The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the clinical pharmacy service in a Swedish hospital according to the Lund Integrated Medicine Management (LIMM) model, in terms of the acceptance and clinical significance of the recommendations made by clinical pharmacists.
The clinical significance of the recommendations made by clinical pharmacists was assessed for a random sample of inpatients receiving the clinical pharmacy service in 2007. Two independent physicians retrospectively ranked the recommendations emerging from errors in the patients' current medication list and actual drug-related problems according to Hatoum, with rankings ranging between 1 (adverse significance) and 6 (extremely significant).
The random sample comprised 132 patients (out of 800 receiving the service). The clinical significance of 197 recommendations was assessed. The physicians accepted and implemented 178 (90%) of the clinical pharmacists' recommendations. Most of these recommendations, 170 (83%), were ranked 3 (somewhat significant) or higher.
This study provides further evidence of the quality of the LIMM model and confirms that the inclusion of clinical pharmacists in a multi-professional team can improve drug therapy for inpatients. The very high level of acceptance by the physicians of the pharmacists' recommendations further demonstrates the effectiveness of the process.
Primary health care aims to provide timely treatment of serious illness, teach health promotion, and maintain health for patients with chronic diseases. In partnership with the primary care network at Vancouver Coastal Health (VCH), family physicians (FPs), and dietitians, this practice needs assessment was undertaken to explore how VCH could support access to primary care nutrition services. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. Data from two focus groups, one for dietitians and the other for physicians, were compiled and formed the questions for the survey. The data were analyzed using the inductive approach, to consider the messages or themes that appeared from the focus groups and the survey. A review of information from the focus groups, surveys, and literature revealed four common themes of findings: accessibility, collaboration in chronic disease management, health promotion, and information sharing. Sixty-six percent of FPs perceived that primary health nutrition services were fair to poor. Both dietitian and physician groups recognized that collaboration in the areas of chronic diseases and health promotion was essential, and that sharing of information among providers could improve this service.
This paper attempts to go deeper into the topic of social competency of physicians who provide primary care to populations living in poverty in Montreal. Adaptability as well as the ability to tailor practices according to patient expectations, needs and capabilities were found to be important in the development of the concept of social competency. The case of paternalism is used to demonstrate how a historically and socially contested medical approach is readapted by players in certain contexts in order to better meet patient expectations. This paper presents data collected in a qualitative study comprising 25 semi-supervised interviews with physicians recognized by their peers as having developed exemplary practices in Montreal's impoverished neighbourhoods.
Although compliance with self-care amongst adolescents with diabetes is known to be problematic, this issue has rarely been examined from the perspective of young diabetics themselves. The purpose of the study was to explore how adolescents with diabetes perceived the actions of physicians, nurses, parents and friends in relation to compliance with self-care. Fifty-one young diabetics aged from 13 to 17 responded to a questionnaire concerning compliance and were interviewed on the topic of compliance. Interview data were analysed by content analysis. The categories obtained were quantified and the relationship between compliance and the actions of physicians, nurses, parents and friends analysed by cross-tabulation. Interviews with 51 adolescents showed that the actions of physicians, nurses and parents described as motivating were associated with better compliance. Good compliance was also more evident when parental actions were perceived as accepting. Young diabetics whose friends offered silent support, or who viewed friends as irrelevant, were more likely to report good compliance. In contrast, physicians' actions described as routine/negligent, disciplined control by parents, and domination by friends were linked with poor compliance.
Advance care planning (ACP) is an international concept for improving patient autonomy and communication in the context of anticipated deterioration and end-of-life care. In a preparatory conversation, health care professionals facilitate one or more conversations where nursing home residents are invited to reflect on, and articulate wishes and preferences concerning future medical treatment and end-of-life care. Our aim with this study was to increase knowledge of existing ACP practices in Norwegian nursing homes. We wanted to know how nursing home residents, relatives and nursing home staff take part in the conversations, and to what extent these conversations can be regarded as promoting autonomy, legal rights and individual needs for the residents. We conducted participant observation of seven preparatory conversations, followed by interviews with health care staff (together) and resident and relative (together). In the result section, we present an informative case example of an ACP conversation where common and important characteristics running through our data are present. These are further elaborated under the following headings: Life critical questions, Residents' quiet participation in the conversations, the Dying phase - a clinical issue, Nurses and physicians; different domains and Timing. We find that nursing home staff in our study wants to contribute to open awareness, autonomy and a good death, but there are little reflections about the purpose and content of the conversations, how they should be carried out and when, and what frail nursing home residents are able to understand and express in ACP conversations.
A comparative assessment of the extent and structure of the various forms of professional burnout among doctors-organizers as well as therapeutists and surgeons depending on age was given. It is shown that the professional burnout in doctors-organizers conjugates with a high level of emotional tension manifested in avoidance of over-saturated emotional and professional communication outside professional activities, increased irritability and temper, reluctance to exercise empathy towards colleagues and compassion for patients. The comparison of three age groups of physicians to each other in terms of the level and features of the burnout was adduced; the results demonstrate the significant differences between the age periods of 30 and 40 years and over 41 years old. Physicians in the age group of 30-40 years old are inclined to depersonalization at a relatively low level of reduction of professional achievement. It was found that age specificity of formation of the syndrome of professional burnout among surgeons was caused by the increased tendency to development of professional burnout syndrome of young and middle-aged surgeons at low levels of professional burnout among older people.