In late 2007, some Swedish County Councils started 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) implementation for children, and PCV7 was included in the national immunization program in 2009. By 2010, both PCV10 and PCV13 were licensed, and the selection of vaccine was subject to County Councils tenders. This study investigated the impact of the order of PCV introduction into vaccination programs on the incidence of all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations in children
Cites: BMC Public Health. 2011;11:45021658213
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Cites: Vaccine. 2012 Jul 6;30(32):4717-822621828
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Timely information on the bacteriology of primary, noncomplicated acute otitis media (AOM) may today be needed more than ever, because of the increasing antimicrobial resistance of its major bacterial causes and because of the potential of new pneumococcal and other bacterial vaccines for prevention of AOM.
The study followed 329 children from 2 to 24 months of age at scheduled healthy visits and sick visits at the study clinic. Whenever AOM was diagnosed during the follow-up, myringotomy was performed and middle ear fluid was aspirated for bacterial culture.
At least one middle ear fluid sample was available from 772 AOM events; Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc) was isolated in 201 (26%), Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc) in 177 (23%) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) in 174 events (23%). The incidence of Pnc AOM peaked at 12 months of age, whereas the incidence of Mc AOM showed the first peak at 6 months and Hi AOM at 20 months. Pnc AOM showed less prominent seasonality in occurrence than Mc and Hi AOM. Hi was a rare cause of the first 2 AOM episodes (13%) but became increasingly common from the third episode on (32% on average).
Pnc, Mc and Hi were almost equally common findings in AOM. Pnc seems to be the most pathogenic of these three, the role of Mc is increasing and Hi is clearly associated with recurrent AOM.
Changes in the epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae were reported worldwide after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine, particularly an increase in multi-drug resistant (MDR) 19A strains. Subsequently, a 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV-13) has been introduced. This study assessed the incidence of S. pneumoniae serotypes in all age groups prior to the introduction of PCV-13 in Canada (2007-2009). Eight hundred S. pneumoniae isolates from respiratory specimens and blood cultures were collected as part of a Canadian surveillance study (CANWARD) from patients in 15 tertiary-care centers. Serotyping was performed by the Quellung method and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The most common serotypes were 19A (8.6%), 3 (7.3%), 22F (6.0%), 4 (4.6%), 5 (4.4%), and 11A (4.4%); and the first serotype 6D isolate in Canada was identified. Serotypes 5, 7F, and 19A were significantly (p
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Pre-licensure trials in Finnish and US infants demonstrated that PREVENAR was associated, respectively, with a 6% (95% CI, -4% to 16%) and an 8.9% (95% CI, 5.8-11.8%) overall reduction in clinical AOM incidence. Long-term follow-up of these cohorts revealed that there was an approximately 10-50% vaccine efficacy against recurrent otitis media or for the prevention of tympanostomy tube placement. In surveillance reports from the USA that followed infants with serious AOM, generalized PREVENAR vaccination led to an important fall in the incidence of pneumococcal otitis media, particularly for cases that would have been frequent or would have been refractory to antibiotic treatment. The rate of pneumococcal MEF isolates fell by 39% for severe otitis media [McEllistrem MC, Adams JM, Patel K, Mendelsohn AB, Kaplan SL, Bradley JS, et al. Acute otitis media due to penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae before and after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40(12):1738-44], by 42%, among persistent or treatment-resistant otitis media [Casey JR, Pichichero ME, Changes in frequency and pathogens causing acute otitis media in 1995-2003. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004;23(9):824-8 [see comment]] and by 66% among severe otitis media cases or from 'otitis-prone' children [Block SL, Hedrick J, Harrison CJ, Tyler R, Smith A, Findlay R, et al. Community-wide vaccination with the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate significantly alters the microbiology of acute otitis media. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004;23(9):829-33 [see comment]].
Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are prone to develop infections that might postpone treatment and lead to complications. The aim of our study was to investigate whether a heterogeneous population of patients with solid tumors and malignant lymphoma undergoing chemotherapy would respond serologically to vaccination against influenza and pneumococcal disease. There are no established routines in oncology departments in Norway regarding vaccination of these patients. The study included 35 cancer patients with median age 53 yr (range 20-74) and 38 controls with median age 57 yr (range 43-75). The chemotherapy regimens used were mild or moderately immunosuppressive. After one vaccination, 25 patients (72%) and 34 controls (87%) were serologically protected against two or three influenza strains. A higher proportion of patients with solid tumors (81%) than lymphoma (38%) achieved protection. Age, months on chemotherapy, and curative versus palliative treatment did not influence responses to vaccination. After vaccination with a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine against pneumococci, most patients and controls achieved protective serum levels of antibodies against the different serotypes, with the exception that fewer patients were protected against serotype 4. The responses in controls were, however, generally stronger to all serotypes. Tumor type did not influence this vaccination response. We conclude that our cancer patients achieved adequate responses to influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. These are not live vaccines and are therefore safe for immunocompromised patients. Routine vaccinations against influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae should be considered in cancer patients undergoing mild to moderately immunosuppressive chemotherapy.
Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage is often asymptomatic but can cause invasive pneumococcal disease. Pneumococcal carriage is a prerequisite for disease, with children as main reservoir and transmitters. Childhood carriage can therefore be used to determine which serotypes circulate in the population and which may cause disease in the non-vaccinated population. In 2006, a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced into the Norwegian Childhood Immunisation Programme, which was replaced by the more valent PCV13 in 2011. We investigated changes in pneumococcal carriage prevalence 4 years after switching to PCV13 compared to three previous surveys, and analysed factors associated with carriage in children.
We conducted a cross-sectional study in Norway, autumn 2015, among children attending day-care centres. We collected questionnaire data and nasopharyngeal swabs to identify pneumococcal serotypes. We compared the carriage prevalence in 2015 with surveys conducted in the same setting performed before widespread vaccination (2006; n?=?610), 2 years after PCV7 introduction (2008; n?=?600), and 2 years after switching to PCV13 (2013; n?=?874). Using multilevel logistic regression we determined the association between pneumococcal carriage and previously associated factors.
In 2015, 896 children participated, with age ranging from 8 to 80?months. The overall carriage prevalence was 48/100 children [95%CI 44-53] in 2015, 38% [29-46] lower than in 2006 pre-PCV7, and 23% [12-32] lower than in 2013, 2 years after switching to PCV13. The PCV13 carriage prevalence was 2.8/100 children [1.9-4.2] in 2015. Increasing age (p?
During the last 10 y we have observed an increased incidence of pneumococcal bacteremia in Sweden. In order to study the serotype distribution over time we collected 1136 invasive pneumococcal isolates from 1987, 1992 and 1997 from Swedish microbiological laboratories. Currently, new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are being considered for introduction in the general childhood vaccination program in several countries, including Sweden. We studied the potential vaccine coverage rate for the new conjugate vaccines among our Swedish invasive isolates. We found that the serotype distribution fluctuated with time and observed a surprisingly low potential coverage rate for the 7-valent vaccine in Sweden, in contrast to other countries. Therefore we argue that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have to be tailored to suit current, local serotype patterns and most likely will need to be changed over time.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have potential to prevent significant proportion of childhood pneumonia. Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease vaccine trial was designed to assess the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10) against several outcomes. We now report results for pneumonia.
In this nationwide, cluster-randomised, double-blind trial, children younger than 19?months received PHiD-CV10 in 52 clusters or hepatitis vaccines as control in 26 clusters. Infants younger than 7?months at the first vaccination received either 3+1 or 2+1 vaccination schedule, children aged 7-11?months received 2+1, and those 12-18?months of age two-dose schedule. All hospitalizations and outpatient visits to hospital associated with ICD-10 codes compatible with pneumonia were identified through the National Care Register and 1-3 frontal chest X-ray images per event were collected. External readers who were unaware of the patients' vaccination status retrospectively interpreted the images. The evaluated outcomes were hospital-diagnosed, hospital-treated pneumonia as primary diagnosis, and radiologically confirmed pneumonia during the blinded, intention-to-treat follow-up period from the first vaccination to the end of 2011. Total VE was calculated as 1 minus rate ratio of all pneumonia episodes.
