Significantly lower frequency of relapse, incidence of pulmonitis and pericarditis, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia stage IV and longer recurrence-free survival were reported after acceleration of multifractionation of STD of 1.35Gy was used for treatment of patients with primary Hodgkin's disease, as compared with standard fractionation. When STD was reduced to 1.2Gy (modified multifractionation), subtotal exposure of lymph nodes was followed by a significant drop in frequency and severity of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia stage III-IV. The latter complications, rates decreased further, with perspective response to therapy, as irradiation was limited to that of areas exposed during modified multifractionation.
We evaluated all fatal neonatal sepsis and pneumonia cases occurring in Alaska during 1992-2000. Risk factors were evaluated using a database of all births occurring during the study period. Of 32 cases, group B streptococcus (GBS) was isolated from 21% (all 7 days of age), non-GBS Gram-positive bacteria from 50% (53%
A prospective observational study of an epidemic of infection due to Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TWAR in Finnish military trainees provided new information on immunity following infection, the range of clinical syndromes and complications, and cell culture isolation. One-half of the trainees studied (43 of 86) had laboratory evidence of C. pneumoniae infection. The etiologic association of C. pneumoniae with disease was strengthened by the sharp increase in cases of pneumonia and in outpatient visits for acute respiratory disease along with the laboratory evidence of infection. The pattern of serological response suggested that 23 of the trainees had a primary TWAR infection and 20 had a reinfection. Evidence that prior infection modified the illness included the frequency of hospitalization (12 with primary infections vs. 1 with reinfection), the development of pneumonia (10 vs. 0), and the requirement for repeated courses of antibiotic therapy (13 courses vs. 0). Isolation was more frequent in HL cells (n = 25) than in HeLa 229 cells (n = 10).
An epidemic of mild pneumonia was discovered during a chest radiographic survey of adolescents and young adults in two communities 110 kilometers apart in northern Finland. Antibodies to chlamydial antigens were found in 32 of 34 persons with pneumonitis. Microimmunofluorescence antibody tests suggest that the etiologic agent is closely related or identical to TW-183, an unusual strain of Chlamydia psittaci isolated from the eye of a child in Taiwan. The point prevalence of pneumonitis with antibody to TW-183 in school children at the time of the survey was high-15 and 19 patients per 1,000 students in the two communities. There was no evidence of avian transmission in the epidemic.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence and onset time of pneumonia for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the early phase of rehabilitation and to identify parameters associated with the risk of pneumonia. DESIGN: Observational retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Subacute rehabilitation department in a university hospital in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=173) aged 16 to 65 years with severe TBI who were admitted during a 5-year period. Patients are transferred to the brain injury unit as soon as they ventilate spontaneously. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Pneumonia. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of the patients admitted to the brain injury unit were in treatment for pneumonia; pneumonia developed in 12% of the patients during rehabilitation; the condition occurred within 19 days of admission in all but 1 patient. Of these patients, 81% received nothing by mouth. Three factors identified patients at highest risk of pneumonia: Glasgow Coma Scale score less than 9 (1 day after cessation of sedation); Rancho Los Amigos Scale score less than 3 (on admission); and no oral intake on admission. Having a tracheotomy tube and/or feeding tube was also associated with a higher occurrence of pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with severe TBI, 27% had pneumonia at transfer from the intensive care unit. Pneumonia developed in only 12% of the participants during rehabilitation. Patients with a low level of consciousness and patients with a tracheotomy tube or feeding tube had a higher likelihood of pneumonia.
Chronic heart failure may increase risk of pneumonia due to alveoli flooding and reduced microbial clearance. We examined whether chronic heart failure is a risk factor for pneumonia-related hospitalization.
In this large population-based case-control study we identified adult patients with a first-time primary or secondary discharge diagnosis of viral or bacterial pneumonia between 1994 and 2008, using health care databases in Northern Denmark. For each case, ten sex- and age-matched population controls were selected from Denmark's Civil Registration System. We used conditional logistic regression to compute relative risk (RR) for pneumonia-related hospitalization among persons with and without pre-existing heart failure, overall and stratified by medical treatment. We controlled for a wide range of comorbidities, socioeconomic markers and immunosuppressive treatment.
The study included 67,162 patients with a pneumonia-related hospitalization and 671,620 population controls. The adjusted OR for pneumonia-related hospitalization among persons with previous heart failure was 1.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.76-1.86) compared with other individuals. The adjusted pneumonia RR was lower for heart failure patients treated with thiazides only (adjusted OR=1.56, 95% CI: 1.46-1.67), as compared with patients whose treatment included loop-diuretics and digoxin as a marker of increased severity (adjusted OR=1.95, 95% CI: 1.85-2.06) or both loop-diuretics and spironolactone (adjusted OR=2.02, 95% CI: 1.90-2.15). The population-attributable risk of pneumonia hospitalizations caused by heart failure in our population was 6.2%.
