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American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Policy statement: recommendations for the prevention of pneumococcal infections, including the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar), pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and antibiotic prophylaxis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5510
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):362-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2000
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):362-6
Date
Aug-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Bacterial Vaccines - administration & dosage - immunology
Child, Preschool
Humans
Immunization Schedule
Immunocompetence - immunology
Infant
Meningococcal Vaccines
Opportunistic Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Vaccines
Risk factors
Vaccines, Conjugate - administration & dosage - immunology
Abstract
Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is recommended for universal use in children 23 months and younger, to be given concurrently with other recommended childhood vaccines at 2, 4, 6, and 12 to 15 months of age. For children 7 to 23 months old who have not received previous doses of PCV7, administration of a reduced number of doses is recommended. Two doses of PCV7 are recommended for children 24 to 59 months old at high risk of invasive pneumococcal infection-including children with functional, anatomic, or congenital asplenia; infection with human immunodeficiency virus; and other predisposing conditions-who have not been immunized previously with PCV7. Recommendations have been made for use of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (23PS) vaccine in high-risk children to expand serotype coverage. High-risk children should be given vaccines at the earliest possible opportunity. Use of antibiotic prophylaxis in children younger than 5 years with functional or anatomic asplenia, including children with sickle cell disease, continues to be recommended. Children who have not experienced invasive pneumococcal infection and have received recommended pneumococcal immunizations may discontinue prophylaxis after 5 years of age. The safety and efficacy of PCV7 and 23PS in children 24 months or older at moderate or lower risk of invasive pneumococcal infection remain under investigation. Current US Food and Drug Administration indications are for administration of PCV7 only to children younger than 24 months. Data are insufficient to recommend routine administration of PCV7 for children at moderate risk of pneumococcal invasive infection, including all children 24 to 35 months old, children 36 to 59 months old who attend out-of-home care, and children 36 to 59 months old who are of Native American (American Indian and Alaska Native) or African American descent. However, all children 24 to 59 months old, regardless of whether they are at low or moderate risk, may benefit from the administration of pneumococcal immunizations. Therefore, a single dose of PCV7 or 23PS vaccine may be given to children 24 months or older. The 23PS is an acceptable alternative to PCV7, although an enhanced immune response and probable reduction of nasopharyngeal carriage favor the use of PCV7 whenever possible.
PubMed ID
10920169 View in PubMed
Less detail

American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Technical report: prevention of pneumococcal infections, including the use of pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotic prophylaxis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3161
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):367-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2000
Author
G D Overturf
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):367-76
Date
Aug-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Bacterial Vaccines - administration & dosage - adverse effects - immunology
Child, Preschool
Humans
Immunization Schedule
Infant
Meningococcal Vaccines
Opportunistic Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Vaccines
Risk factors
Treatment Outcome
Vaccines, Conjugate - administration & dosage - adverse effects - immunology
Abstract
Pneumococcal infections are the most common invasive bacterial infections in children in the United States. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections peaks in children younger than 2 years, reaching rates of 228/100,000 in children 6 to 12 months old. Children with functional or anatomic asplenia (including sickle cell disease [SCD]) and children with human immunodeficiency virus infection have pneumococcal infection rates 20- to 100-fold higher than those of healthy children during the first 5 years of life. Others at high risk of pneumococcal infections include children with congenital immunodeficiency; chronic cardiopulmonary disease; children receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy; children with immunosuppressive neoplastic diseases; children with chronic renal insufficiency, including nephrotic syndrome; children with diabetes; and children with cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Children of Native American (American Indian and Alaska Native) or African American descent also have higher rates of invasive pneumococcal disease. Outbreaks of pneumococcal infection have occurred with increased frequency in children attending out-of-home care. Among these children, nasopharyngeal colonization rates of 60% have been observed, along with pneumococci resistant to multiple antibiotics. The administration of antibiotics to children involved in outbreaks of pneumococcal disease has had an inconsistent effect on nasopharyngeal carriage. In contrast, continuous penicillin prophylaxis in children younger than 5 years with SCD has been successful in reducing rates of pneumococcal disease by 84%. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines have been recommended since 1985 for children older than 2 years who are at high risk of invasive disease, but these vaccines were not recommended for younger children and infants because of poor antibody response before 2 years of age. In contrast, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (Prevnar) induce proposed protective antibody responses (>.15 microg/mL) in >90% of infants after 3 doses given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. After priming doses, significant booster responses (ie, immunologic memory) are apparent when additional doses are given at 12 to 15 months of age. In efficacy trials, infant immunization with Prevnar decreased invasive infections by >93% and consolidative pneumonia by 73%, and it was associated with a 7% decrease in otitis media and a 20% decrease in tympanostomy tube placement. Adverse events after the administration of Prevnar have been limited to areas of local swelling or erythema of 1 to 2 cm and some increase in the incidence of postimmunization fever when it is given with other childhood vaccines. Based on data in phase 3 efficacy and safety trials, the US Food and Drug Administration has provided an indication for the use of Prevnar in children younger than 24 months.
