The dynamics of the acid and neutral proteinases general enzymes activity change in the hepatocytes postnuclear fraction in the rats suffering from the Heren's carcinoma was investigated. It was determined that in the tumor development of the enzyme activity level of both the acid and neutral proteinases increased 2,6-fold. The natural preparation of the herbs (Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea L., Scorzonera humilis L., Aconitum moldavicum Hacq.) normalizes both the activity of the investigated enzymes and coefficients of the liver weights of the sick animals. The chemical medicinal preparation 5,6-benzcumarine-5-uracil normalizes the activity of the neutral cytoplasmatic proteinases and reduces the level of the proteolytic activity of the acid enzymes in comparison with the control group of the animals as well as increases of the liver weight coefficients.
Repeated prophylactic administration of plant adaptogen preparations based on extracts from rhodiola, eleutherococcus, leuzea, and ginseng, produced a pronounced antiarrhythmic effect on the model of adrenal arrhythmia in animals. Preliminary opioid receptor block by naloxone reduced the protective effect of phytopreparations in the adapted animals. Intravenous and intracerebroventricular administration of naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist) showed that the anti-arrhythmic effect of rhodiola extract proceeds through the activation of both central and peripheral opioid receptors.
The use of medicinal plants in the world, and especially in South Africa, contributes significantly to primary health care. This paper presents the findings of an initial survey of plants used for the treatment of wounds in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Ethnomedical information gathered from surveys at clinics, hospitals as well as interviews with traditional healers and rural dwellers has revealed that Grewia occidentalis, Polystichum pungens, Cheilanthes viridis and Malva parvifolia are the most commonly used plants for the treatment of wounds in the province. The methanol extracts of G. occidentalis, P. pungens and C. viridis showed significant inhibition against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, while the acetone extract of P. pungens inhibited the gram-positive bacteria only. Extracts from M. parvifolia did not show any antibacterial activity at 5.0 mg/ml. Generally, the antibacterial property of the plants appears to have justified their use for the treatment of wounds, which are contaminated through bacterial infection, in the province.
One hundred methanolic plant extracts, 96 of which had documented medicinal uses by British Columbian native peoples, were screened for antibiotic activity against 11 bacterial strains. Eighty-five percent were found to have significant antibiotic activity against at least two of the bacteria tested. Ninety-five percent of the plants categorized as potential antibiotics based on their ethnobotanical usage were found to exhibit significant antibiotic activity. Seventy-five were found to be active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 46 were active against an antibiotic supersusceptible strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 18 of these were also active against a wild type strain. The extracts with the broadest spectra of activity were prepared from: Alnus rubra bark and catkins, Fragaria chiloensis leaves, Moneses uniflora aerial parts, and Rhus glabra branches.
Justicia spicigera is a plant species used for the Teenak (Huesteca Potosina) and Mayan (Yucatan peninsula) indigenous for the empirical treatment of diabetes, infections and as stimulant.
To evaluate the cytotoxicity, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of J. spicigera.
The effects of ethanolic extracts of J. spicigera (JSE) on the glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine 3T3-F442A and human subcutaneous adipocytes was evaluated. The antioxidant activities of the extract of JSE was determined by ABTS and DPPH methods. Additionally, it was evaluated the antidiabetic properties of JSE on T2DM model.
JSE stimulated 2-NBDG uptake by insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant human and murine adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner with higher potency than rosiglitazone 1mM. JSE showed antioxidant effects in vitro and induced glucose lowering effects in normoglycemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats.
The antidiabetic effects of administration of J. spicigera are related to the stimulation of glucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine and human adipocytes and this evidence justify its empirical use in Traditional Medicine. In addition, J. spicigera exerts glucose lowering effects in normoglycemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Adinandra nitida Merr. ex. H.L. Li (Theaceae) is an indigenous plant in south China. Its leaves have been reported to have many curative effects such as reducing blood pressure, as well as antibacterial, antioxidant, and analgesic properties, which could be used in foods and medicines.
The antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of the main flavonoids and ethanol extract (EE) of A. nitida leaves were investigated for the first time.
The main flavonoids of A. nitida leaves (camellianin A, camellianin B) were prepared and their contents in EE were determined by HPLC. The antioxidant activities of the samples were measured by DPPH radical scavenging assay and Rancimat test. The ACE inhibitory activities of the samples were carried out by using an assay kit with hippuryl-glycyl-glycine as substrate.
