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Active commuting to school in children and adolescents: an opportunity to increase physical activity and fitness.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140649
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2010 Dec;38(8):873-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Palma Chillón
Francisco B Ortega
Jonatan R Ruiz
Toomas Veidebaum
Leila Oja
Jarek Mäestu
Michael Sjöström
Author Affiliation
Department of Physical Education and Sport, School of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. pchillon@ugr.es
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2010 Dec;38(8):873-9
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Bicycling - physiology
Child
Estonia
Exercise - physiology
Exercise Test
Female
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Motor Activity - physiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Questionnaires
Schools
Sweden
Transportation
Walking - physiology
Abstract
The purpose was to describe the patterns of commuting to school in young people and to examine its associations with physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness.
The sample comprised 2271 Estonian and Swedish children and adolescents (1218 females) aged 9-10 years and 15-16 years. Data were collected in 1998/99. Mode of commuting to and from school was assessed by questionnaire. Time spent (min/day) in PA and average PA (counts/min) was measured by accelerometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by means of a maximal cycle ergometer test.
Sixty-one percent of the participants reported active commuting to school (ACS). Estonian youth showed lower levels of ACS than Swedish (odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.76) and girls reported lower levels than boys (0.74; 0.62-0.88). ACS boys showed higher PA levels than non-ACS boys for moderate, vigorous, MVPA, and average PA levels (all p = 0.01). Participants who cycled to school had higher cardiorespiratory fitness than walkers or passive travellers (p
PubMed ID
20855356 View in PubMed
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Active or passive journeys and low back pain in adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49730
Source
Eur Spine J. 2003 Dec;12(6):581-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2003
Author
Astrid N Sjolie
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Norway. asjolie@hotmail.com
Source
Eur Spine J. 2003 Dec;12(6):581-8
Date
Dec-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living - psychology
Adolescent
Automobiles - statistics & numerical data
Bicycling - physiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Exercise - physiology
Female
Humans
Low Back Pain - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Male
Norway
Physical Fitness - physiology
Quality of Life - psychology
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sports - physiology
Vibration - adverse effects
Walking - physiology
Abstract
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to study associations between low back pain (LBP) and modes of transport to school and leisure activities among adolescents. The study population included all adolescents in eighth and ninth grade in two geographic areas in eastern Norway. Eighty-eight adolescents participated (mean age 14.7 years), making the response rate 84%. Data concerning active (walking/bicycling) and passive (bus/car) journeys were obtained from lists and maps from local authorities, and from the pupils, using a questionnaire that also included LBP, activities and wellbeing. Distance walked/bicycled to school was slightly shorter among those reporting LBP in bivariate analyses. Walking/bicycling more than 8 km weekly to regular activities was inversely associated with LBP in multivariate analysis (OR 0.3; 95% confidence interval 0.1-1.0). No associations were found between passive journeys and LBP. The results raise the question for future research of whether lack of active transport may be one cause behind the increase in juvenile LBP.
PubMed ID
12928857 View in PubMed
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The added value of a brief self-efficacy coaching on the effectiveness of a 12-week physical activity program.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117957
Source
J Phys Act Health. 2014 Jan;11(1):18-29
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Jan Seghers
Ann-Sophie Van Hoecke
Astrid Schotte
Joke Opdenacker
Filip Boen
Author Affiliation
Dept of Kinesiology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
Source
J Phys Act Health. 2014 Jan;11(1):18-29
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Body mass index
Exercise - physiology
Female
Finland
Health Education - methods
Humans
Leisure Activities
Male
Metabolic Equivalent - physiology
Middle Aged
Patient compliance
Physical Fitness - physiology - psychology
Program Evaluation
Questionnaires
Sedentary lifestyle
Self Efficacy
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Self-efficacy has been found to be an important precondition for behavioral change in sedentary people. The current study examined the effectiveness and added value of including a 15-minute self-efficacy coaching at the start of a 12-week lifestyle physical activity (PA) program.
Participants were randomly assigned to a standard-intervention group (without additional self-efficacy coaching, N = 116) or extra-intervention group (with additional self-efficacy coaching, N = 111). Body mass index (BMI), cardiovascular fitness, self-reported PA, and self-efficacy beliefs were assessed at baseline and immediately after the intervention period. Perceived adherence to the PA program was assessed postintervention.
