risk of subsequent nonvertebral fracture and compared with that of the general population. We analyzed 13.4 million hospital admissions from which 28,869 individuals with vertebral fracture were identified, of which 60% were associated with low-energy trauma. There was a marked increase in subsequent incidence of hip and all fractures within the first year following hospitalization for vertebral fracture in both men and women. Thereafter, fracture incidence declined toward, but did not attain, baseline risk. Increased risks were particularly marked in the young. The increase in fracture risk was more marked following low-energy vertebral fracture than in the case of high-energy trauma. We conclude that the high incidence of new fractures within a year of hospitalization for vertebral fractures, irrespective of the degree of trauma involved, indicates that such patients should be preferentially targeted for treatment. It is speculated that short courses of treatment at the time of first vertebral fracture could provide important therapeutic dividends.
PubMed ID
11315239 View in PubMed
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Acute hospital admissions among nursing home residents: a population-based observational study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134159
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:126
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Birgitte Graverholt
Trond Riise
Gro Jamtvedt
Anette H Ranhoff
Kjell Krüger
Monica W Nortvedt
Author Affiliation
Centre for Evidence-Based Practice, Bergen University College, N-5020 Bergen, Norway. bgra@hib.no
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:126
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Confidence Intervals
Female
Hospital Information Systems - statistics & numerical data
Hospital Mortality
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Length of Stay - statistics & numerical data
Long-Term Care - statistics & numerical data
Male
Norway
Nursing Homes - statistics & numerical data
Poisson Distribution
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Risk assessment
Abstract
Nursing home residents are prone to acute illness due to their high age, underlying illnesses and immobility. We examined the incidence of acute hospital admissions among nursing home residents versus the age-matched community dwelling population in a geographically defined area during a two years period. The hospital stays of the nursing home population are described according to diagnosis, length of stay and mortality. Similar studies have previously not been reported in Scandinavia.
The acute hospitalisations of the nursing home residents were identified through ambulance records. These were linked to hospital patient records for inclusion of demographics, diagnosis at discharge, length of stay and mortality. Incidence of hospitalisation was calculated based on patient-time at risk.
The annual hospital admission incidence was 0.62 admissions per person-year among the nursing home residents and 0.26 among the community dwellers. In the nursing home population we found that dominant diagnoses were respiratory diseases, falls-related and circulatory diseases, accounting for 55% of the cases. The median length of stay was 3 days (interquartile range = 4). The in-hospital mortality rate was 16% and 30 day mortality after discharge 30%.
Acute hospital admission rate among nursing home residents was high in this Scandinavian setting. The pattern of diagnoses causing the admissions appears to be consistent with previous research. The in-hospital and 30 day mortality rates are high.
Notes
Cites: Gerontology. 2000 May-Jun;46(3):133-810754370
Cites: Aging Clin Exp Res. 2010 Aug;22(4):340-419940558
Cites: Age Ageing. 2004 Mar;33(2):110-514960424
Cites: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004 Oct;52(10):1730-615450053
Cites: J Am Geriatr Soc. 1990 Dec;38(12):1296-3032123911
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1993 Feb 1;118(3):219-238417639
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1994 Oct;84(10):1615-207943480
Cites: Med J Aust. 2006 May 1;184(9):432-516646741
Cites: JAMA. 2006 Jun 7;295(21):2503-1016757722
Cites: Am J Emerg Med. 2006 Jul;24(4):428-3416787800
Cites: Med Care Res Rev. 2008 Feb;65(1):40-6617895516
Cites: Med Care Res Rev. 2008 Feb;65(1):3-3918184869
Cites: Can J Aging. 2008 Spring;27(1):109-1518492642
Cites: Gerontologist. 2008 Aug;48(4):537-4118728303
Cites: Med Care. 2009 Feb;47(2):250-419169127
Cites: Age Ageing. 2009 May;38(3):314-819286676
Cites: Can Fam Physician. 2009 May;55(5):500-519439706
Cites: Age Ageing. 2010 May;39(3):306-1220176712
Cites: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010 Mar;58(3):510-720398120
Cites: Health Soc Care Community. 2001 Nov;9(6):367-7411846815
PubMed ID
21615911 View in PubMed
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Acute impacts of extreme temperature exposure on emergency room admissions related to mental and behavior disorders in Toronto, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256377
Source
J Affect Disord. 2014 Feb;155:154-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Xiang Wang
Eric Lavigne
Hélène Ouellette-kuntz
Bingshu E Chen
Author Affiliation
Public Health Agency of Canada, Centre for Food-Borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Environmental Issues Division, Canada; Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Queen's University, Canada. Electronic address: wanqus@gmail.com.
