The authors represented experience of contemporary activities of Occupational center in Rostov region, demonstrated efficiency of thorough medical examinations carried by mobile clinical and diagnostic laboratories, suggested 4-levels structure of occupational service organization.
The research purpose is an estimation of influence of the bauxite dust on the state of the bronchopulmonary system of workers. It has been indicated that exposure of the poor fibrogenic dust while the process of the bauxite ore extraction, results in development of pnevmokoniosis characterized by substantial ventilatory and haemodynamic disorders limiting the workability of patients.
One of objective methods of early and differential diagnosis of occupational pulmonary diseases in miners (pneumoconiosis, silicotuberculosis, dust bronchitis) is bronchoscopy with a cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAF). BAF-examination was carried out in a total of 88 patients with incipient and advanced forms of dust bronchitis, pneumoconiosis and silicotuberculosis. A direct relationship has been revealed between a decline in local cell-bound immunity caused by a dust-inducted affection mononuclear phagocytes and advancing of stages of dust-related diseases.
The purpose of development of this clinical practice guidelines was to provide evidence-based protocols that help the practitioner and the patient make the right decision for the health assessment, treatment and prevention of pneumoconiosis. Pneumoconiosis is the interstitial lung disease of occupational origin caused by prolonged inhalation of inorganic dust, characterized by chronic diffuse aseptic inflammation in lung tissue with the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Currently, thereare no treatment that provide a cure pulmonary fibrosis and changes in the dynamics of decline in lung function. Regular, individually tailored treatment should be directed to the pathogenic mechanisms and some clinical symptoms of pneumoconiosis, as well as the prevention of complications. To enhance the effect of pharmacotherapy is recommended to use non-drug therapies that enhance the functionality of the respiratory system.
The present study was undertaken to examine the respiratory health of a Danish workforce exposed to man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) during production. Workers with more than 5 yr occupational exposure to MMVF (n = 377) were compared to a group without MMVF exposure (n = 381). Respiratory health was assessed by questionnaire, dynamic spirometry, and measurement of transfer factor. Overall response rate was 63%. A sample of nonresponders was assessed by questionnaire and spirometry. On most spirometric indices the two groups had comparable values. However, a larger proportion (14.5%) of the exposed subjects had an obstructive flow pattern compared with the control subjects (5.3%). Subgroup analyses showed that the elevated risk of airways obstruction associated with exposure was restricted to heavy smokers. Transfer factor and prevalences of symptoms and self-reported disease were similar in the two groups. There is no indication of excess risk of lung fibrosis. However, a number of exposed workers have some degree of airflow obstruction, which cannot be explained by known confounders. An additive or synergistic action between smoking and fiber exposure on airflow obstruction can be speculated.