PubMed ID
10920170 View in PubMed
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Antibody response to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine in the elderly.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature57649
Source
J Infect Dis. 1996 Feb;173(2):387-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1996
Author
U. Sankilampi
P O Honkanen
A. Bloigu
E. Herva
M. Leinonen
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Department in Oulu, Finland.
Source
J Infect Dis. 1996 Feb;173(2):387-93
Date
Feb-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antibodies, Bacterial - biosynthesis
Bacterial Capsules - immunology
Bacterial Vaccines - administration & dosage - immunology
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Immunoglobulin G - analysis
Male
Pneumococcal Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Vaccines
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sensitivity and specificity
Serotyping
Streptococcus pneumoniae - classification - immunology
Vaccination
Abstract
Antibody response to 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine was assessed in 350 subjects (131 men, 219 women) aged 65-91 years. IgG antibodies to pneumococcal serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F were measured by EIA after blocking of antibodies to cell wall polysaccharide. Antibody concentrations in both pre- and postvaccination sera (mean interval, 35 days) were higher in elderly men than women; in the women, the concentrations decreased significantly with increasing age, but not in the men. Antibody fold increases were good in the elderly, including those > or = 85 years old. The overall percentage of the elderly with antibody concentrations > 1 microgram/mL to the 6 antigens increased by vaccination from 61% to 87%, but in the women > or = 85 years old, only to 75%. Antibody response to 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine was satisfactory in the elderly.
PubMed ID
8568300 View in PubMed
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Effect of radiotherapy on the levels of secretory immunoglobulin A against indigenous and virulent streptococci.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207293
Source
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997 Nov;117(5):433-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1997
Author
T. Himi
Y. Kukuminato
H. Kita
I. Yoshioka
A. Kataura
Author Affiliation
Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Hokkaido, Japan.
Source
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997 Nov;117(5):433-7
Date
Nov-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Antigens, Bacterial - immunology
Cobalt Radioisotopes - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Epitopes - radiation effects
Follow-Up Studies
Head and Neck Neoplasms - radiotherapy
Humans
Immunoglobulin A, Secretory - immunology - radiation effects
Middle Aged
Oropharynx - immunology - microbiology
Pneumococcal Infections - immunology
Radiation Injuries - etiology
Radiopharmaceuticals - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Radiotherapy - adverse effects
Radiotherapy Dosage
Respiratory Tract Infections - etiology
Saliva - immunology - microbiology
Salivary Glands - immunology - radiation effects
Secretory Rate - radiation effects
Stomatitis - etiology
Streptococcal Infections - immunology
Streptococcus - immunology - pathogenicity
Streptococcus pneumoniae - immunology - pathogenicity
Streptococcus sanguis - immunology - pathogenicity
Virulence
Abstract
It is well known that the frequency of upper respiratory infection is clinically increased after radiotherapy of the head and neck region. This study found higher antibacterial secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) activity against three indigenous streptococci (Streptococcus mitis, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis I) and S. pneumoniae in patients who had undergone radiation therapy of the head and neck region than in control subjects. This showed no relation to the extent of the radiation field. Compared with before radiotherapy, the S-IgA titer against S. pneumoniae and its ratio to the activities against the indigenous streptococci were significantly higher in patients with fully irradiated major salivary glands. These results indicated that the radiotherapy promoted the antigen-specific S-IgA production of virulent streptococci in most patients with head and neck cancer, even more than 6 months after radiotherapy. The resulting altered balance in the S-IgA system of normal indigenous streptococci may also impair the ability to maintain the stable bacterial interference between normal indigenous and virulent streptococci in the oropharyngeal cavity.
