Inflammation and infection postpartum threaten the mother and her infant. Human milk provides a defense for the infant, but inflammatory complications like mastitis may lead to the cessation of breastfeeding. Antisecretory factor (AF) has a role in the regulation of secretory processes and inflammation. The objective of the study was to describe AF-levels in plasma and breast milk, and in relation to breast complications. Breastfeeding mothers (n = 95) were consecutively recruited at a Well Baby Clinic in Umeå, Sweden. At inclusion four weeks postpartum, samples of venous blood (10 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected. Active AF was analyzed with ELISA using a monoclonal antibody mAb43, and was detected in all samples of plasma and breast milk with a positive correlation (Spearman coefficient = 0.40, p
Blood GABA level was studied in children with thyroid disorders. Increase of GABA level was revealed in thyroid hyperplasia (11 degrees) and euthyroid goiters; in blood of children with diffuse toxic goiter there changes are much more significant. In children with thyroid cancer dramatic increase of GABA content was observed; in the nearest time following thyroidectomy blood GABA level decreased to low values, several mouths later it became normal, in a year and more it became elevated again. In blood from three children with congenital hypothyrosis the level of the mediator was decreased; no changes in GABA level were observed in children with autoimmune thyroiditis. Two hours after falling asleep blood GABA content lowered both in normal children and those with euthyroid goiter and thyroid cancer. The mediator level elevated sharply after finishing physical exercises in normal children and those with euthyroid goiter, while in children with thyroid cancer response of GABAergic system to physical exercises was opposite and in operated children it was absent.
The thrombin generation assay-calibrated automated thrombogram (TGA-CAT) method is used to measure the overall coagulation capacity in plasma. However, the method is still considered to be a research tool, mainly because of its' lack of standardization.
Our study aimed to further raise the standardization level for the TGA-CAT method by evaluating a detailed standardization protocol and three reference plasmas' (RP)s ability to normalize results.
Six Nordic centres participated in the study, and with input from all centres a detailed laboratory standardization protocol based on the TGA-CAT manual of the manufacturer was established. Three types of plasma, hypo-,normal and hypercoagulable plasma were assessed. Three commercial lyophilized RPs were used for normalization of data. All samples were aliquoted at the Malmö centre and sent frozen at -20°C to participating centres.
Before normalization, all results under all testing conditions showed inter-laboratory coefficient of variability of 10% or lower except for endogenous thrombin potential (12%) and peak (14%) in hypo-plasma with 1 pmol/L tissue factor as starting agent. Successful normalization, improving variability in results, was obtained with two of the three evaluated RPs (HemosIL RP and Affinity RP).
With our standardization concept, we were able to produce TGA-CAT results as robust as standard coagulation assays used in the routine laboratories. Normalization with HemosIL RP may be considered in populations with low or unknown coagulability, while when analysing plasma samples from populations where hypercoagulability is known or suspected, normalization with Affinity RP may be preferred.
Activating mutations in the GUCY2C gene, which encodes the epithelial receptor guanylate cyclase C, cause diarrhea due to increased loss of sodium chloride to the intestinal lumen. Patients with familial GUCY2C diarrhea syndrome (FGDS) are predisposed to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated whether genes in the guanylate cyclase C pathway are enriched for association with IBD and reversely whether genetic or transcriptional changes associated with IBD are found in FGDS patients.
(1) A set of 27 genes from the guanylate cyclase C pathway was tested for enrichment of association with IBD by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, using genome-wide association summary statistics from 12,882 IBD patients and 21,770 controls. (2) We genotyped 163 known IBD risk loci and sequenced NOD2 in 22 patients with FGDS. Eight of them had concomitant Crohn's disease. (3) Global gene expression analysis was performed in ileal tissue from patients with FGDS, Crohn's disease and healthy individuals.
The guanylate cyclase C gene set showed a significant enrichment of association in IBD genome-wide association data. Risk variants in NOD2 were found in 7/8 FGDS patients with concomitant Crohn's disease and in 2/14 FDGS patients without Crohn's disease. In ileal tissue, downregulation of metallothioneins characterized FGDS patients compared to healthy controls.
