The treatment of Type II diabetes (NIDDM) includes an appropriate diet and prudent exercise program. If these measures are insufficient to control the blood sugar, oral agents (sulphonylureas or biguanides) or insulin are added to the therapeutic regimen. Although the diet prescription has undergone some changes and refinements, this approach has been the traditional treatment for NIDDM for nearly 40 years. Recently a new class of oral agents, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, has become available. These drugs are competitive inhibitors of the alpha-glucosidase enzymes in the brush border of the bowel wall. They act to slow and delay the rate of carbohydrate absorption, thereby decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia. A recent study was designed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, in improving the glycemic control of patients with NIDDM who were sub-optimally controlled on either diet alone, or diet plus sulphonylurea, metformin or insulin. A total of 354 patients with NIDDM were studied, 77 on diet alone, 83 on metformin, 103 and sulphonylurea and 91 on insulin. Subjects in each treatment stratum were randomized, double-blind to either acarbose or placebo, for 1 year. At baseline and every 3 months thereafter, fasting and postprandial glucose and C-peptide, HbA1c and fasting lipids were measured. Compared to placebo, acarbose treatment resulted in a decrease in mean postprandial glucose in all four strata (19 +/- 0.8 to 15.3 +/- 0.7 mmol/l: P
Erratum In: Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1995 Sep;29(3):215
OBJECTIVE: To find out whether acupressure wristband can alleviate nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SUBJECTS: 97 women with mean gestational length completed 8-12 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptoms were recorded according to intensity, duration and nature of complaints. RESULTS: 71% of women in the intervention group reported both less intensive morning sickness and reduced duration of symptoms. The same tendency was seen in the placebo group, with 59% reporting less intensity and 63% shorter duration of symptoms. However, a significance level of 5% was reached only in the case of duration of symptoms, which was reduced by 2.74 hours in the intervention group compared to 0.85 hours in the placebo group (p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Acupressure wristband might be an alternative therapy for morning sickness in early pregnancy, especially before pharmaceutical treatment is considered.
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of recombinant, human GH on follicular development and oocyte retrieval after gonadotropin stimulation with the addition of GH or placebo to a standard IVF treatment regimen. Further, to investigate whether GH is a more effective adjuvant if the standard treatment regimen is preceded by GH injections. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: The IVF unit at university hospital. PATIENTS: Forty normally ovulating women, age 25 to 38 years, with infertility because of tubal factors and being classified as "poor responders" with at least two previously performed and failed IVF attempts. INTERVENTIONS: Human, recombinant GH (Genotropin, Kabi Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) or placebo (0.1 IU/kg body weight per day) was given SC as pretreatment during down regulation with GnRH and during stimulation with hMG according to the randomized protocol. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of oocytes retrieved after stimulation, total amount of gonadotropin used, time required for stimulation, number of follicles developing, rate of fertilization, and cleavage in vitro. Further, the quality of embryos, development of the endometrium, rate of clinical pregnancy, and serum and follicular fluid (FF) concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and IGFBP-3 were estimated. RESULTS: The number of oocytes retrieved did not differ significantly between the groups, nor did the amount of hMG required for stimulation. The fertilization rate increased in patients who had received GH. Growth hormone caused a significant increase in serum and FF levels of IGF-I. An increase in serum IGFBP-3 could also be recorded in patients who had received GH. CONCLUSION: Although certain beneficial effects were noted in GH-treated patients, the overall results did not support GH as a clinically useful adjuvant treatment.