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Analysis of symmetrical translocations for retrospective biodosimetry in radiation workers of the Mayak nuclear-industrial complex (Southern Urals) using FISH-chromosome painting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204096
Source
Int J Radiat Biol. 1998 Oct;74(4):431-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1998
Author
K. Salassidis
H. Braselmann
N D Okladnikova
S. Pressl
G. Stephan
G. Snigiryova
M. Bauchinger
Author Affiliation
GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiobiology, Neuherberg, Germany.
Source
Int J Radiat Biol. 1998 Oct;74(4):431-9
Date
Oct-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Chromosome Aberrations
Chromosomes - radiation effects
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Female
Gamma Rays - adverse effects
Humans
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Lymphocytes
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - etiology
Occupational Diseases
Occupational Exposure
Plutonium - toxicity
Radiometry
Retrospective Studies
Russia
Translocation, Genetic - genetics
Abstract
Frequencies of symmetrical translocations were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for retrospective biodosimetry in workers occupationally exposed to external gamma-rays and internal plutonium at the Mayak nuclear-industrial complex (Southern Urals, Russia).
Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral lymphocytes from 75 Mayak workers who had received their main exposures between 1948 and 1963. Cumulative external gamma-ray doses between 0.02 and 9.91 Sv and plutonium burdens ranging between 0.26 and 18.5 kBq are reported. As controls, 33 unexposed persons from non-contaminated areas of the Southern Urals were used. Whole-chromosome painting probes for chromosomes 1, 4 and 12 were used simultaneously with a pancentromeric probe.
Compared with the control group, a significantly elevated translocation frequency was found for the total study group and for either of two subsets with (48 subjects) and without (27 subjects) plutonium incorporation. The dicentric frequency was not significantly different from the control level. In the pooled data set, translocation frequencies showed a significant dependence on cumulative external gamma-ray doses. Plutonium uptake had no substantial influence. Individual dose estimates for 21 cases exhibiting at least five translocations ranged between 0.5 and 1.8 Gy, which is substantially lower than the workers' registered personal doses.
At 35-40 years after protracted exposure to low-dose rate external gamma-rays, the postulated lifetime stability of translocations cannot be confirmed. Apparently, the natural loss of translocation-bearing peripheral lymphocytes cannot be fully compensated so that a temporal decline even of transmissible aberrations takes place. As a consequence, individual retrospective biodosimetry estimates cannot be obtained reliably from the remaining fraction of translocations.
PubMed ID
9798953 View in PubMed
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[Cerebrovascular disease incidence in workers occupationally exposed to radiation over prolonged time periods].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262584
Source
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2014;114(12):128-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
T V Azizova
M V Bannikova
M V Moseeva
E S Grigor'eva
L N Krupenina
Source
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2014;114(12):128-32
Date
2014
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Alpha Particles
Cerebrovascular Disorders - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Female
Gamma Rays
Humans
Incidence
Liver - radiation effects
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure
Plutonium - toxicity
Radiation Injuries - epidemiology
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Sex Factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
To estimate incidence rates for cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to radiation over prolonged time periods.
CVD incidence was estimated in a cohort of 22.377 workers of the nuclear facility "Mayak" Production Association over the follow-up period 1948-2008. Non standardized and standardized incidence rates were estimated. An indirect method of standardization was used for the estimates.
As of 31/12/2008, 8.717 CVD cases (5.802 men and 2.915 women) were registered in the study cohort of workers. CVD incidence in the cohort was significantly associated with sex, age, smoking, alcohol consumption (in men) and arterial hypertension. CVD incidence was increased in workers exposed to external gamma-rays at total dose above 0.5 Gy and/or to internal alpha-radiation due to incorporated plutonium at total absorbed liver dose above 0.025 Gy.
CVD incidence in the cohort of workers occupationally exposed to radiation over prolonged time periods was associated both with non-radiation and radiation factors.
