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A 26 year physiological description of a National Hockey League team.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156070
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Aug;33(4):753-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2008
Author
H A Quinney
Randy Dewart
Alex Game
Gary Snydmiller
Darren Warburton
Gordon Bell
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Aug;33(4):753-60
Date
Aug-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anthropometry - methods
Body Height - physiology
Body mass index
Body Weights and Measures - methods - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Hand Strength - physiology
Hockey - physiology - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Oxygen Consumption - physiology
Physical Endurance - physiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Skinfold thickness
Time
Young Adult
Abstract
The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the physiological profile of a National Hockey League (NHL) team over a period of 26 years. All measurements were made at a similar time of year (pre-season) in 703 male (mean age +/- SD = 24 +/- 4 y) hockey players. The data were analyzed across years, between positions (defensemen, forwards, and goaltenders), and between what were deemed successful and non-successful years using a combination of points acquired during the season and play-off success. Most anthropometric (height, mass, and BMI) and physiological parameters (absolute and relative VO2 peak, relative peak 5 s power output, abdominal endurance, and combined grip strength) showed a gradual increase over the 26 year period. Defensemen were taller and heavier, had higher absolute VO2 peak, and had greater combined grip strength than forwards and goaltenders. Forwards were younger and had higher values for relative VO2 peak. Goaltenders were shorter, had less body mass, a higher sum of skinfolds, lower VO2 peak, and better flexibility. The overall pre-season fitness profile was not related to team success. In conclusion, this study revealed that the fitness profile for a professional NHL ice-hockey team exhibited increases in player size and anaerobic and aerobic fitness parameters over a 26 year period that differed by position. However, this evolution of physiological profile did not necessarily translate into team success in this particular NHL franchise.
PubMed ID
18641719 View in PubMed
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Adolescent flexibility, endurance strength, and physical activity as predictors of adult tension neck, low back pain, and knee injury: a 25 year follow up study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171052
Source
Br J Sports Med. 2006 Feb;40(2):107-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2006
Author
L O Mikkelsson
H. Nupponen
J. Kaprio
H. Kautiainen
M. Mikkelsson
U M Kujala
Author Affiliation
Pajulahti Sports Center, Nastola, Finland. kesto@sci.fi
Source
Br J Sports Med. 2006 Feb;40(2):107-13
Date
Feb-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aging - physiology
Child
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Knee Injuries - etiology
Low Back Pain - etiology
Male
Motor Activity - physiology
Muscle Contraction - physiology
Neck Pain - etiology
Odds Ratio
Physical Endurance - physiology
Pliability
Questionnaires
Recurrence
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
To examine whether adolescent flexibility, endurance strength, and physical activity can predict the later occurrence of recurrent low back pain, tension neck, or knee injury.
In 1976, 520 men and 605 women participated in a sit and reach test (flexibility) and a 30 second sit up test (endurance strength). In 1976 and 2001 (aged 37 and 42 years) they completed a questionnaire. Lifetime occurrence and risk of self reported low back pain and self reported, physician diagnosed tension neck and knee injury were calculated for subjects divided into tertiles by baseline results of strength and flexibility tests.
Men from the highest baseline flexibility tertile were at lower risk of tension neck than those from the lowest tertile (odds ratio (OR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28 to 0.93). Women from the highest baseline endurance strength tertile were at lower risk of tension neck than those from the lowest tertile (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.91). Men from the highest baseline endurance strength tertile were at higher risk of knee injury than those from the lowest tertile (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.64). Men who at school age participated in physical activity were at lower risk of recurrent low back pain (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.88) than those who did not.
Overall good flexibility in boys and good endurance strength in girls may contribute to a decreased risk of tension neck. High endurance strength in boys may indicate an increased risk of knee injury.