Source
J Affect Disord. 2014 Feb;155:154-61
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Cities
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Extreme Cold - adverse effects
Extreme Heat - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Mental Disorders - therapy
Middle Aged
Nonlinear Dynamics
Poisson Distribution
Regression Analysis
Risk
Young Adult
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of extreme ambient temperature on hospital emergency room visits (ER) related to mental and behavioral illnesses in Toronto, Canada.
A time series study was conducted using health and climatic data from 2002 to 2010 in Toronto, Canada. Relative risks (RRs) for increases in emergency room (ER) visits were estimated for specific mental and behavioral diseases (MBD) after exposure to hot and cold temperatures while using the 50th percentile of the daily mean temperature as reference. Poisson regression models using a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) were used. We adjusted for the effects of seasonality, humidity, day-of-the-week and outdoor air pollutants.
We found a strong association between MBD ER visits and mean daily temperature at 28?C. The association was strongest within a period of 0-4 days for exposure to hot temperatures. A 29% (RR=1.29, 95% CI 1.09-1.53) increase in MBD ER vists was observed over a cumulative period of 7 days after exposure to high ambient temperature (99th percentile vs. 50th percentile). Similar associations were reported for schizophrenia, mood, and neurotic disorers. No significant associations with cold temperatures were reported.
The ecological nature and the fact that only one city was investigated.
Our findings suggest that extreme temperature poses a risk to the health and wellbeing for individuals with mental and behavior illnesses. Patient management and education may need to be improved as extreme temperatures may become more prevalent with climate change.
PubMed ID
24332428 View in PubMed
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Acute myeloid leukemia following Hodgkin lymphoma: a population-based study of 35,511 patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature16487
Source
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Feb 1;98(3):215-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1-2006
Author
Sara J Schonfeld
Ethel S Gilbert
Graça M Dores
Charles F Lynch
David C Hodgson
Per Hall
Hans Storm
Aage Andersen
Eero Pukkala
Eric Holowaty
Magnus Kaijser
Michael Andersson
Heikki Joensuu
Sophie D Fosså
James M Allan
Lois B Travis
Author Affiliation
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892-7238, USA.
Source
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Feb 1;98(3):215-8
Date
Feb-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antineoplastic Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hodgkin Disease - drug therapy - therapy
Humans
Incidence
Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute - chemically induced - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms, Second Primary - chemically induced - epidemiology
North America - epidemiology
Ontario - epidemiology
Poisson Distribution
Registries
Research Design
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
Risk assessment
SEER Program
Scandinavia - epidemiology
Abstract
Treatments for Hodgkin lymphoma are associated with large relative risks of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but there are few estimates of the excess absolute risk (EAR), a useful measure of disease burden. One-year Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (N = 35,511) were identified within 14 population-based cancer registries in Nordic countries and North America from January 1, 1970, through December 31, 2001. We used Poisson regression analysis to model the EAR of AML, per 10,000 person-years. A total of 217 Hodgkin lymphoma survivors were diagnosed with AML (10.8 expected; unadjusted EAR = 6.2; 95% confidence interval = 5.4 to 7.1). Excess absolute risk for AML was highest during the first 10 years after Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis but remained elevated thereafter. In subsequent analyses, adjusted for time since Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis and presented for the 5-9 year interval, the EAR was statistically significantly (P or = 35 age groups, respectively), which may be associated with modifications in chemotherapy.
PubMed ID
16449681 View in PubMed
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Adolescent suicide and suicide contagion in three secondary schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature68342
Source
Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2001;3(3):163-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
S. Poijula
K E Wahlberg
A. Dyregrov
Author Affiliation
Oy Synolon Ltd., Center for Trauma Psychology, Valtatie 16 as 11, 90500 Oulu, Finland. Soili.Poijula@netppl.fi
Source
Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2001;3(3):163-8
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Crisis Intervention - methods
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Models, Psychological
Poisson Distribution
Psychotherapy, Brief
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Suicide - prevention & control - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
This study investigated crisis intervention in three secondary schools after the suicides of five students, focusing on the relation between crisis intervention and suicide contagion. The contagion hypothesis was supported. Following a suicide, the number of suicides that occurred in secondary schools in one year were markedly increased beyond chance. No new suicides took place at schools where adequate first talk-throughs and psychological debriefing were conducted by a mental health professional. Proper crisis intervention is recommended to prevent suicide contagion in schools.
PubMed ID
11642194 View in PubMed
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678 records – page 1 of 68.