PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence and ocular effects of blunt trauma due to injury from airsoft gun pellets. METHODS: We conducted a non-comparative case series based on the files of 33 patients who suffered ocular injury from airsoft guns and were admitted to one university emergency eye clinic in Copenhagen during a 5-year period. RESULTS: A total of 33 eyes in 33 patients were examined. Thirty male and three female patients were affected. Mean age was 13 years (range 3-49 years). Mean follow-up time was 6.5 days (range 1-540 days). On initial examination, we found: hyphaema (n = 28), corneal abrasion (n = 22), retinal oedema (n = 11), subconjunctival haemorrhage (n = 10), palpebral haemorrhage and/or oedema (n = 9), iris dialysis (n = 7), intraocular pressure (IOP) > 31 mmHg (n = 4), IOP
The paper describes the epidemiology of accidents caused by inflatable bouncers. The estimated number of bouncers and bouncing castles in DK was 300-350 in 1993. The data were extracted from the Danish part of the EHLASS project ("the European Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System). The project registers injuries in five Danish casualty wards, covering a total uptake area of 14.2% of the Danish population. In 1993, there were 91 injuries caused by inflatable bouncers, 37% of them in boys, and 63% in girls. Seventy-nine percent of the injuries were caused by falling, 19% by contact with an object or another person and 2% stress injuries. The type of injury were: bruises 42%, fractures 31%, distorsions 23%, and tendon/muscle strains 3%. The location of the fractures were: one in the spine, two in the clavicle, all other (25) were located in the limbs. Four patients had to be admitted for further observation or treatment. The average cost per injury was 839 dKr., or aprox 150 US$. It does not seem necessary to take special precautions or make restrictions in the use of this new playground article.
INTRODUCTION: This paper analyses the development in the incidence of injuries in day care institutions for children below school age in Denmark 1989-1997. MATERIAL: Data on injuries were collected from the injury register, which covers around 15 per cent of the Danish population. The population data derive from Statistics Denmark. METHOD: Incidence patterns were analysed by means of linear regressions and comparisons of means. RESULTS: Injuries in day care institutions for children below school age have increased sharply during the 1990s. In children aged 1-6, the 3-6-year-olds had a higher incidence and the boys a significantly higher incidence of injury than the girls. DISCUSSION: The increase in injuries is to some extent explained by a higher attendance at day care institutions. The hypothesis that the rising incidence is partly due to an increase in the tendency to seek emergency department treatment in the event of minor injuries cannot be ruled out, as minor injuries almost solely account for the rise.
High rates of mental health problems, such as suicidal behaviours, among First Nations youth in Canada are a major public health concern. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a school-based intervention that provides a nurturing environment for children and has been shown to promote positive outcomes. PAX Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG) is an adaptation and enhancement of the GBG. While PAX GBG has been implemented in Indigenous communities, little research exists examining the cultural and contextual appropriateness and effectiveness of the intervention in First Nations communities.
The present paper describes a protocol of the mixed-methods approach guided by an Indigenous ethical engagement model adopted to implement, adapt and evaluate PAX GBG in First Nations communities in Manitoba, Canada. First, implementation outcomes (eg, acceptability, adoption) of PAX GBG will be evaluated using qualitative interviews with teachers, principals and community members from Swampy Cree Tribal Council (SCTC) communities. Second, by linking administrative databases to programme data from schools in 38 First Nations communities, we will compare PAX GBG and control groups to evaluate whether PAX GBG is associated with improved mental health and academic outcomes. Third, the qualitative results will help inform a cultural and contextual adaptation of PAX GBG called First Nations PAX (FN PAX). Fourth, FN PAX will be implemented in a few SCTC communities and evaluated using surveys and qualitative interviews followed by the remaining communities the subsequent year.
Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Manitoba Health Research Ethics Board and will be obtained from the Health Information Privacy Committee and respective data providers for the administrative database linkages. Dissemination and knowledge translation will include community and stakeholder engagement throughout the research process, reports and presentations for policymakers and community members, presentations at scientific conferences and journal publications.