Notes
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PubMed ID
16431995 View in PubMed
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Age-related normative values for handgrip strength and grip strength's usefulness as a predictor of mortality and both cognitive and physical decline in older adults in northwest Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285527
Source
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2017 Mar 01;17(1):417-432
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-01-2017
Author
A. Turusheva
E. Frolova
J-M Degryse
Source
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2017 Mar 01;17(1):417-432
Date
Mar-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - physiology - psychology
Cognition - physiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hand Strength - physiology
Humans
Male
Mortality - trends
Physical Endurance - physiology
Predictive value of tests
Prospective Studies
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
This paper sought to provide normative values for grip strength among older adults across different age groups in northwest Russia and to investigate their predictive value for adverse events.
A population-based prospective cohort study of 611 community-dwelling individuals 65+. Grip strength was measured using the standard protocol applied in the Groningen Elderly Tests. The cut-off thresholds for grip strength were defined separately for men and women of different ages using a weighted polynomial regression. A Cox regression analysis, the c-statistic, a risk reclassification analysis, and bootstrapping techniques were used to analyze the data. The outcomes were the 5-year mortality rate, the loss of autonomy and mental decline.
We determined the age-related reference intervals of grip strength for older adults. The 5(th) and 10(th) percentiles of grip strength were associated with a higher risk for malnutrition, low autonomy, physical and mental functioning and 5-year mortality. The 5(th) percentile of grip strength was associated with a decline in autonomy.
This study presents age- and sex-specific reference values for grip strength in the 65+ Russian population derived from a prospective cohort study. The norms can be used in clinical practice to identify patients at increased risk for adverse outcomes.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28250246 View in PubMed
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Aging, physical activity and sports injuries. An overview of common sports injuries in the elderly.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214904
Source
Sports Med. 1995 Jul;20(1):41-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1995
Author
M. Kallinen
A. Markku
Author Affiliation
Peurunka-Medical Rehabilitation and Physical Exercise Centre, Laukaa, Finland.
Source
Sports Med. 1995 Jul;20(1):41-52
Date
Jul-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aging - physiology
Athletic Injuries - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Exercise - physiology
Exercise Tolerance - physiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Physical Endurance - physiology
Risk factors
Abstract
Illness and aging both cause many structural and functional alterations in the human body, rendering elderly people liable to overloading of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. It should, however, be kept in mind that immobilisation and inactivity have even more deleterious effects on structures and functions in the elderly than in younger adults. Most physically active elderly people are selected individuals with respect to their superior health and physical capacity compared with inactive persons of the same age, thus making it possible to further improve their physical capacity. They will, however, be affected by some of the drawbacks of physical overloading, mostly due to the diminished ability of aging body systems to adapt to high levels of loading. The safety margin of an exercise dose tends to decline with aging. Exertional injuries are common among the elderly, and are connected mostly with degenerative aging processes. Acute injuries are common in those elderly people participating in sport activities which demand high coordination, reaction time, and balance capabilities, such as ball games, down-hill skiing, and gymnastics. Muscle has been reported to be the most commonly acutely injured tissue among active elderly athletes. The lower extremities are the most susceptible to injury. A large proportion of injuries (acute and exertional) are mild and can be treated by brief cessation of training and competition activities. Some of the injuries are, however, long term and cause disability not only during training and competition, but also in the normal activities of daily living. It is important that these injuries are treated as soon as possible and in the most effective way, similarly to injuries suffered by younger people. In treating elderly people, it is most important to avoid the detrimental effects of immobilisation; this requires active treatment and rehabilitation with compensatory exercise therapy. The best 'treatment' for sports-related injuries is prevention. Good agility, technical skills, and cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness are important in injury prevention among the elderly. Appropriate training programmes, the use of safe and familiar equipment, careful warming up and cooling down, multiphasic training [including the training of neurophysiological functions (balance, coordination and reaction time)] and muscle strength are essential aspects of injury prevention.
