The purpose was to describe the patterns of commuting to school in young people and to examine its associations with physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness.
The sample comprised 2271 Estonian and Swedish children and adolescents (1218 females) aged 9-10 years and 15-16 years. Data were collected in 1998/99. Mode of commuting to and from school was assessed by questionnaire. Time spent (min/day) in PA and average PA (counts/min) was measured by accelerometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by means of a maximal cycle ergometer test.
Sixty-one percent of the participants reported active commuting to school (ACS). Estonian youth showed lower levels of ACS than Swedish (odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.76) and girls reported lower levels than boys (0.74; 0.62-0.88). ACS boys showed higher PA levels than non-ACS boys for moderate, vigorous, MVPA, and average PA levels (all p = 0.01). Participants who cycled to school had higher cardiorespiratory fitness than walkers or passive travellers (p
The present study examined the activity profile, heart rate and metabolic response of small-sided football games for untrained males (UM, n=26) and females (UF, n=21) and investigated the influence of the number of players (UM: 1v1, 3v3, 7v7; UF: 2v2, 4v4 and 7v7). Moreover, heart rate response to small-sided games was studied for children aged 9 and 12 years (C9+C12, n=75), as well as homeless (HM, n=15), middle-aged (MM, n=9) and elderly (EM, n=11) men. During 7v7, muscle glycogen decreased more for UM than UF (28 +/- 6 vs 11 +/- 5%; P90% of HR(max) ranged from 147 +/- 4 (EM) to 162 +/- 2 (UM) b.p.m. and 10.8 +/- 1.5 (UF) to 47.8 +/- 5.8% (EM). Time >90% of HR(max) (UM: 16-17%; UF: 8-13%) and time spent with high speed running (4.1-5.1%) was similar for training with 2-14 players, but more high-intensity runs were performed with few players (UM 1v1: 140 +/- 17; UM 7v7: 97 +/- 5; P
The aim of this study was to describe the activity profile of top-class female soccer referees during competition and to relate it to the position of the ball. Ten matches from the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) under-20 female World Championships held in Russia in 2006 were filmed and the kinematical parameters of the female referees (n=10) and the ball were determined using a two-dimensional photogrammetric video system based on direct linear transformation (DLT) algorithms. Total distance covered during a match was 10 km, of which 1.3 km represented high-intensity activities (>13 km/h). The referees' highest mobility was achieved in the initial 15 min of the match, covering greater distance and performing more intense exercise (P
Self-efficacy has been found to be an important precondition for behavioral change in sedentary people. The current study examined the effectiveness and added value of including a 15-minute self-efficacy coaching at the start of a 12-week lifestyle physical activity (PA) program.
Participants were randomly assigned to a standard-intervention group (without additional self-efficacy coaching, N = 116) or extra-intervention group (with additional self-efficacy coaching, N = 111). Body mass index (BMI), cardiovascular fitness, self-reported PA, and self-efficacy beliefs were assessed at baseline and immediately after the intervention period. Perceived adherence to the PA program was assessed postintervention.
At posttest, a significant increase in cardiovascular fitness and decrease in BMI were found in both groups. Significant intervention effects emerged on PA behavior, self-efficacy, and program adherence, in favor of the extra-intervention group. Self-efficacy mediated the intervention effect on program adherence whereas no evidence was found for its role as mediator of PA change.
Adding a 15-minute self-efficacy coaching at the start of a lifestyle PA program is a promising strategy to enhance the intervention effects on PA behavior, self-efficacy beliefs, and program adherence. However, the role of self-efficacy as mediator of the intervention effect on in PA was not fully supported.
There is limited knowledge regarding to what extent the older population meet the recommendations of physical exercise, especially fitness-enhancing exercise. This study assessed participation in health- and fitness-enhancing exercises in people aged >65, and explored to what extent the possible differences in meeting current recommendations differs by age, gender and education.
The study population was derived from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care, and consisted of a random sample of 2593 subjects, aged 65+ years. Participation in health- and fitness-enhancing exercise according to the WHO and the American College of Sports Medicine's recommendations in relation to age, gender and education was evaluated using multinomial logistic regression adjusted for health indicators and physical performance.
According to the recommendations, 46% of the participants fulfilled the criteria for health-enhancing and 16% for fitness-enhancing exercises. Independent of health indicators and physical performance, women
The purpose of this study was to describe levels of inflammation markers in Norwegian children and to examine the associations of adiposity, aerobic fitness, and muscle fitness with markers of inflammation.
In 2005-2006, 1467 nine-year-olds were randomly selected from all regions in Norway. The participation rate was 89%. The inflammatory markers evaluated included C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumor necrosis factor-a, hepatocyte growth factor, resistin, and interleukin-6. We assessed muscular strength by measuring explosive, isometric, and endurance strength. Aerobic fitness was measured directly during a maximal cycle ergometer test. Adiposity was expressed as waist circumference (WC).
