In a study of 1,251 persons with asbestos-related pleural and parenchymal changes, 16 had slowly progressive changes of the upper lobes, involving both pleura and parenchyma, with shrinkage of the lobes. In addition there were 41 cases with less advanced apical changes. Tuberculosis and other possible causes were excluded. It is hypothesized that the changes rate due to asbestos disease.
In the 3-year period 1987-1989, 219 drowning cases were submitted to medico-legal autopsy in Denmark. The demographic data including the manner of death and the external findings are reported. In 74 accident cases analysis for blood-alcohol concentration was performed. In 53% a concentration of more than 0.1% was found. In 91 drowning cases (age more than 18 years and where the time interval in the water was less than 24 h) the average weight of both lungs was 1.411 g, compared to 994 g in 20 control cases. In 7% of the drowning cases the weight was less than 1.000 g, so called dry lungs. Finally the weight of the lungs and the amount of pleural transsudate in relation to the time interval in the water were registered in 198 cases. For a longer time interval in the water the weight of the lungs decreased, while the amount of pleural transsudate increased. By adding these two parameters, the combined weight was between 1.000 and 2.200 g in more than 75% of the cases as long as the interval in the water was less than 30 days.
The cancer morbidity in 3787 shipyard workers was studied between 1978 and 1983. In these shipyards the use of asbestos was abandoned in 1972. The overall cancer morbidity was found to be similar to that of the male population of the same city, but there were four cases of mesothelioma. There were 11 cases of lung cancer, as opposed to 9.8 expected cases. Men with both heavy and long exposure to asbestos had no increased risk of lung cancer. The occurrence of pleural plaques was not associated with the risk of developing cancer.
Erratum In: Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1987;59(6):623
The findings of a previous chest X-ray screening, determined without using standardized criteria, were reassessed by means of the ILO classification. Of 470 radiographs that had been determined as showing asbestos-related changes, 430 were categorized according to the ILO Classification. Small opacities with profusion greater than or equal to 1/0 were described in 39 (52%) of 75 participants who, on the original clinical reading, had been determined as having lung fibrosis, and in 45 (12.7%) of 355 who were determined as having pleural changes only. When considering circumscribed pleural thickening at the chest wall or diaphragm, as categorized by the ILO Classification, such changes were present in 401 (93.7%) of 428 subjects with pleural changes as determined on the clinical reading. In addition to the improved sensitivity and specificity achieved, the ILO Classification also allows comparison with other studies. The most apparent disadvantage of the ILO system is that it cannot firmly separate the various types of asbestos-related pleural changes. The study revealed that the previous asbestos exposure of the case subjects had occurred in many different workplaces and occupations.
The experience of the US/Canadian Mesothelioma Panel with its first 200 cases is reviewed. The light microscopic diagnosis, histochemical findings, immunohistochemical findings, and electron microscopic features of malignant mesotheliomas are reviewed in the context of differential diagnosis. Reasons for referral of case material to the panel and lessons from follow-up of difficult and controversial cases are reported. Recommendations to general pathologists are made regarding evaluation and review of possible mesotheliomas.
The paper presents the European multicentric case-control study on risk for mesothelioma after non-occupational (domestic and environmental) exposure to asbestos. The study includes eight centres in seven European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Italy, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland). It is focused on the measurement of mesothelioma risk in relation to low intensity exposure to asbestos and to exposure to MMMF and other agents. It includes incident cases of pleural malignant mesothelioma (histologically diagnosed and verified) and a random sample of the population.
In this study we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a set of normal pleural mesothelial tissues, malignant mesotheliomas, mesothelioma cell lines and metastatic pleural adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, the expression of mRNA was assessed in four malignant mesothelioma cell lines in culture. Apoptosis and vascular density in malignant mesotheliomas was assessed by the TUNEL method and by immunohistochemistry with an antibody against FVIII-related antigen. Immunohistochemically mesothelial cells in non-neoplastic healthy pleural tissues were mostly negative for iNOS. Positivity for iNOS was observed in 28/38 (74%) and 24/25 (96%) of malignant mesotheliomas and metastatic pleural adenocarcinomas, respectively. Epithelial and mixed mesotheliomas expressed more often strong iNOS immunoreactivity compared to the sarcomatoid subtype (P = 0.023). Moreover, metastatic adenocarcinomas expressed more often iNOS positivity than mesotheliomas (P = 0.021). Experiments with the cell lines confirmed that malignant mesothelioma cells are capable of synthesizing iNOS. No significant association was found between iNOS expression and apoptosis or vascular density in malignant mesotheliomas. The higher expression of iNOS in the epithelial subtype of mesothelioma and pleural metastatic adenocarcinoma might be due to an increased sensitivity of these cell types to cytokine-mediated iNOS upregulation. The strong expression of iNOS suggests a putative role for NO in the growth and progression of these tumours.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether long-term exposure to wollastonite causes fibrosis of the lung and pleura in humans.
Forty-nine workers (mean exposure 25 years) in a Finnish limestone-wollastonite mine and mill were examined. Their work histories and symptoms of chronic bronchitis were recorded. The chest radiographs were classified according to the classification of the International Labour Office (1980); a radiographic follow-up from 1981 to 1990 was included. Spirometry and diffusion capacity were measured. Four workers underwent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Lung tissue specimens were available for 2 workers. Mineral fibers and asbestos bodies were analyzed from the BAL fluid and lung tissue specimens, which were also analyzed for lung fibrosis.
Two workers (4%) had small irregular lung opacities (ILO 1/0), 1 worker (2%) ILO 0/1 of the s/t type. HRCT revealed no parenchymal fibrosis in the 2 workers with the ILO 1/0 classification. Of the 9 workers (18%) with pleural plaques, 5 had been exposed to asbestos. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed no association of plaques with the duration of wollastonite or asbestos exposure. Wollastonite fibers or bodies were not found in any of the 4 workers who underwent BAL, nor in either of the workers whose lung tissue specimens were available.
No evidence was found that long-term exposure to wollastonite causes parenchymal fibrosis of the lung and pleura. Furthermore, the findings indicate that wollastonite fibers are poorly retained in human lungs.
How detection of patients with tuberculous pleurisy is organized in the Voronezh Region in the period of 1979 to 2003 was studied. Tuberculous pleurisy was diagnosed in 2681 (31.73%) of 8450 patients with pleural effusion of diverse etiology. A package of necessary studies was determined for the verification of the diagnosis. It is suggested that it is expedient to establish a pleural pathology unit at a tuberculosis hospital for enhancement of the efficiency of diagnosis and verification of tuberculous pleuritis.