PubMed ID
7481278 View in PubMed
Less detail

Arrhythmias and ST segment deviation during prolonged exhaustive exercise (ski marathon) in healthy middle-aged men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46544
Source
Eur Heart J. 1994 Apr;15(4):507-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1994
Author
O J Luurila
J. Karjalainen
M. Viitasalo
L. Toivonen
Author Affiliation
Lääkäriasema Koe Oy, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Eur Heart J. 1994 Apr;15(4):507-13
Date
Apr-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Arrhythmia - epidemiology - physiopathology
Cold Climate
Electrocardiography
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Ischemia - epidemiology - physiopathology
Physical Endurance - physiology
Risk factors
Skiing - physiology
Abstract
To evaluate the occurrence of arrhythmias and silent ischaemia during a prolonged exhaustive exercise in cold climate conditions, we monitored 37 healthy middle-aged men (age 40-56 years) who were randomly selected from participants of a ski marathon. Completing the 75-90 km race took 7-12 h. The highest and lowest mean hourly heart rates during skiing were 150 +/- 9 (mean +/- SD) and 138 +/- 11 beats.min-1. The maximum heart rate was 161 +/- 9 beats.min-1, and occurred in most skiers during the first hour. Ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) were present in 33 of 37 men (89%) with a median frequency of five beats during skiing (range 0-425). Complex forms occurred in eight men (22%), and atrial ectopics appeared in 33 of 35 participants (94%). The frequency of the arrhythmias did not increase over the skiing period. At control monitoring during a representative period the highest mean hourly heart rate was 74 +/- 12 beats.min-1 and VPCs were seen in 21 men (57%) at a median frequency of one beat during the control period (range 0-338) and complex forms occurred in three men (8%). Three men had asymptomatic ST segment depression of 0.2-0.3 mV lasting 2-10 min during the first hour of skiing. One of them had marginal ST segment depression (0.1 mV) at exercise electrocardiography, but all had normal results at exercise thallium scintigraphy and echocardiography. Thus, arrhythmias were significantly (P
PubMed ID
8070478 View in PubMed
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Assessment of Parasympathetic Activity in Athletes: Comparing Two Different Methods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277058
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 Feb;48(2):316-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Julie Stang
Mariana Couto
Trine Stensrud
Petter Mowinckel
André Moreira
Kai-Håkon Carlsen
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 Feb;48(2):316-22
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Bronchodilator Agents - pharmacology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Exercise Test - methods
Female
Finland
Forced Expiratory Volume - drug effects
Heart Rate - physiology
Humans
Ipratropium - pharmacology
Lung - drug effects - physiology
Male
Parasympathetic Nervous System - physiology
Parasympatholytics - pharmacology
Physical Endurance - physiology
Pupil - physiology
Reproducibility of Results
Sports - physiology
Young Adult
Abstract
A variety of methods are used to assess parasympathetic activity in athletes targeting different organs; however, the reliability of or interchangeability between measurement procedures is not clear.
The purpose of this study is to identify the repeatability of two parasympathetic activity measurement procedures, the HR variability during a 4-s exercise test (4sET), and the contractile properties of the pupil (pupillometry), and to assess their agreement. The secondary objective of this study is to assess their relationship with the bronchodilating effect of inhaled ipratropium bromide (iIB), blocking parasympathetic signals to the lungs.
Forty athletic subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. After 15-min resting in semidarkness, subjects underwent pupillometry (PLR-200™, NeurOptics Inc., CA), followed by 4sET on a cycle ergometer. HR variability was assessed by Polar Electro® HR monitor (RS-800CX/G3; Oy, Kempele, Finland). Both protocols were repeated after 5 min. Statistical analysis was performed according to Bland and Altman and by using Pearson's correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation. Lung function measurements by flow volume curves were performed before and 45 min after iIB.