47 366 children were enrolled from February 2009, to October 2010. VE against all episodes of hospital-diagnosed pneumonia was 27% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14%, 38%), 32% (95% CI: 3%, 52%), and 23% (95% CI: -5%, 44%) in subjects enrolled at age
Effectiveness of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D-Conjugated Vaccine (PHiD-CV) Against Carriage and Acute Otitis Media-A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial in Finland.
After administering the 10-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugated vaccine (PHiD-CV) to children aged 2-18 months, we observed a reduction in vaccine-type nasopharyngeal carriage, resulting in a reduction of overall pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage, which may be important for indirect vaccine effects. We noted a trend toward reduction of acute otitis media.
This trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00839254), nested within a cluster-randomized double-blind invasive pneumococcal disease effectiveness study in Finland (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00861380), assessed the effectiveness of the 10-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugated vaccine (PHiD-CV or PCV10) against bacterial nasopharyngeal carriage and acute otitis media (AOM).
Infants (aged 6 weeks to 6 months) received the PHiD-CV or a control vaccine (hepatitis B) (schedule 3+1 or 2+1). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at 4 time points post-vaccination from all of the infants and at pre-vaccination from a subset. Parent-reported physician-diagnosed AOM was assessed from first vaccination until last contact (mean follow-up, 18 months). Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was derived as (1 - relative risk)*100, accounting for cluster design in AOM analysis. Significant VE was assessed descriptively (positive lower limit of the non-adjusted 95% confidence interval [CI]).
The vaccinated cohort included 5093 infants for carriage assessment and 4117 infants for AOM assessment. Both schedules decreased vaccine-serotype carriage, with a trend toward a lesser effect from the 2+1 schedule ( VE across timpoints 19%-56% [3+1] and 1%-38% [2+1]). Trends toward reduced pneumococcal carriage (predominantly vaccine serotypes 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F), decreased carriage of vaccine-related serotype 19A, and small increases at later time points (ages 14-15 months) in non-vaccine-serotype carriage were observed. No effects on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Moraxella catarrhalis carriage were observed. There were non-significant trends toward a reduction in the number of infants reporting AOM episodes (VE 3+1: 6.1% [95% CI, -2.7% to 14.1%] and 2+1: 7.4% [-2.8% to 16.6%]) and all AOM episodes (VE 3+1: 2.8% [-9.5% to 13.9%] and 2+1: 10.2% [-4.1% to 22.9%]). PHiD-CV was immunogenic and had an acceptable safety profile.
We observed reduced vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage, a limited increase in non-vaccine-type carriage, and a trend toward AOM reduction.
Cites: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Apr;28(4 Suppl):S66-76 PMID 19325449
Cites: Vaccine. 2009 Dec 10;28(1):71-8 PMID 19818722
Surveillance data on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Denmark (1999-2014) was analysed regarding the incidence and age-distribution due to ten selected non-PCV serotypes (10-Non-PCV). The effect of PCV-7 and PCV-13 vaccines on the 10-Non-PCV IPD incidence was examined.
IPD cases caused by serotypes included in PCV-7, the additional six serotypes included in PCV-13 and 10-Non-PCV serotypes were identified (8, 9N, 11A, 12F, 15A, 22F, 24F, 20, 23B, 33F). The IPD incidence was stratified by three age groups: 0-4 years, 5-64 years and 65+ years.
The predominant IPD cases were caused by serotypes that are not included in PCV-13 (71%), followed by the six additional PCV-13 serotypes. The IPD incidence of serotypes included in the PCV-7 decreased markedly after PCV-7 introduction but are still diagnosed at a low level. The IPD incidence for the 10-Non-PCV serotypes was low for age groups 0-4 years and 5-64 years but high for 65+ years.
Future vaccinations of the young age group alone with a vaccine targeting some of the 10-Non-PCV serotypes may not elicit the desired effect on herd protection since these serotypes are primarily causing IPD among the elderly. Future pneumococcal vaccination strategies in Denmark may therefore need carriage studies in order to identify among whom the pneumococcal serotypes causing IPD are carried.