PubMed ID
9374163 View in PubMed
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[Follow-up of patients after splenectomy at a local hospital]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature57577
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1998 May 4;160(19):2887-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-4-1998
Author
F. Ernström
J. Miskowiak
Author Affiliation
H:S Sundby Hospital, organkirurgisk afdeling.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1998 May 4;160(19):2887-9
Date
May-4-1998
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Bacterial Vaccines - administration & dosage
Denmark
English Abstract
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Middle Aged
Pneumococcal Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Splenectomy - adverse effects
Abstract
We have studied the records of 79 patients splenectomised between 1965-1995 and questioned the 39 patients still alive regarding pneumococcal immunisation and measures against infections. Fifty percent of patients operated before 1978 had still not been immunised. Twenty-four percent of the patients operated after 1978 were neither immunised at the hospital nor recommended this, and 10% had still not been immunised in 1995. Eight percent of the patients did not know that they had lost their spleen. Eighty-three percent of the patients had not been informed about measures against infection. Only 17% had penicillin available at home. We recommend that besides pneumococcal immunisation, special splenectomy cards and antibiotic prescription, splenectomised patients should be given written guidelines about dealing with infections and recommendations that pneumococcal antibody levels be controlled five years after the primary immunisation. Extraordinarily, hospitals should also inform previously splenectomised patients.
PubMed ID
9599568 View in PubMed
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Human antibodies to pneumococcal surface protein A in health and disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199354
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000 Feb;19(2):134-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2000
Author
A. Virolainen
W. Russell
M J Crain
S. Rapola
H. Käyhty
D E Briles
Author Affiliation
University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA. anni.virolainen@helsinki.fi
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000 Feb;19(2):134-8
Date
Feb-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Bacterial Proteins - immunology
Blotting, Western
Child, Preschool
Cross Reactions
Finland
Humans
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Infant
Middle Aged
Pneumococcal Infections - immunology
Streptococcus pneumoniae - immunology
Abstract
Diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae have a high impact in young children whose ability to mount antibodies to capsular polysaccharides is impaired. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a potential vaccine candidate for this age group.
We used Western blot analysis and enzyme immunoassay to study human sera of healthy adults from Alabama (n = 20) and from Finland (n = 21), healthy children from Finland (n = 20) and ill children from Finland, those with pneumococcal invasive infection (n = 26) and those with nonpneumococcal invasive infection (n = 26).
Human antibodies to PspA exhibited strong cross-reactivity among different pneumococcal strains. The geometric mean titer of IgG antibody to PspA in sera from 21 healthy adults was 4,040, from ten 3-year-old healthy children 1,080 and from ten 2-month-old healthy children 1,650. The geometric mean titer of PspA antibody of acute phase sera of children with invasive pneumococcal disease was 140, significantly (P
PubMed ID
10694000 View in PubMed
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Inadequate use of immunization to prevent severe pneumococcal infection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207772
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Aug;25(2):345-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1997

Mucosal vaccination against encapsulated respiratory bacteria--new potentials for conjugate vaccines?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30833
Source
Scand J Immunol. 2003 Aug;58(2):119-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2003
Author
H. Jakobsen
I. Jonsdottir
Author Affiliation
Department of Immunology, Landspitali-University Hospital, Hringbraut, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
Source
Scand J Immunol. 2003 Aug;58(2):119-28
Date
Aug-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Bacterial Vaccines - immunology
Child
Haemophilus Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Haemophilus Vaccines - immunology
Humans
Immunity, Mucosal - immunology
Infant
Neisseriaceae Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Vaccines - immunology
Polysaccharides, Bacterial - immunology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiratory Tract Infections - immunology - microbiology - prevention & control
Vaccines, Conjugate - immunology
Abstract
