OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a school-based intervention programme to reduce the prevalence of overweight in 6 to 10-year-old children. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized, controlled study. SUBJECTS: A total of 3135 boys and girls in grades 1-4 were included in the study. METHODS: Ten schools were selected in Stockholm county area and randomized to intervention (n=5) and control (n=5) schools. Low-fat dairy products and whole-grain bread were promoted and all sweets and sweetened drinks were eliminated in intervention schools. Physical activity (PA) was aimed to increase by 30 min day(-1) during school time and sedentary behaviour restricted during after school care time. PA was measured by accelerometry. Eating habits at home were assessed by parental report. Eating disorders were evaluated by self-report. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased by 3.2% (from 20.3 to 17.1) in intervention schools compared with an increase of 2.8% (from 16.1 to 18.9) in control schools (P
The study explored changes in the health of aging workers from 1981 to 1992.
Municipal workers [age 55 to 69 (mean 61.6) years in 1992] who filled out questionnaires in both 1981 and 1992 (N = 4534) were studied. The changes in disease prevalence and perceived health were tested with Pearson's chi-square independence test. Improvement and decline in perceived health were analyzed by logistic regression models.
In 1992, significantly more diseases were reported than in 1981; the musculoskeletal disease rate rose from 38% in 1981 to 53% in 1992 for the women and from 35% to 49% for the men and the cardiovascular disease rate rose from 15% in 1981 to 28% in 1992 for the women and from 19% to 37% for the men. The age differences diminished during the follow-up. Self-assessed health improved in all the age groups among both those still working in 1992 and those retired. The association between illnesses and perceived health changed during the follow-up, 11% of those with no diseases experiencing their health as good in 1981 and over 40% in 1992. The most important factors explaining the improvement appeared to be a low number of physical illnesses and the absence of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disease. Nonphysical work, frequent physical exercise, and satisfaction with life situation were also significant contributors to good perceived health.
The improvement in perceived health during the follow-up may mean that older people have lower criteria for good perceived health than younger people do. The associations between self-assessed health and the presence of disease need further study.
This study was designed to explain changes in work ability through occupational and life-style factors.
Work ability was measured by an index describing workers' health resources in regard to their work demands. The work factors mainly included physical and mental demands, social organization and the physical work environment. The life-style factors covered smoking, alcohol consumption, and leisure-time physical exercise. The first questionnaire study was done in 1981 and it was repeated in 1992. The subjects (N = 818) were workers in the 44- to 51-year-old age group in the beginning of the study who were active during the entire follow-up. The improvement and, correspondingly, the decline in work ability were analyzed by logistic regression models.
Both the improvement and the decline in work ability were associated more strongly with changes in work and life-style during the follow-up than with their initial variation. The model for improved work ability included improvement of the supervisor's attitude, decreased repetitive movements at work, and increased amount of vigorous leisure-time physical exercise. Deterioration in work ability was explained by a model which included a decrease in recognition and esteem at work, decrease in workroom conditions, increase in standing at work, and decrease in vigorous leisure-time physical exercise.
Social relations at work can promote or impair the work ability of elderly workers. Although the work ability of elderly workers generally declined with aging, both older and younger workers were also able to improve their work ability.
To investigate the joint association between self-reported physical activity as well as cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health among healthy women and men.
Data from 10,416 participants in The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 which took part in 13 Danish municipalities were analyzed. Leisure time physical activity level and self-rated health were based on self-reported questionnaire data. Optimal self-rated health was defined as "very good" or "good" self-rated health. Cardiorespiratory fitness (mL O2?min(-1)?kg(-1)) was estimated from maximal power output in a maximal cycle exercise test.
A strong dose-response relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health as well as between physical activity level and self-rated health among both women and men was found. Within categories of physical activity, odds ratios for optimal self-rated health increased with increasing categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, and vice versa. Hence, participants who were moderately/vigorously physically active and had a high cardiorespiratory fitness had the highest odds ratio for optimal self-rated health compared with sedentary participants with low cardiorespiratory fitness (odds ratio=12.2, 95% confidence interval: 9.3-16.1).
Although reluctant to conclude on causality, this study suggests that an active lifestyle as well as good cardiorespiratory fitness probably increase self-rated health.
The effect of physical activity on mental health has been the subject of research for several decades. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the association between physical fitness, including both cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness and depressive symptoms among general population. The aim of this study was to determine the association between physical fitness and depressive symptoms among young adults.
The study population consists of 5497 males and females, members of the Northern Finland birth cohort of 1966, who at age 31 completed fitness tests and filled in a questionnaire including questions about depressive symptoms (Hopkins' Symptom Checklist-25) and physical activity. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by a 4-min step test and muscular fitness by tests of maximal isometric handgrip and isometric trunk extension. The odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for having depressive symptoms were calculated for quintiles groups of physical fitness using the third, median quintile as reference group, and the results were adjusted for potential confounding variables.
Depressive symptoms were most common among males and females in the lowest quintile group of trunk extension test (OR 1.58 and 95% CI 1.07-2.32 in males and OR 1.43 and 95% CI 1.03-2.0 in females) and among males in the lowest quintile group of handgrip strength (OR 1.64 95% CI 1.11-2.42) compared to the reference group. Level of self-reported physical activity was inversely associated with depressive symptoms both in males (OR 1.74 95% CI 1.25-2.36) and females (OR 1.36 95% CI 1.05-1.75). The cardiorespiratory fitness was not associated with depressive symptoms (OR 1.01 95% CI 0.68-1.49 in males and 0.82 95% CI 0.57-1.16 in females).
