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Adiposity, aerobic fitness, muscle fitness, and markers of inflammation in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119134
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 Apr;45(4):714-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
Jostein Steene-Johannessen
Elin Kolle
Lars Bo Andersen
Sigmund A Anderssen
Author Affiliation
Department of Sports, Faculty of Teacher Education and Sports, Sogn og Fjordane University College, Sogndal, Norway. jostsj@hisf.no
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 Apr;45(4):714-21
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity - physiology
Biological Markers - blood
Child
Exercise Test
Female
Humans
Inflammation - blood - diagnosis
Inflammation Mediators - blood
Male
Muscle Strength - physiology
Norway
Physical Fitness - physiology
Regression Analysis
Sex Distribution
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to describe levels of inflammation markers in Norwegian children and to examine the associations of adiposity, aerobic fitness, and muscle fitness with markers of inflammation.
In 2005-2006, 1467 nine-year-olds were randomly selected from all regions in Norway. The participation rate was 89%. The inflammatory markers evaluated included C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumor necrosis factor-a, hepatocyte growth factor, resistin, and interleukin-6. We assessed muscular strength by measuring explosive, isometric, and endurance strength. Aerobic fitness was measured directly during a maximal cycle ergometer test. Adiposity was expressed as waist circumference (WC).
The girls had significantly higher levels of CRP, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin and lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-a compared with the boys. We observed a graded association of CRP and leptin levels across quintiles of WC, aerobic fitness, and muscle fitness (P = 0.001 for all participants). The regression analyses revealed that WC, aerobic fitness, and muscle fitness were independently associated with the CRP (WC ß = 0.158, P
PubMed ID
23135365 View in PubMed
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The association between high blood pressure, physical fitness, and body mass index in adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52961
Source
Prev Med. 2003 Feb;36(2):229-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
Gert A Nielsen
Lars Bo Andersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Cancer Prevention and Documentation, Danish Cancer Society, Strandbouldevarden 49, DK 2100/National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Prev Med. 2003 Feb;36(2):229-34
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body mass index
Confidence Intervals
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology - etiology
Life Style
Logistic Models
Male
Physical Fitness - physiology
Questionnaires
Sex Distribution
Smoking - adverse effects
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the association of fitness and fatness with blood pressure (BP) and hypertension.This was a cross-sectional study of 13,557 boys and girls 15-20 years of age. Fitness was estimated from a shuttle run test, fatness from body mass index (BMI), and BP was measured sitting after 5 min of rest. Other lifestyle variables were self-reported. RESULTS: Boys had a higher systolic BP (SBP) than girls. A low physical fitness level and high BMI were independently associated with a high BP and risk of having hypertension in both girls and boys. Interaction was found between BMI and fitness. In a stratified analysis an odds ratio (OR) of 3.99 was found for hypertension in girls with a BMI > 25 kg m(-2) compared to lean girls if all had a low fitness level, and an OR of 2.14 for a high BMI in girls with a high fitness level. In boys, OR for high versus low BMI were 3.23 in the low fit and 2.34 and 2.50 in the middle and upper tertile of fitness, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Fitness and BMI were independently associated to BP. BMI was a stronger predictor of hypertension in those with a low fitness level, especially in girls.
PubMed ID
12590998 View in PubMed
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Cardiovascular disease risk factors in 6-7-year-old Danish children: the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29749
Source
Prev Med. 2005 Jun;40(6):740-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
Stig Eiberg Hansen
Henriette Hasselstrøm
Vivian Grønfeldt
Karsten Froberg
Lars Bo Andersen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Prev Med. 2005 Jun;40(6):740-6
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Anthropometry
Blood Chemical Analysis
Blood Glucose - analysis
Blood Pressure Determination
Body Composition
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology
Child
Cholesterol - blood
Comparative Study
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Susceptibility - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Intervention Studies
Male
Physical Fitness - physiology
Probability
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Students
Urban Population
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe population values in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as blood lipids, fasting insulin and glucose and blood pressure in this young age group, and calculate associations to fitness and fatness. METHODS: Participants were 369 boys (6.8 +/- 0.4 years) and 327 girls (6.7 +/- 0.4 years) from preschool classes in Copenhagen. Peak VO2, blood pressure (BP), fat content and anthropometry were determined. A fasting blood sample was analysed for insulin, glucose and blood lipids. Physical activity was measured using accelerometry. RESULTS: Mean BMI, BP and blood lipids were not different between sexes. Fat percentage assessed from skinfolds was higher (21.5% vs. 16.5%) in girls than in boys (P
PubMed ID
15850874 View in PubMed
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The effect on cardiorespiratory fitness after an 8-week period of commuter cycling--a randomized controlled study in adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133411
Source
Prev Med. 2011 Sep;53(3):172-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Niels Christian Møller
Lars Østergaard
Jens Raaberg Gade
Jeppe Lund Nielsen
Lars Bo Andersen
Author Affiliation
Centre for Research in Childhood Health, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark. ncmoller@health.sdu.dk
Source
Prev Med. 2011 Sep;53(3):172-7
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue
Adult
Bicycling - physiology
Cardiovascular System
Denmark
Exercise Test
Female
Health status
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity - physiology
Oxygen consumption
Physical Fitness - physiology
Respiratory System
Skinfold thickness
Statistics, nonparametric
Time Factors
Transportation
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of commuter cycling on cardiorespiratory fitness in men and women. Secondary outcomes included body fat and blood pressure measurements.