Patients with chronic heart failure, in particular those using loop diuretics, have markedly increased risk of hospitalization with pneumonia.
In 277 patients admitted to hospital for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) an aetiologic diagnosis was established in 68% with S. pneumoniae being the predominating agent. Four percent of the patients (12/277) died during their hospital stay, and only one of these patients was below 60 years of age. On admission, the most important factor, independently associated with fatal disease was a low serum albumin concentration, which was also a negative prognostic factor for the course of the survivors. In patients admitted to hospital for CAP, the finding of a low serum albumin level should therefore lead to intensified observation and treatment. Of 241 patients discharged after treatment for CAP, 50 patients were readmitted to hospital with recurrence of pneumonia during a 31 month follow-up period. This pneumonia incidence rate was more than five times that in a control population. Fifty-one of the patients (21%) died during follow-up, with 13 (25%) of the deaths directly associated with pneumonia. Systemic treatment with corticosteroids was associated with a higher risk of recurrence of pneumonia and death, while airway colonisation with Gram-negative enteric bacteria and a serum albumin below 30 g/l during hospital treatment of the initial pneumonia were associated with death from pneumonia after discharge. In 97 middle-aged and elderly patients admitted to hospital for CAP, malnutrition reflected by low triceps skinfold (TSF) and body mass index (BMI) values was associated with death during a six-month follow-up period, as was severity of disease on admission classified according to acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II). Admission serum concentrations of orosomucoid and alpha-1-antitrypsin were most closely correlated with in-hospital morbidity measured as days spent in hospital and duration of fever. The risk of readmission within six months of discharge was higher in patients with high admission levels of APACHE II and TSF. Measurement of serum concentrations of alpha-1-antitrypsin and orosomucoid on admission should be considered in order to better predict hospital morbidity in these patients. Measurements of APACHE II and TSF on admission may give additional prognostic information on the interval from admission to six months after discharge. On admission 64% of the patients were hypoalbuminaemic, but only 6-10% were so at follow-up visits. Admission serum albumin concentration correlated negatively with investigated acute-phase proteins, and positively with other serum transport proteins, but no association with investigated nutritional measurements was found. The main reason for depressed serum albumin in elderly patients with pneumonia thus seems to be not malnutrition, but the inflammatory reaction per se. In 203 hospital-treated patients with CAP, the diagnostic and prognostic value of admission serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein was investigated. The highest levels of IL-6 and CRP were found in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, especially when bacteraemic. Patients with high IL-6- or CRP levels had longer duration of fever, longer hospital stay, and fewer had recovered clinically or radiographically at follow-up eight weeks after discharge. A high IL-6, but not a high CRP, also seemed to be associated with a higher mortality. The type-specific antibody responses to six pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide antigens included in the 23-valent vaccine as well as antibodies against the vaccine were measured by use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 65 middle-aged and elderly individuals treated in hospital for pneumonia eight weeks prior to vaccination. The antibody concentrations before and after the vaccination were comparable with those in a vaccinated age-matched control group who had not recently been treated for pneumonia...
We studied all patients with community-acquired pneumonia who were admitted to our 800-bed adult acute care hospital from 1 November 1981 to 15 March 1987. The 719 patients had a mean age of 63.2 years; 18% were admitted from nursing homes, and 18% required ventilatory assistance as part of the therapy for pneumonia. Patients with nursing home-acquired pneumonia were significantly older; had a higher mortality (40% vs. 17%); were more likely to be admitted in January; were less likely to complain of cough, fever, anorexia, chills, headache, nausea, sore throat, myalgia, or arthralgia; and were more likely to be confused than those admitted from the community. Pneumonia of unknown etiology and aspiration pneumonia were more common and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection less common among those with nursing home-acquired pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for 58% of the 48 cases of bacteremia. None of the bacteremic patients received antibiotics before admission, compared with 34% of the nonbacteremic patients. Aerobic gram-negative rod bacteremia was not more frequent among nursing home patients than among those from the community. The overall mortality was 21% (8.5% for those less than 60 years of age and 28.6% for those greater than 60 years old). By multivariate analysis the following variables were significant predictors of mortality: number of lobes involved by the pneumonic process, number of antibiotics used to treat the pneumonia, age, admission from a nursing home, ventilatory support, and the number of complications that occurred while the patient was in the hospital.