The girls had significantly higher levels of CRP, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin and lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-a compared with the boys. We observed a graded association of CRP and leptin levels across quintiles of WC, aerobic fitness, and muscle fitness (P = 0.001 for all participants). The regression analyses revealed that WC, aerobic fitness, and muscle fitness were independently associated with the CRP (WC ß = 0.158, P
To examine the association between aerobic performance and body composition changes by body mass index (BMI).
6-12 months' follow-up during military service.
Conscripts entering military service in 2005 in Sodankyl? Jaeger Brigade (Finland).
945 men (19 years, SD 1 years).
Height, weight, waist circumference, BMI, and aerobic performance (Cooper test) were recorded. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The measured parameters were fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), and visceral fat area (VFA). All the measurements were performed at the beginning and end of service.
On average, the military training period improved the running distance by 6.8% (169 m, p
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Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the main reason for morbidity during military training. MSDs commonly result in functional impairment leading to premature discharge from military service and disabilities requiring long-term rehabilitation. The purpose of the study was to examine associations between various risk factors and MSDs with special attention to the physical fitness of the conscripts.
Two successive cohorts of 18 to 28-year-old male conscripts (N = 944, median age 19) were followed for six months. MSDs, including overuse and acute injuries, treated at the garrison clinic were identified and analysed. Associations between MSDs and risk factors were examined by multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models.
During the six-month follow-up of two successive cohorts there were 1629 MSDs and 2879 health clinic visits due to MSDs in 944 persons. The event-based incidence rate for MSD was 10.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.0-11.1) per 1000 person-days. Most MSDs were in the lower extremities (65%) followed by the back (18%). The strongest baseline factors associated with MSDs were poor result in the combined outcome of a 12-minute running test and back lift test (hazard ratio (HR) 2.9; 95% CI: 1.9-4.6), high waist circumference (HR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2), high body mass index (HR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4), poor result in a 12-minute running test (HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.2), earlier musculoskeletal symptoms (HR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.1) and poor school success (educational level and grades combined; HR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.3-3.0). In addition, risk factors of long-term MSDs (>or=10 service days lost due to one or several MSDs) were analysed: poor result in a 12-minute running test, earlier musculoskeletal symptoms, high waist circumference, high body mass index, not belonging to a sports club and poor result in the combined outcome of the 12-minute running test and standing long jump test were strongly associated with long-term MSDs.
The majority of the observed risk factors are modifiable and favourable for future interventions. An appropriate intervention based on the present study would improve both aerobic and muscular fitness prior to conscript training. Attention to appropriate waist circumference and body mass index would strengthen the intervention. Effective results from well-planned randomised controlled studies are needed before initiating large-scale prevention programmes in a military environment.
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The Norwegian Home Guard (HG) consists of soldiers and officers who primarily live a civilian life but are typically called in for military training a few days per year. Although full-time soldiers and officers are monitored annually on physical fitness, no such assessments are performed on regular HG personnel. Data on physical fitness of similar forces from other nations are also scarce. Thus, the main aim of this study was to collect reference data on physical fitness in HG personnel. A total of 799 male soldiers and officers from the regular and the rapid reaction HG force participated in this study. Between 13 and 19% of the subjects were obese, according to measured body mass index, waist circumference and estimations of body fat. The mean (95% confidence interval) estimated peak oxygen uptake from the 20-m shuttle run test was 50.1 (49.7-50.6) mL·kg·minute. Personnel from the rapid reaction force had a more favorable body composition compared with the regular HG personnel, whereas no differences were found for peak oxygen uptake. The physical demands on HG personnel are not well defined, but we believe that the majority of Norwegian HG soldiers and officers have a sufficient aerobic fitness level to fulfill their planned HG tasks. The gathered data can be used by military leaders to review the ability of the HG to perform expected military tasks, to serve as a future reference material for secular changes in HG fitness level, and for comparison purposes among similar international reserve forces.
The fitness test for correctional officer applicants (FITCO) was constructed a priori to conform to requirements established by the Meiorin Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada. A critical obligation from this decision is to determine whether the FITCO has the potential of adverse impact on any subpopulation of applicants and, if so, whether it is possible to provide accommodation. The FITCO pass rate was 28.6% for 56 women and 72.7% for 22 men, which indicates adverse impact on the female applicants. There was no specific adverse impact on minority applicants. To evaluate training as accommodation for adverse impact, a subgroup of 40 females and 8 males engaged in a 6-week FITCO-specific training program with pre-FITCO and post-FITCO performance evaluations. Over the 6 weeks, the overall FITCO pass rate of the females improved to 82.5%, whereas the pass rate of the males improved to 100%, indicating that the training program removed the adverse impact that the FITCO had on the females. We conclude that although the FITCO is likely to have an adverse impact on female correctional officer applicants, a 6-week FITCO-specific training program can provide the accommodation necessary to overcome the potential adverse impact, and the FITCO meets all the requirements established by the Supreme Court of Canada's Meiorin Decision.