PubMed ID
25726792 View in PubMed
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Comparisons of the skeletal locations of putative plutonium-induced osteosarcomas in humans with those in beagle dogs and with naturally occurring tumors in both species.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183226
Source
Radiat Res. 2003 Nov;160(5):517-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2003
Author
Scott C Miller
Ray D Lloyd
Fred W Bruenger
Melinda P Krahenbuhl
Erich Polig
Sergey A Romanov
Author Affiliation
Division of Radiobiology, Department of Radiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA. scott.miller@hsc.utah.edu
Source
Radiat Res. 2003 Nov;160(5):517-23
Date
Nov-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Animals
Bone Neoplasms - classification - epidemiology
Dogs
Femoral Neoplasms - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Metallurgy
Middle Aged
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - classification - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - classification - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Osteosarcoma - classification - epidemiology
Plutonium - toxicity
Russia - epidemiology
Species Specificity
Spinal Neoplasms - epidemiology
Survival Analysis
Abstract
Osteosarcomas occur from exposures to bone-seeking, alpha-particle-emitting isotopes, particularly plutonium. The skeletal distribution of putative 239Pu-induced osteosarcomas reported in Mayak Metallurgical and Radiochemical Plutonium Plant workers is compared with those observed in canine studies, and these are compared with distributions of naturally occurring osteosarcomas in both species. In the Mayak workers, 29% and 71% of the osteosarcomas were in the peripheral and central skeleton, respectively, with the spine having the most tumors (36%). An almost identical distribution of plutonium-induced osteosarcomas was reported for dogs injected with 239Pu as young adults. This distribution of osteosarcomas is quite different from the distributions of naturally occurring osteosarcomas for both species. In the Cooperative Osteosarcoma Study Group in humans (1,736 osteosarcomas from all ages), over 91% of the tumors occurred in the peripheral skeleton. In the Mayo Clinic group of older individuals (>40 years old), over 60% of the osteosarcomas appeared in the peripheral skeleton. The distribution of naturally occurring osteosarcomas in the canine is similar to that in the adult human. The similarities of the distributions of plutonium-associated osteosarcomas in the Mayak workers with those found in experimental studies suggest that many of the reported osteosarcomas may have been associated with plutonium exposures. These results also support the experimental paradigm that plutonium osteosarcomas have a preference for well vascularized cancellous bone sites. These sites have a greater initial deposition of plutonium, but also greater turnover due to elevated bone remodeling rates.
PubMed ID
14565831 View in PubMed
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Environment. Russia's forest fires ignite concerns about Chornobyl's legacy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141589
Source
Science. 2010 Aug 13;329(5993):738-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-13-2010

Issues in the comparison of risk estimates for the population in the Techa River region and atomic bomb survivors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature208095
Source
Radiat Res. 1997 Jul;148(1):54-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1997
Author
M M Kossenko
M O Degteva
O V Vyushkova
D L Preston
K. Mabuchi
V P Kozheurov
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Medgorodok, Russian Federation.
Source
Radiat Res. 1997 Jul;148(1):54-63
Date
Jul-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Leukemia, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Male
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - etiology - mortality
Nuclear Warfare
Plutonium - toxicity
Radioactive Hazard Release
Risk assessment
Russia
Sex Factors
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - toxicity
Abstract
Plutonium production in the former Soviet Union began in 1949 at the Mayak Production Association located between the cities of Chelyabinsk and Ekaterinbourg in the southern Ural mountains about 1200 km east to Moscow. During the first few years of Mayak's operation, almost 30,000 people living on the banks of the Techa River received significant internal and external exposures as a consequence of the release of large quantities of radioactive materials from Mayak. Studies of levels of radioactive contamination and health effects in this population began in the early 1950s. A systematic follow-up of a fixed cohort that includes all people who were living in Techa River villages in 1949 was begun about 30 years ago. In this paper we describe the Techa River cohort, outline the nature of the exposures and discuss the status of follow-up for the period from 1950 through 1989. While noting the limitations of the current epidemiological follow-up data, we also compare the demographic and mortality structure of the Techa River cohort with the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. It is seen that, despite a number of limitations, the current data suggest that the risks of mortality from leukemia and other cancers increase with increasing radiation dose in the Techa River cohort. This finding suggests that, with continued improvements in the quality of the follow-up and dosimetry, the Techa River cohort has the potential to provide quantitative estimates of the risks of chronic low-dose-rate radiation exposures for an unselected general population that will be an important complement to the estimates based on the Life Span Study that are used as the primary basis for numerical assessments of radiation risk.
PubMed ID
9216619 View in PubMed
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Lung cancer mortality among male nuclear workers of the Mayak facilities in the former Soviet Union.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198202
Source
Radiat Res. 2000 Jul;154(1):3-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2000
Author
M. Kreisheimer
N A Koshurnikova
E. Nekolla
V F Khokhryakov
S A Romanow
M E Sokolnikov
N S Shilnikova
P V Okatenko
A M Kellerer
Author Affiliation
Radiobiological Institute, University of Munich, Germany.