At posttest, a significant increase in cardiovascular fitness and decrease in BMI were found in both groups. Significant intervention effects emerged on PA behavior, self-efficacy, and program adherence, in favor of the extra-intervention group. Self-efficacy mediated the intervention effect on program adherence whereas no evidence was found for its role as mediator of PA change.
Adding a 15-minute self-efficacy coaching at the start of a lifestyle PA program is a promising strategy to enhance the intervention effects on PA behavior, self-efficacy beliefs, and program adherence. However, the role of self-efficacy as mediator of the intervention effect on in PA was not fully supported.
PubMed ID
23249643 View in PubMed
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Aerobic fitness, energy balance, and body mass index are associated with training load assessed by activity energy expenditure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154441
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009 Dec;19(6):871-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Author
M. Tanskanen
A L T Uusitalo
K. Häkkinen
J. Nissilä
M. Santtila
K R Westerterp
H. Kyröläinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. minna.tanskanen@sport.jyu.fi
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009 Dec;19(6):871-8
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropometry
Body mass index
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Exercise - physiology
Exercise Test
Finland
Humans
Male
Oxygen Consumption - physiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The present study examined whether activity energy expenditure related to body mass (AEE/kg) is associated with maximal aerobic fitness (VO(2max)), energy balance, and body mass index (BMI) during the 2 hardest weeks of the military basic training season (BT). An additional purpose was to study the accuracy of the pre-filled food diary energy intake. Energy expenditure (EE) with doubly labeled water, energy intake (EI), energy balance, and mis-recording was measured from 24 male conscripts with varying VO(2max). AEE/kg was calculated as (EE x 0.9-measured basal metabolic rate)/body mass. The reported EI was lower (P
PubMed ID
18980607 View in PubMed
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Aetiology and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders in physically active conscripts: a follow-up study in the Finnish Defence Forces.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142413
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010;11:146
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Henri Taanila
Jaana Suni
Harri Pihlajamäki
Ville M Mattila
Olli Ohrankämmen
Petteri Vuorinen
Jari Parkkari
Author Affiliation
Tampere Research Centre of Sports Medicine, the UKK Institute, PO Box 30, 33501 Tampere, Finland. henri.taanila@uta.fi
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010;11:146
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Exercise - physiology
Exercise Therapy - methods
Exercise Tolerance - physiology
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Military Personnel
Musculoskeletal Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Obesity - complications - epidemiology - physiopathology
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sedentary lifestyle
Young Adult
Abstract
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the main reason for morbidity during military training. MSDs commonly result in functional impairment leading to premature discharge from military service and disabilities requiring long-term rehabilitation. The purpose of the study was to examine associations between various risk factors and MSDs with special attention to the physical fitness of the conscripts.
Two successive cohorts of 18 to 28-year-old male conscripts (N = 944, median age 19) were followed for six months. MSDs, including overuse and acute injuries, treated at the garrison clinic were identified and analysed. Associations between MSDs and risk factors were examined by multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models.
During the six-month follow-up of two successive cohorts there were 1629 MSDs and 2879 health clinic visits due to MSDs in 944 persons. The event-based incidence rate for MSD was 10.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.0-11.1) per 1000 person-days. Most MSDs were in the lower extremities (65%) followed by the back (18%). The strongest baseline factors associated with MSDs were poor result in the combined outcome of a 12-minute running test and back lift test (hazard ratio (HR) 2.9; 95% CI: 1.9-4.6), high waist circumference (HR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2), high body mass index (HR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4), poor result in a 12-minute running test (HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.2), earlier musculoskeletal symptoms (HR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.1) and poor school success (educational level and grades combined; HR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.3-3.0). In addition, risk factors of long-term MSDs (>or=10 service days lost due to one or several MSDs) were analysed: poor result in a 12-minute running test, earlier musculoskeletal symptoms, high waist circumference, high body mass index, not belonging to a sports club and poor result in the combined outcome of the 12-minute running test and standing long jump test were strongly associated with long-term MSDs.