Our results support a role of guanylate cyclase C signaling and disturbed electrolyte homeostasis in development of IBD. Furthermore, downregulation of metallothioneins in the ileal mucosa of FGDS patients may contribute to IBD development, possibly alongside effects from NOD2 risk variants.
The duration of hypo-osmoregulatory capacity in downstream migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L smolts previously stocked as startfed young-of-the year (YOY) parr was tested in the River Dalåa from mid-May to late-June 1999. Hypo-osmoregulatory capacity, measured as plasma osmolality and chloride, was assessed after seawater (SW) challenge tests (168 h, salinity = 35). All S. salar exhibited sufficient hypo-osmoregulatory capacity at the initiation of downstream migration in mid-May. Migrating S. salar smolts caught in mid-May and retained in fresh water displayed no signs of de-smoltification as they maintained hypo-osmoregulatory capacity through June. This indicates a physiological smolt window that lasts a minimum of 6 weeks (330 degree days; D°) for hatchery-produced S. salar smolts stocked as YOY parr. Based on the observed river migration speeds, it can be assumed that the S. salar smolts entered SW 2-4 weeks after initiation of migration in the upper parts of the River Dalåa. Hence, based on smolt migration and SW tolerance, it is suggested that stocking of YOY parr is a viable enhancement strategy in the River Dalåa.
Overall, there is good correlation between glucose values obtained from ear capillary blood and those from peripheral venous plasma, but there are considerable individual differences. Results obtained with these two methods are generally not interchangeable and the converted values should not be used in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, because of the risk of misclassification. In Denmark this can affect 20-24000 persons. The aim of our study was to investigate whether these differences might be less significant if measurements were taken at the plasma phase of capillary blood and expressed directly as capillary plasma results and if finger capillary blood were used instead of ear capillary blood. The Hitachi 717 instrument was used for measurements of glucose concentrations in venous plasma, the Cobas Mira S in capillary whole blood and the Accu-Chek Inform from Roche in capillary plasma. The conclusions drawn were (1) capillary ear blood glucose concentration correlates well with capillary finger blood concentration and the two sites can be used interchangeably, yielding similar results in the individual patient; (2) sampling variation is almost the same (approx. 0.16 mmol/L) on capillary plasma and capillary whole blood from finger and ear. Sampling variation for venous plasma measured on the Hitachi instrument was 0.13 mmol/L; not significantly better; (3) the analytical imprecision of glucose measurements on capillary plasma (Accu-Chek Inform) and capillary whole blood (haemolysate method) is almost the same (approx. 2.0%). The analytical imprecision of glucose measurements on venous plasma is 0.9% using a laboratory method and almost twice as high using Accu-Chek Inform (2.1%); (4) determination of capillary plasma values in the finger did not improve the correlation with venous plasma values. Even though average values were in better concordance, individual differences did not change. For some persons, both ear- and finger capillary blood measurements deviate significantly from results on venous plasma, such that they cannot be used for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus; (5) the main factor for good correlation is the sampling site. Results obtained on plasma and whole blood from the same puncture correlate well; (6) neither capillary blood nor capillary plasma correlates with the venous plasma method recommended by the American Diabetes Association. It is concluded that physiologic differences in glucose content in capillary- and venous blood prohibit the random use of these two materials in the diagnosis of diabetes.
A previous study has shown effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) to stimulate weight loss and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obese Danish women and men in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. This work demonstrates long-term metabolic effects of the NND as compared with an Average Danish Diet (ADD) in blood plasma and reveals associations between metabolic changes and health beneficial effects of the NND including weight loss. A total of 145 individuals completed the intervention and blood samples were taken along with clinical examinations before the intervention started (week 0) and after 12 and 26 weeks. The plasma metabolome was measured using GC-MS, and the final metabolite table contained 144 variables. Significant and novel metabolic effects of the diet, resulting weight loss, gender, and intervention study season were revealed using PLS-DA and ASCA. Several metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects, higher levels of vaccenic acid and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic, and N-aspartic acids and 1,5-anhydro-d-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy diets high in fish, vegetables, fruit, and whole grain facilitated weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing ketosis and gluconeogenesis in the fasting state.
