The purpose of this study was to describe levels of inflammation markers in Norwegian children and to examine the associations of adiposity, aerobic fitness, and muscle fitness with markers of inflammation.
In 2005-2006, 1467 nine-year-olds were randomly selected from all regions in Norway. The participation rate was 89%. The inflammatory markers evaluated included C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumor necrosis factor-a, hepatocyte growth factor, resistin, and interleukin-6. We assessed muscular strength by measuring explosive, isometric, and endurance strength. Aerobic fitness was measured directly during a maximal cycle ergometer test. Adiposity was expressed as waist circumference (WC).
The girls had significantly higher levels of CRP, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin and lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-a compared with the boys. We observed a graded association of CRP and leptin levels across quintiles of WC, aerobic fitness, and muscle fitness (P = 0.001 for all participants). The regression analyses revealed that WC, aerobic fitness, and muscle fitness were independently associated with the CRP (WC ß = 0.158, P
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the association of fitness and fatness with blood pressure (BP) and hypertension.This was a cross-sectional study of 13,557 boys and girls 15-20 years of age. Fitness was estimated from a shuttle run test, fatness from body mass index (BMI), and BP was measured sitting after 5 min of rest. Other lifestyle variables were self-reported. RESULTS: Boys had a higher systolic BP (SBP) than girls. A low physical fitness level and high BMI were independently associated with a high BP and risk of having hypertension in both girls and boys. Interaction was found between BMI and fitness. In a stratified analysis an odds ratio (OR) of 3.99 was found for hypertension in girls with a BMI > 25 kg m(-2) compared to lean girls if all had a low fitness level, and an OR of 2.14 for a high BMI in girls with a high fitness level. In boys, OR for high versus low BMI were 3.23 in the low fit and 2.34 and 2.50 in the middle and upper tertile of fitness, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Fitness and BMI were independently associated to BP. BMI was a stronger predictor of hypertension in those with a low fitness level, especially in girls.
OBJECTIVE: To describe population values in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as blood lipids, fasting insulin and glucose and blood pressure in this young age group, and calculate associations to fitness and fatness. METHODS: Participants were 369 boys (6.8 +/- 0.4 years) and 327 girls (6.7 +/- 0.4 years) from preschool classes in Copenhagen. Peak VO2, blood pressure (BP), fat content and anthropometry were determined. A fasting blood sample was analysed for insulin, glucose and blood lipids. Physical activity was measured using accelerometry. RESULTS: Mean BMI, BP and blood lipids were not different between sexes. Fat percentage assessed from skinfolds was higher (21.5% vs. 16.5%) in girls than in boys (P
This study investigated the effect of commuter cycling on cardiorespiratory fitness in men and women. Secondary outcomes included body fat and blood pressure measurements.
In February 2009, 48 volunteers from the Island of Funen, Denmark were randomly assigned to either "no change in lifestyle" or to "minimum 20 minutes of daily commuter cycling during 8 weeks". Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed directly during a progressive cycle-ergometer-test, sum of skinfolds was used as an estimate of body fat, and blood pressure was measured using a Dinamap monitor. Measurements were obtained at baseline and at the conclusion of the 8-week intervention program.
Six cyclists dropped out. After 8 weeks VO(2)max (mL O(2) min(-1)) and cardiorespiratory fitness (mL O(2) kg(-1) min(-1)) were significantly improved in the cycling group when compared to the control group. Delta change in VO(2)max between groups equaled 206 mL O(2) min(-1) (p=0.005) and delta change in cardiorespiratory fitness equaled 2.6 mL O(2) kg(-1) min(-1) (p=0.003). Body fatness changed more noticeable (p=0.026) in the cyclists (-12.3±7.3 mm) than in the controls (-0.2±7.1 mm).
VO(2)max and cardiorespiratory fitness were significantly improved and body fat reduced as a result of people engaging in 8 weeks of commuter cycling.
This study assessed short-term and long-term effects of a 3-yr controlled school-based physical activity (PA) intervention on fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO(2peak)) and CVD risk factors in children.
The study involved 18 schools (10 intervention and 8 controls) and included a follow-up 4 yr after the end of intervention. The analyses included 696, 6- to 7-yr-old children at baseline, 612 postintervention (age 9.5 yr) and 441 at follow-up (age 13.4 yr). The intervention consisted of a doubling of the amount of physical education (PE; from 90 to 180 min·wk(-1)), training of PE teachers, and upgrading of PE and playing facilities. Anthropometrics and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured. VO(2peak) was directly measured, and PA was assessed using accelerometry. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for CVD risk factors. A composite risk score was computed from z-scores of SBP, triglycerides, total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA score), skinfolds, and inverse VO(2peak).
The HOMA score of the intervention group boys had a smaller increase from baseline to postintervention compared with control boys (P = 0.004). From baseline to follow-up intervention group boys had a smaller increase in SBP compared with control boys (P = 0.010). There were no other significant differences between groups.
This 3-yr school-based PA intervention caused positive changes in SBP and HOMA score in boys but not in girls, and no effects were seen in PA, VO(2peak), fatness, and the other measured CVD risk factors. Our results indicate that a doubling of PE and providing training and equipment may not be sufficient to induce major improvements in CVD risk factors in a normal population.