The results indicate that low level of isometric endurance capacity of trunk extensor muscles is associated with high level of depressive symptoms in both sexes. In males, also poor handgrip strength is associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms. The physical activity level is inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms among young adults.
The basis of self-perceived physical competence is built in childhood and school personnel have an important role in this developmental process. We investigated the association between initial self-perceived physical competence and reported leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) longitudinally in 10-, 12-, and 15-year-old children.
This longitudinal follow-up study comprises pupils from an elementary school cohort (N = 1346) in the city of Turku, Finland (175,000 inhabitants). The self-perceived physical competence (fitness and appearance) and LTPA data were collected with questionnaires. The full longitudinal data were available from 571 pupils based on repeated studies at the ages of 10, 12, and 15 years in 2004, 2006, and 2010. We analyzed the association of self-perceived physical competence and LTPA using regression models.
Self-perceived physical competence was positively associated with LTPA at all ages (10 years p
To examine the association between leisure time physical activity over a three year period and health related behaviour, social relationships, and health status in late adolescence as part of a nationwide longitudinal study.
Five birth cohorts of adolescent twins aged 16 at baseline (n = 5028; 2311 boys and 2717 girls) participated in the study. Questionnaires on leisure time physical activity, other health related behaviour, social relationships, and health status were sent to the twins on their 16th and 17th birthdays and six months after their 18th birthday. The combined response rate to the three questionnaires was 75.8% for boys and 81.7% for girls. Those who answered in all three questionnaires that their frequency of physical activity was 4-5 times a week or more were defined as persistent exercisers, and those who exercised at most twice a month in all three were defined as persistently inactive. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify baseline variables associated with outcome measures.
Overall, 20.4% of boys and 13.0% of girls were persistent exercisers and 6.5% of boys and 5.3% of girls were persistently inactive. In both sexes, smoking, irregular breakfast eating, attending vocational school, and poor self perceived current health were significantly associated with persistent inactivity.
Persistent physical inactivity in adolescents is associated with a less healthy lifestyle, worse educational progression, and poor self perceived health. Tailoring methods to promote physical activity may prove useful for influencing other health habits. Such programmes are indicated for vocational schools in particular.
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To compare the effectiveness of diverse rehabilitation programmes, comparable data about their effects on maintaining or improving the residual function of the rehabilitation patients should be gathered. Current rehabilitation theories and assessment procedures for functioning are not consistent enough for valid comparisons. The rehabilitation theory should be developed to produce coherence and generalizability to the rehabilitation process. The biopsychosocial disease consequence (BPSDC) model for functioning is presented for this purpose. The model describes the rehabilitation process of patients with chronic pain as a three-axial (biopsychosocial) and three-dimensional (disease consequences) assessment and intervention grid for functioning. It emphasizes the strict mutual relationship between the assessment procedures and intervention plans. Application of the BPSDC model in the Finnish AKSELI project studying the effects of two different programmes on patients with chronic low-back pain is described. Although the AKSELI studies indicated that in addition to the assessment procedures other factors also contributed to valid evaluation of outcomes, and it is hoped that the BPSDC model will encourage researchers to look for definitions of functioning, to assess functioning according to theoretical assumptions about the sub-areas of functioning, and to provide comparable outcome data for the evaluation of various programmes.
Comment In: Int J Rehabil Res. 1998 Jun;21(2):113-269924675
Using the exercise and self-esteem model as a guiding framework, this study examined variables related to body image change among 88 overweight and obese women (M(age)=28.4±7.8; M(BMI)=31.6±3.5) participating in a 16-week diet and exercise weight-loss intervention. Measures of body image and potential mechanisms of body image change (actual and perceived physical changes, self-efficacy) were administered at baseline, Weeks 8 and 16. Body image improved significantly over the study time-points (ps
To investigate the independent associations and the possible interaction of body mass index (BMI), leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and perceived physical fitness and functional capability with the risk of mortality.
Prospective 16y follow-up study.
A regionally representative cohort of 35-63-y-old Finnish men (n= 1,090) and women (n= 1,122).
All-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality were derived from the national census data until the end of September 1996 while the initial levels of BMI, LTPA, physical fitness and function were determined from self-administered questionnaires.
After adjustment for age, marital and employment status, perceived health status, smoking and alcohol consumption, the Cox proportional hazards model showed that BMI was not associated with the risk of death among the men or the women. Compared with the most active subjects the men and women with no weekly vigorous activity had relative risks of 1.61 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.98-2.64) and 4.68 (95% CI, 1.41-15.57), respectively, for CVD mortality, and for the men there was a relative risk of 1.66 (95% CI, 0.92-2.99) for CHD mortality. When compared with the men who perceived their fitness as better than their age-mates, the men with the 'worse' assessment had a relative risk of 3.29 (95% CI, 1.80-6.02) for all-cause mortality and 4.37 (95% CI, 1.80-10.6) for CVD mortality. Men with at least some difficulty in walking a distance of 2 km had a relative risk of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.05-2.50) for all-cause mortality when compared with those who had no functional difficulties. In addition, in the comparison with subjects with no functional difficulties, the men and women who had some difficulty climbing several flights of stairs had relative risks of 1.47 (95% CI, 0.97-2.23) and 2.39 (95% CI, 1.25-4.60) for all-cause mortality, respectively. For CVD mortality the relative risks were 1.85 (95% CI, 1.04-3.30) and 3.38 (1.22-9.41), respectively.
Although BMI did not prove to be an independent risk factor for mortality from CVD, CHD or from all causes combined, perceived physical fitness and functional capability did. An increase in LTPA seems to have a similar beneficial effect on the mortality risk of obese and nonobese men and women, and the effect also seems to be similar for fit and unfit subjects.