The majority of the observed risk factors are modifiable and favourable for future interventions. An appropriate intervention based on the present study would improve both aerobic and muscular fitness prior to conscript training. Attention to appropriate waist circumference and body mass index would strengthen the intervention. Effective results from well-planned randomised controlled studies are needed before initiating large-scale prevention programmes in a military environment.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20602765 View in PubMed
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An active school model to promote physical activity in elementary schools: action schools! BC.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158817
Source
Br J Sports Med. 2008 May;42(5):338-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2008
Author
P-J Naylor
H M Macdonald
D E R Warburton
K E Reed
H A McKay
Author Affiliation
School of Exercise Science, Physical and Health Education, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
Source
Br J Sports Med. 2008 May;42(5):338-43
Date
May-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia
Child
Exercise - physiology
Female
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Male
Physical Education and Training - methods
Physical Fitness - physiology
Schools
Socioeconomic Factors
Walking - physiology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To assess the impact of an active school model on children's physical activity (PA).
16-month cluster randomised controlled trial.
10 elementary schools in Greater Vancouver, BC.
515 children aged 9-11 years.
Action Schools! BC (AS! BC) is an active school model that provided schools with training and resources to increase children's PA. Schools implemented AS! BC with support from either external liaisons (liaison schools, LS; four schools) or internal champions (champion schools, CS; three schools). Outcomes were compared with usual practice (UP) schools (three schools).
PA was measured four times during the study using pedometers (step count, steps/day).
Boys in the LS group took 1175 more steps per day, on average, than boys in the UP group (95% CI: 97 to 2253). Boys in the CS group also tended to have a higher step count than boys in the UP group (+804 steps/day; 95% CI: -341 to 1949). There was no difference in girls' step counts across groups.
The positive effect of the AS! BC model on boys' PA is important in light of the current global trend of decreased PA.
PubMed ID
18272538 View in PubMed
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Associations between estimated aerobic fitness and cardiovascular risk factors in adults with different levels of abdominal obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175619
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2005 Apr;12(2):126-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2005
Author
Katja Borodulin
Tiina Laatikainen
Marjaana Lahti-Koski
Timo A Lakka
Raija Laukkanen
Seppo Sarna
Pekka Jousilahti
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, Helsinki, Finland. katja.borodulin@ktl.fi
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2005 Apr;12(2):126-31
Date
Apr-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Blood Chemical Analysis
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Exercise - physiology
Exercise Test
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - diagnosis - epidemiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Risk assessment
Sensitivity and specificity
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
We investigated the association between estimated aerobic fitness and cardiovascular risk factors, and how the association is affected by abdominal obesity.
Cross-sectional population study.
Participants comprised 3820 adults aged 25 to 64 years from the FINRISK 2002 Study in Finland. Aerobic fitness was estimated using a non-exercise test. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, HDL-C to total cholesterol ratio, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels were measured by standardized methods.
After controlling for age, smoking and alcohol consumption, aerobic fitness was inversely associated with systolic (P=0.027) and diastolic (P
PubMed ID
15785297 View in PubMed
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Associations between physical activity and susceptibility to cancer: possible mechanisms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203601
Source
Sports Med. 1998 Nov;26(5):293-315
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1998
Author
R J Shephard
P N Shek
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Physical Education and Health, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. royjshep@mountain-inter.net
Source
Sports Med. 1998 Nov;26(5):293-315
Date
Nov-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Diet
Exercise - physiology
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Immunocompetence - physiology
Incidence
Life Style
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Ontario - epidemiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Abstract
Physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause and colonic cancers, and it seems to exert a weaker effect on the risk of breast, lung and reproductive tract tumours. This review examines possible mechanisms behind the observed associations. Restriction of physical activity by pre-existing disease may contribute to the association with lung cancers, but seems a less likely explanation for other types of tumour. Indirect associations through activity-related differences in body build or susceptibility to trauma seem of minor importance. Potential dietary influences include overall energy balance and energy expenditure, the intake and/or bioavailability of minerals, antioxidant vitamins and fibre, and the relative proportions of protein and fat ingested. Links between regular exercise and other facets of lifestyle that influence cancer risks are not very strong, although endurance athletes are not usually smokers, and regular leisure activity is associated with a high socioeconomic status which tends to reduce exposure to airborne carcinogens, both at work and at home. Overall susceptibility to cancer shows a 'U'-shaped relationship to body mass index (mass/height2) reflecting, in part, the adverse influences of cigarette smoking and a tall body build for those with low body mass indices and, in part, the adverse effect of obesity at the opposite end of the body mass index distribution. Obesity seems a major component in the exercise-cancer relationship, with a particular influence on reproductive tract tumours; it alters the pathways of estradiol metabolism, decreases estradiol binding and facilitates the synthesis of estrogens. Among the hormonal influences on cancer risk, insulin-like growth factors promote tumour development and exercise-mediated increases in cortisol and prostaglandin levels may depress cellular components of immune function. However, the most important change is probably the suppression of the gonadotropic axis. Apparent gender differences in the benefits associated with regular exercise reflect gender differences in the hormonal milieu and also a failure to adapt activity questionnaires to traditional patterns of physical activity in females. The immune system is active at various stages of tumour initiation, growth and metastasis. However, acute and chronic changes in immune response induced by moderate exercise are rather small, and their practical importance remains debatable. At present, the oncologist is confronted by a plethora of interesting hypotheses, and further research is needed to decide which are of practical importance.