In February 2009, 48 volunteers from the Island of Funen, Denmark were randomly assigned to either "no change in lifestyle" or to "minimum 20 minutes of daily commuter cycling during 8 weeks". Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed directly during a progressive cycle-ergometer-test, sum of skinfolds was used as an estimate of body fat, and blood pressure was measured using a Dinamap monitor. Measurements were obtained at baseline and at the conclusion of the 8-week intervention program.
Six cyclists dropped out. After 8 weeks VO(2)max (mL O(2) min(-1)) and cardiorespiratory fitness (mL O(2) kg(-1) min(-1)) were significantly improved in the cycling group when compared to the control group. Delta change in VO(2)max between groups equaled 206 mL O(2) min(-1) (p=0.005) and delta change in cardiorespiratory fitness equaled 2.6 mL O(2) kg(-1) min(-1) (p=0.003). Body fatness changed more noticeable (p=0.026) in the cyclists (-12.3±7.3 mm) than in the controls (-0.2±7.1 mm).
VO(2)max and cardiorespiratory fitness were significantly improved and body fat reduced as a result of people engaging in 8 weeks of commuter cycling.
PubMed ID
21708185 View in PubMed
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Effects of a three-year intervention: the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127404
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Jul;44(7):1310-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2012
Author
Anna Bugge
Bianca El-Naaman
Magnus Dencker
Karsten Froberg
Ingar Morten K Holme
Robert G McMurray
Lars Bo Andersen
Author Affiliation
Centre of Research in Childhood Health, Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense M, Denmark. anbugge@health.sdu.dk
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Jul;44(7):1310-7
Date
Jul-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Markers - blood
Blood Pressure Determination
Cardiovascular Diseases - etiology - prevention & control
Child
Denmark
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)
Oxygen consumption
Physical Education and Training - statistics & numerical data
Physical Fitness - physiology
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Schools
Sex Factors
Abstract
This study assessed short-term and long-term effects of a 3-yr controlled school-based physical activity (PA) intervention on fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO(2peak)) and CVD risk factors in children.
The study involved 18 schools (10 intervention and 8 controls) and included a follow-up 4 yr after the end of intervention. The analyses included 696, 6- to 7-yr-old children at baseline, 612 postintervention (age 9.5 yr) and 441 at follow-up (age 13.4 yr). The intervention consisted of a doubling of the amount of physical education (PE; from 90 to 180 min·wk(-1)), training of PE teachers, and upgrading of PE and playing facilities. Anthropometrics and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured. VO(2peak) was directly measured, and PA was assessed using accelerometry. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for CVD risk factors. A composite risk score was computed from z-scores of SBP, triglycerides, total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA score), skinfolds, and inverse VO(2peak).
The HOMA score of the intervention group boys had a smaller increase from baseline to postintervention compared with control boys (P = 0.004). From baseline to follow-up intervention group boys had a smaller increase in SBP compared with control boys (P = 0.010). There were no other significant differences between groups.
This 3-yr school-based PA intervention caused positive changes in SBP and HOMA score in boys but not in girls, and no effects were seen in PA, VO(2peak), fatness, and the other measured CVD risk factors. Our results indicate that a doubling of PE and providing training and equipment may not be sufficient to induce major improvements in CVD risk factors in a normal population.
PubMed ID
22297806 View in PubMed
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