The means of differences were 1.21% (limits of agreement, -3.59 to 6.02) for pupil constriction and 0.05 mm (-0.28 to 0.39) for pupil amplitude. The mean of differences for 4sET was 0.005 (-0.31 to 0.32). A very weak intraclass correlation (r = -0.01, P = 0.58) showed no agreement between the methods. No correlation was observed between pupillometry variables or 4sET with the change in lung function after iIB.
Pupillometry showed better repeatability compared with the 4sET. There is poor agreement between parasympathetic activity levels measured in three different target organs of athletic subjects; the heart, the pupil, and the lung. Thus, methods assessing parasympathetic activity in different target organs cannot be used interchangeably.
PubMed ID
26355246 View in PubMed
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Associations of Leukocyte Telomere Length With Aerobic and Muscular Fitness in Young Adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282036
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Apr 01;185(7):529-537
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-01-2017
Author
Dylan M Williams
Jessica L Buxton
Marko T Kantomaa
Tuija H Tammelin
Alexandra I F Blakemore
Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Apr 01;185(7):529-537
Date
Apr-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland
Hand Strength - physiology
Humans
Leukocytes - physiology
Male
Muscle Strength - physiology
Physical Endurance - physiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Sex Factors
Telomere Homeostasis - physiology
Abstract
Decline in both telomere length and physical fitness over the life course may contribute to increased risk of several chronic diseases. The relationship between telomere length and aerobic and muscular fitness is not well characterized. We examined whether there are cross-sectional associations of mean relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with objective measures of aerobic fitness, muscle strength, and muscle endurance, using data on 31-year-old participants of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 4,952-5,205, varying by exposure-outcome analysis). Aerobic fitness was assessed by means of heart rate measurement following a standardized submaximal step test; muscular fitness was assessed by means of a maximal isometric handgrip strength test and a test of lower-back trunk muscle endurance. Longer LTL was associated with higher aerobic fitness and better trunk muscle endurance in models including adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, socioeconomic position, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity level, and C-reactive protein. In a sex-stratified analysis, LTL was not associated with handgrip strength in either men or women. LTL may relate to aspects of physical fitness in young adulthood, but replication of these findings is required, along with further studies to help assess directions and causality in these associations.
PubMed ID
28338837 View in PubMed
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Autonomic recovery after exercise in trained athletes: intensity and duration effects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83541
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Aug;39(8):1366-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2007
Author
Seiler Stephen
Haugen Olav
Kuffel Erin
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Health and Sport, Agder University College, Kristiansand, Norway. stephen.seiler@hia.no
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Aug;39(8):1366-73
Date
Aug-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Autonomic Nervous System - physiology
Exercise
Exertion - physiology
Heart rate
Humans
Male
Norway
Physical Endurance - physiology
Physical Fitness
Recovery of Function - physiology
Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of training intensity and duration, through a range representative of training in endurance athletes, on acute recovery of autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance after exercise. METHODS: Nine highly trained (HT) male runners (VO2max 72 +/- 5 mL.kg.min(-1), 14 +/- 3 training hours per week) and eight trained (T) male subjects (VO2max 60 +/- 5 mL.kg.min(-1), 7 +/- 1 training hours per week) completed preliminary testing to determine ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2) and VO2max. HT performed four intensity-controlled training sessions: 60 min and 120 min below VT1; 60 min with 30 min between VT1 and VT2 (threshold); and 60 min above VT2 (6 x 3 min at 96% VO2max, 2 min of recovery). T also completed the interval session to compare ANS recovery between HT and T. Supine heart rate variability (HRV) was quantified at regular intervals through 4 h of recovery. RESULTS: When HT ran 60 or 120 min below VT1, HRV returned to pretraining values within 5-10 min. However, training at threshold (2.7 +/- 0.4 mM) or above VT2 (7.1 +/- 0.7 mM) induced a significant, but essentially identical, delay of HRV recovery (return to baseline by approximately 30 min). In T, HRV recovery was significantly slower, with HRV returning to baseline by >or=90 min after the same interval session. CONCLUSIONS: In the highly trained endurance athlete, exercise for
