The knowledge about fetal exposure to acrylamide/glycidamide from the maternal exposure through food is limited. Acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide are electrophiles and form adducts with hemoglobin (Hb), which could be used for in vivo dose measurement. In this study, a method for analysis of Hb adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the adduct FIRE procedure, was applied to measurements of adducts from these compounds in maternal blood samples (n = 87) and umbilical cord blood samples (n = 219). The adduct levels from the three compounds, acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide, were increased in tobacco smokers. Highly significant correlations were found between cord and maternal blood with regard to measured adduct levels of the three compounds. The mean cord/maternal hemoglobin adduct level ratios were 0.48 (range 0.27-0.86) for acrylamide, 0.38 (range 0.20-0.73) for glycidamide, and 0.43 (range 0.17-1.34) for ethylene oxide. In vitro studies with acrylamide and glycidamide showed a lower (0.38-0.48) rate of adduct formation with Hb in cord blood than with Hb in maternal blood, which is compatible with the structural differences in fetal and adult Hb. Together, these results indicate a similar life span of fetal and maternal erythrocytes. The results showed that the in vivo dose in fetal and maternal blood is about the same and that the placenta gives negligible protection of the fetus to exposure from the investigated compounds. A trend of higher levels of the measured adducts in cord blood with gestational age was observed, which may reflect the gestational age-related change of the cord blood Hb composition toward a higher content of adult Hb. The results suggest that the Hb adduct levels measured in cord blood reflect the exposure to the fetus during the third trimester. The evaluation of the new analytical method showed that it is suitable for monitoring of background exposures of the investigated electrophilic compounds in large population studies.
Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland; Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, Finland; Vasa Central Hospital, Finland; Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland; Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
Programming is the phenomenon whereby the body's structures and functions are permanently set by nutrition and other influences during early development. There is increasing evidence that programming in utero initiates cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that susceptibility to developing chronic rheumatic heart disease on exposure to Streptococcus pyogenes is programmed.
We studied hospital admissions and deaths from chronic rheumatic heart disease in 20,431 people born in Helsinki, Finland, during 1924-1944. One hundred and one people, 56 men, and 45 women, had chronic rheumatic heart disease.
The disease was not associated with body or placental size at birth. It was, however, associated with a long umbilical cord so that the hazard ratio for the disease was 1.23 (95% CI 1.04-1.45, P?=?0.02) for every 10 cm increase in cord length. This association was present in people with mitral valve disease, hazard ratio 1.5 (1.20-1.89, P?
The currently accepted definition of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is rather broad. One might expect that fetal and neonatal complications that may occur in GDM pregnancy would be similar to those in pregestational diabetic pregnancy. Comparative evaluation of reported data on morbidity in GDM are often hampered by confounding variables (maternal age, parity, obesity) as well as the influence of factors such as ethnic origin, diagnostic criteria, and intervention during pregnancy. Recent observations indicate that GDM may be associated with increased incidence of fetal malformation and perinatal mortality. Such poor outcome is likely confined to a subset of GDM patients in whom diabetes was present but unrecognized before pregnancy. The most frequent and significant morbidity is fetal macrosomia, which in turn is associated with increased risk of birth injuries and asphyxia. In a nationwide study in Sweden (1991-1993) of a large series (n = 3.322) of treated GDM pregnancies, perinatal mortality rate was not increased; but the rate of preeclampsia was doubled, and the rate of emergency cesarean section was 1.6 times higher than in the background population. The rates of fetal macrosomia (> or = 4,500 g), asphyxia, and transient tachypnea were two to three times higher than normal Erb's palsy was 0.7 and 5% in vaginally delivered infants weighing or = 4,500 g, respectively. There is a clear need to define the various levels of glucose intolerance in the mother that may have an adverse effect on the offspring. Of equal importance is to standardize and systematize the criteria used to assess the significance of any such impact.