Source
Radiat Res. 2000 Jul;154(1):3-11
Date
Jul-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alpha Particles - adverse effects
Cohort Studies
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology - mortality
Male
Models, Statistical
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - chemically induced - mortality
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Diseases - mortality
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Plutonium - toxicity
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
An analysis of lung cancer mortality in a cohort of 1,669 Mayak workers who started their employment in the plutonium and reprocessing plants between 1948 and 1958 has been carried out in terms of a relative risk model. Particular emphasis has been given to a discrimination of the effects of external gamma-ray exposure and internal alpha-particle exposure due to incorporated plutonium. This study has also used the information from a cohort of 2,172 Mayak reactor workers who were exposed only to external gamma rays. The baseline lung cancer mortality rate has not been taken from national statistics but has been derived from the cohort itself. For both alpha particles and gamma rays, the results of the analysis are consistent with linear dose dependences. The estimated excess relative risk per unit organ dose equivalent in the lung due to the plutonium alpha particles at age 60 equals, according to the present study, 0.6/Sv, with a radiation weighting factor of 20 for alpha particles. The 95% confidence range is 0.39/Sv to 1.0/Sv. For the gamma-ray component, the present analysis suggests an excess relative risk for lung cancer mortality at age 60 of 0.20/Sv, with, however, a large 95% confidence range of-0.04/Sv to 0.69/Sv.
PubMed ID
10856959 View in PubMed
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Lung cancer risks from plutonium: an updated analysis of data from the Mayak worker cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116503
Source
Radiat Res. 2013 Mar;179(3):332-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
E S Gilbert
M E Sokolnikov
D L Preston
S J Schonfeld
A E Schadilov
E K Vasilenko
N A Koshurnikova
Author Affiliation
Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20852, USA. gilberte@mail.nih.gov
Source
Radiat Res. 2013 Mar;179(3):332-42
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Carcinogens - toxicity
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - etiology
Male
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - etiology
Occupational Exposure
Plutonium - toxicity
Risk factors
Russia
Smoking
Young Adult
Abstract
Workers at the Mayak nuclear facility in the Russian Federation offer a unique opportunity to evaluate health risks from exposure to inhaled plutonium. Risks of mortality from lung cancer, the most serious carcinogenic effect of plutonium, were evaluated in 14,621 Mayak workers who were hired in the period from 1948-1982, followed for at least 5 years, and either monitored for plutonium or never worked with plutonium. Over the follow-up period from 1953-2008, there were 486 deaths from lung cancer, 446 of them in men. In analyses that were adjusted for external radiation dose and smoking, the plutonium excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy declined with attained age and was higher for females than for males. The ERR per Gy for males at age 60 was 7.4 (95% CI: 5.0-11) while that for females was 24 (95% CI: 11-56). When analyses were restricted to plutonium doses
Notes
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PubMed ID
23391147 View in PubMed
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Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146964
Source
Health Phys. 2010 Jan;98(1):42-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Dulaney A Wilson
Lawrence C Mohr
G Donald Frey
Daniel Lackland
David G Hoel
Author Affiliation
Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Epidemiology, 135 Cannon Street, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. Dulaney.Wilson@pnl.gov
Source
Health Phys. 2010 Jan;98(1):42-52
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants, Radioactive - toxicity
Animals
Bone Neoplasms - mortality
Cohort Studies
Disease Models, Animal
Dogs
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Female
Humans
Liver Neoplasms - mortality
Lung Neoplasms - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - mortality
Nitrates - toxicity
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure
Plutonium - toxicity
Radionuclide Generators
Registries
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by providing more specific data than is possible in human observational studies. Lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort were compared to those seen in beagle dogs, and models of the excess relative risk of lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality from the MPA worker cohort were applied to data from life-span studies of beagle dogs. The lung cancer mortality rate ratios in beagle dogs are similar to those seen in the MPA worker cohort. At cumulative doses less than 3 Gy, the liver cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort are statistically similar to those in beagle dogs. Bone cancer mortality only occurred in MPA workers with doses over 10 Gy. In dogs given (239)Pu, the adjusted excess relative risk of lung cancer mortality per Gy was 1.32 (95% CI 0.56-3.22). The liver cancer mortality adjusted excess relative risk per Gy was 55.3 (95% CI 23.0-133.1). The adjusted excess relative risk of bone cancer mortality per Gy(2) was 1,482 (95% CI 566.0-5686). Models of lung cancer mortality based on MPA worker data with additional covariates adequately described the beagle dog data, while the liver and bone cancer models were less successful.