Polysaccharide (PS)-encapsulated bacteria such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), Neisseria meningitides (meningococcus) and group B streptococcus (GBS), cause a major proportion of disease in early childhood. Native PS vaccines are immunogenic and provide protection against disease in healthy adults but do not induce immunological memory. PSs are T-cell-independent antigens and do not elicit antibodies in infants and young children, but by conjugating PS to proteins they become T-cell dependent and immunogenic at an early age. Despite excellent efficacy of PS-protein conjugate vaccines against invasive disease, protection against mucosal infections such as pneumococcal otitis media has been less efficacious. Circulating PS-specific antibodies may protect against infections at mucosal sites, but mucosal immunoglobulin A antibodies may also contribute significantly to protection against mucosal infections. Mucosal immunization of experimental animals with conjugate vaccines against Hib, pneumococcus, meningococcus and GBS induces systemic and mucosal immune responses, which provide protection against carriage, otitis media and invasive disease in a variety of challenge models, providing new means for protection against encapsulated bacteria. In addition, mucosal immunization of neonatal mice with a pneumococcal conjugate and the nontoxic adjuvant LT-K63 has been superior to parenteral immunization in eliciting protective antibodies and PS-specific memory, and thus circumventing the limitations of antibody responses to PS that are responsible for enhanced susceptibility of neonates and infants to infections caused by encapsulated bacteria. Through T-cell dependent enhanced immunogenicity of PS-protein conjugate vaccines, mucosal immunization could be an attractive approach for early life immunization against encapsulated bacteria.
PubMed ID
12869132 View in PubMed
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Occurrences of antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Branhamella catarrhalis in middle ear effusion and serum during the course of acute otitis media.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37335
Source
Acta Otolaryngol. 1991;111(1):112-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
H. Karjalainen
M. Koskela
J. Luotonen
E. Herva
P. Sipilä
Author Affiliation
Department of Otolaryngology, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Acta Otolaryngol. 1991;111(1):112-9
Date
1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Antibodies, Bacterial - analysis
Antibody Specificity - immunology
Child, Preschool
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Haemophilus Infections - immunology
Haemophilus influenzae - immunology
Humans
Male
Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis - immunology
Otitis Media with Effusion - immunology - microbiology
Pneumococcal Infections - immunology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Streptococcus pneumoniae - immunology
Time Factors
Abstract
The occurrence of IgG, IgM and IgA class antibodies against a type-specific capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pn) and against a whole cell antigen of Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Branhamella catarrhalis (Br) was studied using the ELISA method on middle ear effusion (MEE) samples of 85 patients and paired serum samples of 40 patients during the course of acute otitis media (AOM). Although specific antibodies to all of these three bacteria appeared in MEE during the course of an AOM episode, antibodies against the infecting bacteria of that particular AOM episode were more often prominent. The antibodies were also detectable in the MEE without simultaneous presence in the serum. The middle ear infection was prolonged more often if specific antibodies to the infecting bacterium could not be detected in the MEE obtained at the beginning of the AOM attack. The present study indicates that AOM caused by Pn, Hi or Br may induce both a systemic and a local production of specific antibodies against the causative organisms during the course of otitis media. The occurrence of such antibodies in MEE seems to play a major role in the resolution of AOM.
PubMed ID
1901685 View in PubMed
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[Pneumococcal infection is a vaccine-preventable disease now].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141339
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2010 May-Jun;(3):102-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
V K Tatochenko
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2010 May-Jun;(3):102-8
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Bacteremia - epidemiology - prevention & control
Carrier State - immunology - microbiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Meningitis, Pneumococcal - mortality - prevention & control
Middle Aged
Pneumococcal Infections - immunology - mortality - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Vaccines - administration & dosage - immunology
Pneumonia, Pneumococcal - mortality - prevention & control
Russia - epidemiology
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Vaccination
Abstract
Analysis of pneumococcal disease burden in Russia, which is a serious threat to children's and adults' health and which was underrecognized until last decade, is presented. Extrapolating data about etiologic structure of pneumonia and meningitis on published incidence figures, we can estimate the incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia in children in Russia: 490 per 100,000 for children aged 1 month - 15 years, and 1060 per 100,000 for children aged 1 month - 4 years. For complicated forms, these figures are 90 and 181 per 100,000 respectively. Mean incidence of pneumococcal meningitis is 8 per 100,000 children aged
PubMed ID
20734728 View in PubMed
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19 records – page 1 of 2.