In an examination of the possible harmful effects of work in an office environment and the use of a video display terminal (VDT) on the course of pregnancy, the experience of 1,475 reference mothers from a Finnish case-referent study of birth defects was analyzed. The study was based on the national Register of Congenital Malformations, whose data were supplemented with special interviews on mothers' work conditions. The group which worked in an office environment consisted of 239 women, of whom 60 had worked with video display terminals; 805 mothers had not worked in an office. Only mothers who had worked during most of their pregnancy and who had a singleton birth were included; hence 431 women were excluded from the analysis. The information on threatened abortion, length of gestation, birthweight, placental weight, and maternal blood pressure was analyzed. Office work involved no elevated risk of threatened abortion when compared with nonoffice work, and among the VDT users the proportion with symptoms related to an impending early termination of pregnancy was similar to that of other office workers. No unfavorable effects on the length of gestation were observed between the compared groups, and there were no differences in the birthweight of the babies when adjustment was made for gestational age or the other aspects under consideration. Thus the results did not suggest that office employment or work with video display terminals would be harmful for pregnancy.
Comment In: Scand J Work Environ Health. 1989 Apr;15(2):156-82772579
A morphometric model of oxygen diffusion is employed to calculate the partial, total and specific conductances of human placentae from low- and high-altitude term pregnancies. Placentae were obtained from indigenous and non-indigenous populations and the diffusion pathway dissected into six tissue compartments. Birthweights were reduced at high altitude but were greater in natives versus non-natives. The altitudinal differences were associated with changes in placental diffusive conductances. The partial conductance of the villous trophoblast was conserved but the conductance on the maternal side was increased as was the conductance of the villous stroma. Fetal conductances were conserved (plasma) or diminished (erythrocytes). We conclude that birthweights are reduced at high altitude despite the attempts to increase the total placental diffusive conductance for oxygen. The mechanisms underlying these adaptations are discussed.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight, length, ponderal index, head and abdominal circumference, and placental weight and hazard ratios of small- and large-for-gestational-age babies were calculated. RESULTS: Our data indicated smaller babies in exercising women compared with nonexercisers, but the differences were small, and only a few were statistically significant. Exercising women had a slightly decreased risk of having a child small for gestational age (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.92) and large for gestational age (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.98). CONCLUSION: The findings do not indicate sizable effects on fetal growth measures related to exercise apart from a modest decreased risk of small- and large-for-gestational-age infants. These findings do not speak against advising pregnant women to be physically active during pregnancy.
The placenta facilitates the exchange of nutrients and wastes in an effort to promote fetal development. Disruptions in the establishment of the placenta and its interactions with the maternal uterus are potential causes of pregnancy failure. In this study we investigated the pregnancy phenotype of two inbred rat strains: the Dahl Salt Sensitive (DSS) strain and the Brown Norway (BN) strain. The DSS strain is reported to have large litters, whereas the BN strain has small litters. Pregnant female rats of each strain were killed on various days of gestation. At the time of killing, the number of viable versus dead and/or resorbing conceptuses was determined. Placental tissues from viable conceptuses were collected and processed for biochemical and histologic analyses. The number of viable conceptuses at Days 8.5 and 18.5 of gestation was significantly greater in DSS versus BN rats. Additionally, the number of resorbing and/or dying conceptuses was significantly greater in the BN strain than in the DSS strain. Maternal responses to pregnancy and elements of placental and fetal development in DSS and BN rats differed. Immunohistologic analysis of placentation and gene expression profiles revealed that trophoblast cell invasion into the uterine mesometrial compartment was significantly less in the BN strain versus the DSS strain. In contrast, the uterine natural killer cell population was reciprocally expanded in the BN strain. The impairment in trophoblast cell invasion in BN rats was associated with a smaller junctional zone compartment of the chorioallantoic placenta. Collectively, the data indicate that BN rats exhibit a unique form of placentation and may represent an excellent model for investigating the genetics of placental development.