PubMed ID
19959950 View in PubMed
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Radiation effects on mortality from solid cancers other than lung, liver, and bone cancer in the Mayak worker cohort: 1948-2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269427
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(2):e0117784
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Mikhail Sokolnikov
Dale Preston
Ethel Gilbert
Sara Schonfeld
Nina Koshurnikova
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(2):e0117784
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Female
Gamma Rays
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Plutonium - toxicity
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Siberia
Abstract
Radiation effects on mortality from solid cancers other than lung, liver, and bone cancer in the Mayak worker cohort: 1948-2008. The cohort of Mayak Production Association (PA) workers in Russia offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of prolonged low dose rate external gamma exposures and exposure to plutonium in a working age population. We examined radiation effects on the risk of mortality from solid cancers excluding sites of primary plutonium deposition (lung, liver, and bone surface) among 25,757 workers who were first employed in 1948-1982. During the period 1948-2008, there were 1,825 deaths from cancers other than lung, liver and bone. Using colon dose as a representative external dose, a linear dose response model described the data well. The excess relative risk per Gray for external gamma exposure was 0.16 (95% CI: 0.07 - 0.26) when unadjusted for plutonium exposure and 0.12 (95% CI 0.03 - 0.21) when adjusted for plutonium dose and monitoring status. There was no significant effect modification by sex or attained age. Plutonium exposure was not significantly associated with the group of cancers analyzed after adjusting for monitoring status. Site-specific risks were uncertainly estimated but positive for 13 of the 15 sites evaluated with a statistically significant estimate only for esophageal cancer. Comparison with estimates based on the acute exposures in atomic bomb survivors suggests that the excess relative risk per Gray for prolonged external exposure in Mayak workers may be lower than that for acute exposure but, given the uncertainties, the possibility of equal effects cannot be dismissed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25719381 View in PubMed
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A repository of bio-specimens from Mayak workers exposed to protracted radiation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170502
Source
Health Phys. 2006 Mar;90(3):263-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2006
Author
Klara Muksinova
Evgenia N Kirillova
Maria L Zakharova
Valentina S Revina
Ruth Neta
Author Affiliation
Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Russian Federation.
Source
Health Phys. 2006 Mar;90(3):263-5
Date
Mar-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Autopsy
B-Lymphocytes - radiation effects
Biopsy
Body Burden
Cohort Studies
DNA - radiation effects
Databases, Factual
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Erythrocytes - radiation effects
Humans
Internet
Leukemia, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Lymphocytes - radiation effects
Neoplasms - epidemiology - radionuclide imaging
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure
Plutonium - toxicity
Radiometry - methods
Russia
Abstract
A repository of bio-specimens that includes organs from 700 deceased workers employed at the first nuclear weapons facility "Mayak" and donations of blood, buccal cells, and tissues removed at the time of surgery and/or biopsy from the members of the Mayak cohort undergoing medical treatment or diagnostic procedures has been established at the Southern Ural Biophysics Institute, in Ozyorsk, Russian Federation. The autopsied tissues include formaline-preserved organs, paraffin blocks, and histology slides. For all, occupational, dosimetry, and detailed medical information is available. For 359 individuals, information on malignant tumors, i.e., lung (171), stomach (51), liver (28), and intestine (19), as well as 32 cases of leukemia, are available. External gamma exposures are known for 95% of the 700 autopsies, of whom 560 were exposed to protracted doses exceeding 0.5 Gy, with known maximum annual doses ranging from 0.01-0.5 Gy for about 46%, and annual doses exceeding 0.5 Gy for 48%. Plutonium body burden is known for 73%, of which 40% had body burden greater than 1.5 kBq, and 15% of individuals had body burdens greater than 11.85 kBq. Newly collected specimens include frozen lymphocytes, EBV-immortalized B-cells, frozen erythrocytes, and DNA as well as frozen tumors. Donations were obtained to date from more than 1,600 individuals. For these donors external doses of exposure exceeded 0.5 Gy for 83%, and plutonium body burden exceeded 1.48 kBq for 30%. A Web site describing the Repository that also includes forms for tissue requests can be accessed at http://www.subi.ru/RHTR.
PubMed ID
16505624 View in PubMed
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13 records – page 1 of 2.