OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a school-based intervention programme to reduce the prevalence of overweight in 6 to 10-year-old children. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized, controlled study. SUBJECTS: A total of 3135 boys and girls in grades 1-4 were included in the study. METHODS: Ten schools were selected in Stockholm county area and randomized to intervention (n=5) and control (n=5) schools. Low-fat dairy products and whole-grain bread were promoted and all sweets and sweetened drinks were eliminated in intervention schools. Physical activity (PA) was aimed to increase by 30 min day(-1) during school time and sedentary behaviour restricted during after school care time. PA was measured by accelerometry. Eating habits at home were assessed by parental report. Eating disorders were evaluated by self-report. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased by 3.2% (from 20.3 to 17.1) in intervention schools compared with an increase of 2.8% (from 16.1 to 18.9) in control schools (P
We sought to describe responses to the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in healthy Canadian adults in order to facilitate interpretation of its results in patient populations. Seventy-seven healthy Canadians aged 45 to 85 years (65 ± 11 years, 40 females) completed this study. During a single visit, three 6MWTs were undertaken. The main outcome measure was 6-min walk distance (6MWD). Age, gender, height, and weight were recorded. In 61 (79%) participants, cardiorespiratory variables were collected during the third 6MWT using a calibrated portable gas analysis system. The 6MWD increased between the first and second test (615 ± 96 to 639 ± 98 m; p
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of a 10-week training program with two different exercises -- traditional hamstring curl (HC) and Nordic hamstrings (NH), a partner exercise focusing the eccentric phase -- on muscle strength among male soccer players. METHODS: Subjects were 21 well-trained players who were randomized to NH training (n = 11) or HC training (n = 10). The programs were similar, with a gradual increase in the number of repetitions from two sets of six reps to three sets of eight to 12 reps over 4 weeks, and then increasing load during the final 6 weeks of training. Strength was measured as maximal torque on a Cybex dynamometer before and after the training period. RESULTS: In the NH group, there was an 11% increase in eccentric hamstring torque measured at 60 degrees s(-1), as well as a 7% increase in isometric hamstring strength at 90 degrees, 60 degrees and 30 degrees of knee flexion. Since there was no effect on concentric quadriceps strength, there was a significant increase in the hamstrings:quadriceps ratio from 0.89 +/- 0.12 to 0.98 +/- 0.17 (11%) in the NH group. No changes were observed in the HC group. CONCLUSION: NH training for 10 weeks more effectively develops maximal eccentric hamstring strength in well-trained soccer players than a comparable program based on traditional HC.
This study's objective was to assess the effects of a 12-month physical exercise intervention on work ability (WAI) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in healthy working adults.
The study group had 371 participants, of which 338 (212 women and 126 men) were allocated in the exercise group and 33 (17 women and 16 men) in the control group. The exercise group underwent a 12-month exercise program followed by a 12-month follow-up. WAI and CRF were evaluated at baseline, and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 study months, in both exercise and control groups. The exercise group was divided into subgroups according to baseline WAI classifications (poor/moderate, good, excellent).
During the 12-month exercise intervention, the exercise group increased their leisure-time physical activity by 71% (p = 0.016) and improved the mean WAI by 3% and CRF by 7% (p
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The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the physiological profile of a National Hockey League (NHL) team over a period of 26 years. All measurements were made at a similar time of year (pre-season) in 703 male (mean age +/- SD = 24 +/- 4 y) hockey players. The data were analyzed across years, between positions (defensemen, forwards, and goaltenders), and between what were deemed successful and non-successful years using a combination of points acquired during the season and play-off success. Most anthropometric (height, mass, and BMI) and physiological parameters (absolute and relative VO2 peak, relative peak 5 s power output, abdominal endurance, and combined grip strength) showed a gradual increase over the 26 year period. Defensemen were taller and heavier, had higher absolute VO2 peak, and had greater combined grip strength than forwards and goaltenders. Forwards were younger and had higher values for relative VO2 peak. Goaltenders were shorter, had less body mass, a higher sum of skinfolds, lower VO2 peak, and better flexibility. The overall pre-season fitness profile was not related to team success. In conclusion, this study revealed that the fitness profile for a professional NHL ice-hockey team exhibited increases in player size and anaerobic and aerobic fitness parameters over a 26 year period that differed by position. However, this evolution of physiological profile did not necessarily translate into team success in this particular NHL franchise.
When analysing physical activity (PA) levels using accelerometry, the epoch setting is critical to capture intensity-specific PA correctly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the PA intensity signatures related to metabolic health in children using different epoch settings. A sample of 841 Norwegian children (age 10.2 ± 0.3 years; BMI 18.0 ± 3.0; 50% boys) provided data on accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+) and several indices of metabolic health (aerobic fitness, abdominal fatness, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, blood pressure) that were used to create a composite metabolic health score. We created intensity spectra from 0-99 to = 10000 counts per minute (cpm) for files aggregated using 1, 10, and 60-second epoch periods and used multivariate pattern analysis to analyse the data. The association patterns with metabolic health differed substantially between epoch settings. The intensity intervals most strongly associated with metabolic health were 7000-8000 cpm for data analysed using 1-second epoch, 5500-6500 cpm for data analysed using 10-second epoch, and 4000-5000 cpm analysed using 60-second epoch. Aggregation of data over different epoch periods has a clear impact on how PA intensities in the moderate and vigorous range are associated with childhood metabolic health.
The association between active leisure pursuits and various indices of fitness has been examined in 165 males aged 13-39 years and 95 females aged 13-29 years, all Inuit residents of the community of Igloolik, NWT (69 degrees 40'N). The active individuals have largely conserved the high level of fitness that characterized the settlement in 1969/70, showing substantial advantages over their sedentary peers in terms of relative aerobic power (27.7%, males, 21.3%, females) and subcutaneous fat (18.3%, males, 5.9%, females), with a lesser trend to advantages of strength (handgrip force, 4.4%, males, 0.8% females; knee extension force, 8.3%, males, 2.0%, females). Much of their continued aerobic fitness can probably be attributed to physical activity although in the boys aged 13-16 years, a further factor is the selection of active leisure pursuits by tall, heavy and early maturing individuals. Both the lower body fat and the larger aerobic power are likely to have positive implications for future health. The current challenge is thus to increase the proportion of physically active villagers beyond the current 18.8% of males and 11.6% of females.