PubMed ID
9858394 View in PubMed
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Associations between physical activity, body fat, and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment) in adolescents: the European Youth Heart Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93501
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar;87(3):586-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Rizzo Nico S
Ruiz Jonatan R
Oja Leila
Veidebaum Tomas
Sjöström Michael
Author Affiliation
Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden. nico.rizzo@biosci.ki.se
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar;87(3):586-92
Date
Mar-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Adolescent
Analysis of Variance
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Body Composition - physiology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Cross-Sectional Studies
Estonia - epidemiology
Exercise - physiology
Fasting - blood
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin Resistance
Linear Models
Male
Obesity - metabolism - prevention & control
Physical Fitness - physiology
Skinfold thickness
Sweden - epidemiology
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
BACKGROUND: More and better data are needed to understand the action of physical activity (PA) on insulin resistance and the concomitant relation with body fat in adolescence. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relation between total PA and intensity levels with insulin resistance under special consideration of waist circumference and skinfold thickness. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 613 adolescents (352 girls, 261 boys) with a mean (+/-SD) age of 15.5 +/- 0.5 y from Sweden and Estonia. Total, low, moderate, and vigorous PA was measured by accelerometry. Body fat estimators included waist circumference and the sum of 5 skinfold thicknesses. Fasting insulin and glucose were measured, and insulin resistance was calculated according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Linear regression analysis and analysis of covariance were used to determine the association between PA and insulin resistance while considering body fat. All estimates were adjusted for sex, country, pubertal status, and indicators of body fat when applicable. RESULTS: Total, moderate, and vigorous PA were inversely correlated with HOMA. Body fat estimators were positively correlated with HOMA. Significant contrasts in HOMA concentrations were seen when comparing the lower 2 tertiles with the upper tertile of PA indicators. Repeating the analysis with body fat estimators showed significant contrasts in HOMA concentrations when comparing the lower tertiles with the upper tertile. CONCLUSION: In view of an increase in obesity in young people, the results accentuate the role of PA in sustaining metabolic balance in adolescence and the potential benefit of an increase of time spent at higher PA levels for youth with relatively elevated amounts of body fat.
PubMed ID
18326595 View in PubMed
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Blood lactate response to the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test in females.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature223743
Source
Can J Sport Sci. 1992 Jun;17(2):148-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1992
Author
D G Bell
I. Jacobs
Author Affiliation
Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, North York, Ontario.
Source
Can J Sport Sci. 1992 Jun;17(2):148-51
Date
Jun-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Animals
Canada
Exercise - physiology
Exercise Test
Female
Heart rate
Humans
Lactates - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Oxygen Consumption - physiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Abstract
This study evaluated the blood lactate concentration ([LA-]) response to the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (CAFT) in female subjects and compared the strength of prediction of VO2max determined by [LA-] and heart rate (HR). The sample was composed of 98 Canadian Forces females between the ages of 18 and 45 years. The [LA-] after each stage of the step-test was measured in all subjects by sampling blood from the fingertip. VO2max was measured directly during a maximal treadmill run in 66 of these subjects. The results showed that increasing stages of the step-test were associated with increasing [LA-]. The correlation between [LA-] after Stage 5 of the step-test and the directly determined VO2max was r = -0.72 and did not differ significantly from the correlation between HR and VO2max (r = -0.66). The relationship between [LA-] and VO2max for these females was similar to the one established earlier for males; however, the correlation between HR and VO2max for females was different from that observed in males. The present data for the females suggest that [LA-] and HR after Stage 5 of the CAFT predict VO2max equally well for females under age 40.
PubMed ID
1324110 View in PubMed
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74 records – page 1 of 8.