The purpose of this study was to compare the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in 18-19-year-old Norwegian men from 1980 to 1985 and 2002. In addition, we investigated the relationship between VO2max and education and smoking habits in the sample from 2002. From 1980 to 1985, VO2max was predicted using the Astrand-Rhyming bicycle test for 183 610 eighteen-year-old Norwegian men (91% of the male Norwegian population in this age group). In 2002, the same test was performed on a representative sample of the same age population (N=1028). VO2max (mL x kg(-1)x min(-1)), decreased by 8%, body weight increased by 7% and body mass index (BMI) increased by 6% over the approximately 20-year period (P
On completing the main course we used regular hypoxic training to maintain an effect of sustenal regimen. The studies were made in young persons divided into three groups: control group, a group undergoing training according to standard regimen, and a group of sustenal regimen of training. Training under conditions of artificial mountain air improves physical and mental performance, psychoemotional state. Sustenal regimen of training is superior to standard regimen. Sustenal regimen of hypoxic training is to be employed in military, space, sports, and clinical medicine, as well as in case of a possible influence on the human body of stressogenic factors.
OBJECTIVE: To describe population values in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as blood lipids, fasting insulin and glucose and blood pressure in this young age group, and calculate associations to fitness and fatness. METHODS: Participants were 369 boys (6.8 +/- 0.4 years) and 327 girls (6.7 +/- 0.4 years) from preschool classes in Copenhagen. Peak VO2, blood pressure (BP), fat content and anthropometry were determined. A fasting blood sample was analysed for insulin, glucose and blood lipids. Physical activity was measured using accelerometry. RESULTS: Mean BMI, BP and blood lipids were not different between sexes. Fat percentage assessed from skinfolds was higher (21.5% vs. 16.5%) in girls than in boys (P
AIM: To assess trends in neuro-muscular and cardio-respiratory fitness and morphological fitness in Swedish adolescents between 1987 and 2001. METHODS: Comparison of data from two samples, one from 1987 (n = 479) and one from 2001 (n = 1470). Subjects underwent functional tests of muscular strength in the lower limbs, trunk and upper body, sub-maximal ergometrics, and measurement of body mass and height. RESULTS: Cardio-respiratory fitness showed only small changes between 1987 and 2001 among boys, with no changes in girls. Neuro-muscular fitness, as measured by three functional tests, was lower in 2001 compared to 1987. The most pronounced changes in these functional tests were found in the arm-hang test, while changes in lower body and trunk strength tests were less. Our results indicate that the difference in the prevalence of overweight in adolescents between 1987 and 2001 is mainly due to a large change in the most unfit group. The fittest group showed only marginal changes. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the differences in neuro-muscular fitness are at least partly due to differences in the amount and nature of physical activity, and that this might lead to consequences for health later in life.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to relate different sociodemographic, health and physical activity parameters to levels of satisfaction with life as a whole and with 10 specific domains of life. DESIGN: Data on socio-demographic items were sampled, using strictly structured interviews, while a checklist (LiSat-11) was used for self-reported levels of life satisfaction. SUBJECTS: A nationally representative Swedish sample of 1207 women and 1326 men aged 18-64 years. RESULTS: Univariately most of these socio-demographic variables were associated with several of the LiSat-11 items. Using logistic regression, perceived good health and not being a first generation immigrant were the most prominent positive predictors of satisfaction with life as a whole and of most of the domains. Also educational level impacted predictively on satisfaction with many LiSat-11 items. Furthermore, those who were vocationally active, perceived their financial situation as better than or similar to most people's and had a steady partner relationship were particularly likely to be satisfied with life as a whole and with two or more of the domains. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that a multitude of aspects must be taken into account when assessing life satisfaction.
BACKGROUND: This study analyzed the long-term effect of leisure-time physical activity on incident cases of coronary heart disease (CHD) among women and men. METHODS: A national, random sample of 2,551 women and 2,645 men, aged 35-74, was interviewed in 1988 and 1989 and followed until December 31, 2000, with respect to CHD incident cases. Women and men hospitalized for CHD 2 years before the start of the study and those who rated their general health as poor were not included in the sample. Leisure-time physical activity was divided into four levels according to the frequency of physical activity. The relationship between leisure-time physical activity and CHD was studied in a Cox regression model, adjusted for sex, age, income, smoking, and BMI. RESULTS: When leisure-time physical activity increased, the risk of CHD decreased. Women and men who were physically active at least twice a week had a 41% lower risk of developing CHD than those who performed no physical activity (hazard ratio = 0.59, CI = 0.37-0.95), after adjustment for all the explanatory variables. CONCLUSIONS: The positive long-term effect of leisure-time physical activity on CHD risk among women and men remains even after accounting for income and other important CHD risk factors.
Patients (n=997) visiting general practitioners in an area in Western Norway completed a battery of questionnaires related to subjective health complaints and fatigue. An additional 78 patients were referred directly to the hospital for neurasthenia. After screening the questionnaires and interviews with a selected sample, a total of 73 patients were finally accepted as 'neurasthenia' patients satisfying the ICD-10 diagnosis. These patients were compared with the remaining 1002 patients. Patients with neurasthenia had more prevalent and more severe subjective health complaints, particularly pseudoneurological and musculoskeletal complaints than the reference population of patients. They reported low levels of instrumental coping and poorer physical fitness, in spite of a comparable level of self reported physical activity and exercise. Women were over-represented in this group. This overall higher score on subjective complaints from all organ systems is in accordance with the hypothesis of an overall and general sensitization to the afferent inputs from their psychophysiological systems.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cardiovascular fitness levels and body mass index (BMI) status among an ethnically diverse sample of youth. METHODS: The cross-sectional sample consisted of California fifth, seventh, and ninth graders (10-15 yr). Data presented included a total of 767,809 youth (M = 389,925, F = 377,884) from the following ethnic groups: African American 58,491; American Indian-Alaskan Natives 8,971; Asian 63,292; Filipino 22,598; Hispanic 330,758; Pacific Islanders 7,977; and white non-Hispanics 275,722. Performance on the 1-mile run/walk (seconds, MRW), height (cm), and weight (kg) measures were taken by physical education staff in public schools across California. Comparisons of MRW were analyzed with hierarchical multiple linear regression, controlling for height and weight for each age strata for males and females, separately. Youth were classified as overweight (> or = 95th percentile) or at risk for overweight (> or = 85th percentile,