The contents of camellianin A, camellianin B and apigenin in EE were determined as 41.98, 2.67, and 1.73%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the flavonoids were far lower than that of EE in DPPH radical scavenging and Rancimat assays. However, the ACE-inhibitory activities of camellianin A, camellianin B and apigenin were higher than that of EE.
The flavonoid content of EE was more than 45%. The high activities of EE in DPPH scavenging and Rancimat assay could be mainly attributed to compounds other than flavonoids. However, the ACE-inhibitory activity of EE could be mainly attributed to the presence of the flavonoids.
Lonicera caerulea is a species of bush native to the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian Far East) whose berries have been extensively studied due to their potential high antioxidant activity. The aim of our work was to investigate the in vivo effects of the antioxidant action of Lonicera caerulea berry extracts on the dynamics of experimentally-induced tumors. Our data showed that aqueous Lonicera caerulaea extracts reduced the tumor volume when administered continuously during the tumor growth and development stages, but augmented the tumor growth when the administration of extracts started three weeks before tumor grafting. Prolonged administration of Lonicera caerulaea berry extracts induced the antioxidant defense mechanism in the tumor tissues, while surprisingly amplifying the peripheral oxidative stress.
Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juzepczuk (Alismataceae) is an indigenous medicinal herb that has been traditionally used for diuretic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic proposes in northern and eastern Asia.
This study examined the mechanisms underlying the cytoprotective effect of an aqueous extract of A. orientale (AEAO) against long-chain saturated fatty acid-induced cellular injury.
HepG2 cells were treated with 0.5 mM palmitate to generate a cellular model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Using this cellular model, the cytoprotective effect of AEAO (100 µg/mL) against long-chain saturated fatty acid-induced cellular injury was evaluated by measuring the steatosis, ROS accumulation, and apoptosis.
AEAO significantly attenuated palmitate-induced intracellular steatosis and cellular damage up to 54 and 33%, respectively. Palmitate-induced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive aldehydes were significantly reduced in the presence of AEAO to 40 and 75%, respectively, suggesting that oxidative stress plays a role in the palmitate-induced damage. AEAO inhibited the palmitate-mediated activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), a kinase that is correlated with NAFLD. Inhibition of JNK by SP600125 or addition of AEAO significantly reduced palmitate-induced steatosis, ROS accumulation, and apoptosis, indicating that the protective effects of AEAO against palmitate-induced cellular damage result from blocking ROS-activated JNK signaling.
The combined properties of AEAO in cellular steatosis and ROS production are beneficial for treating NAFLD, which includes complex metabolic changes, such that modulation of a single target is often not sufficient to achieve the desired therapeutic effect.
In this study, the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antitumorigenic activities of a fractionated, ethanol extract derived from Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS), a plant indigenous to Korea, China, and Japan, were determined. Physicochemical analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results indicated that the active component of a Sephadex G-150-fractionated RVS extract (PII fraction) was a copper-containing glycoprotein, possibly a plant laccase. Antioxidant activity of the fractionated RVS extract, observed in both aqueous and lipid in vitro oxidation reactions using 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, site-specific Fenton-reaction deoxyribose, and a model lipid emulsion test system, indicated an affinity for protection against hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. Cultured mouse brain neurons were protected against glucose oxidase-induced hydroxyl radical in the presence of the fractionated RVS extract (e.g., 58% protection at 4.9 microM and 95% protection with 22.7 microM RVS). RVS was further shown to protect against in vitro Fenton-reaction-induced single- and double-strand scission in supercoiled plasmid DNA. Further testing for bioactivity of the fractionated RVS extract was based on the affinity to inhibit cell proliferation in cultured HeLa and CT-26 tumor cells. The presence of RVS resulted in 70% cell death after 24 h of incubation in both cell lines at a minimum concentration of 2.48 microM RVS. Data demonstrate multiple bioactive chemopreventative properties of a Sephadex G-150-fractionated extract derived from RVS.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a leaf extract from A. archangelica on the growth of Crl mouse breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Materials and METHODS: The antiproliferative activity of the extract was measured by 3H-thymidine uptake in the Crl cells in vitro. Twenty mice were injected with the Crl cells, and 11 of them were fed A. archangelica leaf extract, and the progress of the tumours was followed. RESULTS: The leaf extract was mildly antiproliferative on the Crl cells with an EC50 of 87.6 microg/ml The antitumour activity of the extract was expressed in the mice by marked reduction in tumour growth. In the experimental animals, 9 out of 11 mice developed no or very small tumours, whereas control animals, not receiving the extract, developed significantly larger tumours (p