PubMed ID
17762370 View in PubMed
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Blood biomarkers in male and female participants after an Ironman-distance triathlon.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286095
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(6):e0179324
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Tom Danielsson
Jörg Carlsson
Hendrik Schreyer
Jonas Ahnesjö
Lasse Ten Siethoff
Thony Ragnarsson
Åsa Tugetam
Patrick Bergman
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(6):e0179324
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Bicycling - physiology
Biomarkers - blood
Creatinine - blood
Female
Heart - physiology
Humans
Kidney - physiology
Linear Models
Liver - physiology
Male
Middle Aged
Muscle, Skeletal - physiology
Myoglobin - blood
Physical Endurance - physiology
Running - physiology
Sweden
Swimming - physiology
Time Factors
Abstract
While overall physical activity is clearly associated with a better short-term and long-term health, prolonged strenuous physical activity may result in a rise in acute levels of blood-biomarkers used in clinical practice for diagnosis of various conditions or diseases. In this study, we explored the acute effects of a full Ironman-distance triathlon on biomarkers related to heart-, liver-, kidney- and skeletal muscle damage immediately post-race and after one week's rest. We also examined if sex, age, finishing time and body composition influenced the post-race values of the biomarkers.
A sample of 30 subjects was recruited (50% women) to the study. The subjects were evaluated for body composition and blood samples were taken at three occasions, before the race (T1), immediately after (T2) and one week after the race (T3). Linear regression models were fitted to analyse the independent contribution of sex and finishing time controlled for weight, body fat percentage and age, on the biomarkers at the termination of the race (T2). Linear mixed models were fitted to examine if the biomarkers differed between the sexes over time (T1-T3).
Being male was a significant predictor of higher post-race (T2) levels of myoglobin, CK, and creatinine levels and body weight was negatively associated with myoglobin. In general, the models were unable to explain the variation of the dependent variables. In the linear mixed models, an interaction between time (T1-T3) and sex was seen for myoglobin and creatinine, in which women had a less pronounced response to the race.
Overall women appear to tolerate the effects of prolonged strenuous physical activity better than men as illustrated by their lower values of the biomarkers both post-race as well as during recovery.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28609447 View in PubMed
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Canadian musculoskeletal fitness norms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196479
Source
Can J Appl Physiol. 2000 Dec;25(6):430-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2000
Author
N. Payne
N. Gledhill
P T Katzmarzyk
V K Jamnik
P J Keir
Author Affiliation
Department of Kinesiology & Health Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Can J Appl Physiol. 2000 Dec;25(6):430-42
Date
Dec-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - anatomy & histology
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Body mass index
Canada
Case-Control Studies
Discriminant Analysis
Ergometry
Exercise - physiology
Female
Hand Strength - physiology
Humans
Leg - physiology
Male
Middle Aged
Muscle Contraction - physiology
Muscle, Skeletal - physiology
Physical Endurance - physiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Reference Values
Sex Factors
Skinfold thickness
Abstract
The purpose of this report is to provide representative norms for measurements of musculoskeletal fitness (partial curl-ups, vertical jump, and leg power) for which Canadian norms are not currently available. Partial curl-ups, vertical jump, trunk flexion (sit and reach), grip strength, muscular endurance (push-ups), body mass index, and subcutaneous adiposity (sum of five skinfolds) were assessed, and leg power was calculated in 571 self-reportedly healthy participants (312 females and 259 males) aged 15-69 yr. The representativeness of the sample was confirmed by statistically comparing the fitness characteristics of the participants in the present study to those in the Canada Fitness Survey of 1981 and the Campbell's Survey of 1988. Normative data for partial curl-ups, vertical jump, and leg power were generated for males and females in six age groups (15-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69) for use in fitness appraisal protocols for the Canadian population.
PubMed ID
11098155 View in PubMed
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