The usefulness of proton NMR spectroscopy of human blood plasma for cancer research has been extensively studied in recent years. Two main starting points have been offered by Fossel et al. (N. Engl. J. Med. 315, 1369 (1986)) and Mountford et al. (FEBS Lett. 203, 164 (1986)). In this work the experimental proton NMR spectra of blood plasma were analyzed with the aid of the multivariate lineshape fitting method. An appropriate model structure, in terms of the various lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, and HDL) signals, for the methylene region was used. Neonates, healthy adults, and adults with nonmalignant and malignant tumors were studied. The linewidth of the methylene region was found to be linearly dependent on the relative concentrations of the lipoproteins. The correlation coefficient was -0.89 (P less than 0.001) for VLDL and 0.88 (P less than 0.001) for HDL. A correlation between VLDL concentration and age, 0.76 (P less than 0.001), was also established. VLDL was modeled using two components. The half-linewidth of the lower field component was slightly elevated for the adults with large metastases. This might be in association with the fucose-containing proteolipid complex detected earlier in cancer cells or in sera of cancer patients. Some signals of this complex may fall in the same region of the spectra. The spectra for the neonates were indicated to be totally different from the adults. This and other related questions were explained by means of the model parameters and the relative concentrations of the lipoproteins VLDL, LDL, and HDL. The presented technique can be used as a rapid research tool for figuring out the relative concentrations of the lipoproteins in blood plasma and explaining the reasons behind the changes in the spectra.
BACKGROUND: Long-term frozen storage may alter the results of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements, mainly because of degradation of free PSA (fPSA) in vitro. We compared the effects of long-term storage on fPSA, total PSA (tPSA), and complexed PSA (cPSA) in serum vs EDTA-plasma samples. METHODS: We measured fPSA and tPSA concentrations in matched pairs of archival serum and EDTA-plasma samples (stored frozen at -20 degrees C for 20 years) from a large population-based cohort in Malmö, Sweden. We also compared concentrations in age-matched men with those in samples not subjected to long-term storage, obtained from participants in a population-based study of prostate cancer screening in Göteborg, Sweden. These contemporary samples were handled according to standardized preanalytical and analytical protocols aimed at minimizing in vitro degradation. tPSA and fPSA measurements were performed with a commercial assay (Prostatus Dual Assay; Perkin-Elmer Life Sciences). RESULTS: Concentrations of tPSA and fPSA and calculated cPSA (tPSA - fPSA) in archival plasma were not significantly different from those in contemporary serum from age-matched men. In archival serum, however, random variability of fPSA was higher vs plasma than in contemporary samples, whereas systematic error of fPSA analyses was similarly small in archival and contemporary serum and plasma. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of tPSA and calculated cPSA were highly stable in plasma and serum samples subjected to long-term storage at -20 degrees C. Greater random variability, rather than a systematic decrease, may explain differences in fPSA analyses observed in archival serum.
Global climate changes are magnified in the Arctic and are having an especially dramatic effect on the spatial and temporal distribution and the thickness traits of sea ice. Decline of Arctic sea ice may lead to qualitative and/or quantitative changes in diet and reduced body condition (i.e. adipose tissue stores) of ice-associated apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). This may further affect their tissue concentrations of lipophilic pollutants. We determined how variations in adipose tissue stores associated to both breeding status and spatial changes in sea ice conditions and diet influence concentrations and biotransformation of lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We collected 112 blood and fat samples from female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of different breeding status (alone, with cubs of the year, or with yearlings) during two seasons (April and September) in 2012 and 2013 at three locations of Svalbard, Norway, with contrasted sea ice conditions. We inferred diet from nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios in red blood cells and fatty acid composition in adipose tissue. Relative to diet, body condition, which was negatively related to sea ice extent at both temporal and spatial scales, was the most important predictor for concentrations of POPs in plasma and fat, whereas diet showed a minor influence. Additionally, fatter females were more efficient at biotransforming PCBs than were leaner ones. Breeding status influenced the concentrations of less lipophilic compounds such as ß-hexachlorocyclohexane, which were lower in females with yearlings, probably due to excretion into milk and subsequent offloading to young. In conclusion, our results indicate that declining sea ice indirectly leads to increased concentrations of lipophilic pollutants in polar bears mediated through reduced feeding opportunities and declining body condition rather than changes in diet composition.
ErratumIn: Sci Total Environ. 2017 Oct 1;595:818 PMID 28411564