Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula is used as an antipyretic agent in indigenous systems of medicine. Microglia-mediated inflammation plays an important role in the pathway leading to neuronal cell death in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-hydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-15,16-olide (PL3) extracted from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced inflammation in microglia-like HAPI cells and primary microglia cultures. In microglia-neuron co-cultures, LPS decreased the cell viability of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. LPS-induced cell death was attenuated by the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, the COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398 or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, DPI, respectively. In LPS-treated microglia cells, PL3 decreased the expression of iNOS, COX-2, gp91 (phox), and NF- kappaBp65, the degradation of I kappaB alpha, and the production of NO, PGE (2), iROS, and TNF- alpha. PL3 also enhanced the expression of HO-1, a cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory enzyme. Moreover, PL3 reduced LPS-activated microglia-induced cell death. The present results suggest that PL3 inhibits microglia-mediated inflammation and inflammation-related neuronal cell death. Therefore, PL3 has potential use for the treatment of inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate determinants of the acceptability of isoflavone products among postmenopausal women with regard to social and lifestyle factors, dietary habits, health concerns, food beliefs, menopausal symptoms and therapies, and to elucidate preferences for specific products. METHODS: A consumer survey was conducted among postmenopausal women in four European countries (Germany, Denmark, Italy and the UK), including a total of 465 respondents. RESULTS: The declared acceptability of isoflavones was highest in Germany (80%), followed by Italy (75%), the UK (59%) and Denmark (55%; p
One of the methods of increasing bioavailability, and thus the therapeutic effectiveness of an active substances, along with decreasing its required dosage, is to generate highly effective "carrier: active substances" complexes where the active carrier both increases the bioavailability of the active substance at lower doses and has a detoxifying activity.
the aim of this work was study the properties of the carrier from the lichen thallome in both its solid pharmaceutical form and in combination with Rhodiola rosea.
the physiologically active plant extracts with enhanced adaptogenic pharmacological activity based on plant substances growing in Yakutia: Cladonia lichen thalli and Rhodiola rosea (Rhodiolarosea, fam.Crassulaceae) rhizomes, combined in a raw material dry-weight ratio of 10:1 We used a one step, solvent-free process, involving the use of mechanochemical ball mills relying on centrifugal acceleration of the 10-30 g grinding bodies.
A single-stage mechanochemical technology has been developed for obtaining highly effective solid-phase biocomplexes based on a"multipurpose active filler" - a polymer matrix of lichen ?-oligosaccharides. It has been shown that lichen, is a raw material from which can be sourced a filler with a strong adsorption activity for solid pharmaceutical forms.
It is considered statistically significant that a bicomponent plant mechanocomplex based on this filler - lichen ?-oligosaccharides and small amounts of Rhodiola rosea has a wide spectrum of adaptogenic action, increasing the resistance of laboratory animals to the effects of physical exercise and a variety of extreme factors.
The World Health Organization has announced that within 3 years 10% of Tanzania's population of 26 million will be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). But there is some faint hope in the research of Tanzanian traditional medicine. An almost 90-year-man, Waziri Mrisho, is credited with having treated AIDS patients successfully with herbs that strengthen the immune system. Margaret Nakamya was stricken by the symptoms of AIDs in March 1990. She was referred to Waziri and started using his herbs. 3 years later she weighs 49 kg compared to 40 kg before. The old man's son set up a little factory where he pulverizes herbs and sells them at the price he can command The 3 types of trees that the herbal medicine is taken from grow in the wild, but some have also been planted around the factory. Even if these herbs are effective, it will take years before the AIDS epidemic is over, when people have changed their lifestyles. The means of communication (TV, cinema, radio, telephone) are missing or inadequate. In the Kagera region, with 1.2 million inhabitants, 25% of pregnant women are HIV-infected and 65,000 children lost their parents to AIDS. There are 2000 children in Dar Es Salaam living in the streets. The Anglican St. Albans Church runs a center for street kids where they get meals 3 times a week. The nurse Ruth Nesje enlisted a Norwegian physician and homeopath in a research project involving 30 AIDS patients in Norway. The University in Bergen will do in vitro testing. One group of patients will receive both AZT and the herbs, another group will get only AZT, and the 3rd group will obtain only the herbs. The Norwegian Nursing Association, NORAD, and DANIDA also plan various projects in the Tanga region.
Two hundred and thirty-six marijuana users who volunteered for a study in which they would use the drug were administered a Drug History and a Marihuana Effects Questionnaires. In addition to obtaining descriptive information of drug experiment volunteers and a factor analysis of the marijuana experience, the relationship between experience and effect variables were studied. The results of the above analysis suggest that the "typical" subject in marijuana experiments is not a "typical" user, that the marijuana experience is verbally definable, and that prior expectancies and histories of effect alter the experience.
This article describes the local concepts indigenous Nahua women hold regarding their reproduction. Specifically it provides a description of two indigenous illnesses--isihuayo and necaxantle, it discusses their etiology, symptoms, and treatments, and it analyzes them within the local ethnomedical framework and sociopolitical context. A perception of female vulnerability is shown to be an underlying shaper of women's experiences of these illnesses.
This research took place in a small Nahua village in Mexico. Qualitative data on local perceptions of these illnesses were collected by a combination of participant observation and interviews. Ethnobotanical data was obtained through interviews, and medicinal plants were collected in home gardens, fields, stream banks, and forested areas. The total study population consisted of traditional birth attendants (N = 5), clinicians (N = 8), and laywomen (N = 48).
Results showed that 20% of the village women had suffered from one or both of these illnesses. The article includes a detailed description of the etiology, symptoms, and treatments of these illnesses. Data shows that they were caused by mechanical, physical, and social factors related to a woman's weakness and/or lack of support. Traditional birth attendants often treated women's illnesses. Five medicinal plants were salient in the treatment of these illnesses: Ocimum basilicum L., Mentzelia aspera L., Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit., and Piper umbellatum L. were used for isihuayo, while Solanum wendlandii Hook f. was used for necaxantle.
The research on these two ethnomedical conditions is a useful case study to understanding how indigenous women experience reproductive health. Reproductive health is not simply about clinically-based medicine but is also about how biomedicine intersects with the local bodily concepts. By describing and analyzing indigenous women's ill health, one can focus upon the combination of causes--which extend beyond the physical body and into the larger structure that the women exist in.