Childhood physical inactivity and obesity are serious public health threats. Socioecological approaches to addressing these threats have been proposed. The school is a critical environment for promoting children's health and provides the opportunity to explore the impact of a socioecological approach.
Thirty percent of children in British Columbia, Canada, are overweight or obese, and 50% of youths are not physically active enough to yield health benefits.
Action Schools! BC, a socioecological model, was developed to create 1) an elementary school environment where students are provided with more opportunities to make healthy choices and 2) a supportive community and provincial environment to facilitate change at the school and individual levels.
The environment in British Columbia for school- and provincial-level action on health behaviors improved. Focus group and project tracking results indicated that the Action Schools! BC model enhanced the conceptual use of knowledge and was an influencing factor. Political will and public interest were also cited as influential factors.
The Action Schools! BC model required substantial and demanding changes in the approach of the researchers, policy makers, and support team toward health promotion. Despite challenges, Action Schools! BC provides a good example of how to enhance knowledge exchange and multilevel intersectoral action in chronic disease prevention.
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To describe physical activity (PA) intensity across a school day and assess the percentage of girls and boys achieving recommended guidelines.
The authors measured PA via accelerometry in 380 children (8-11 years) and examined data representing (1) the whole school day, (2) regular class time, (3) recess, (4) lunch and (5) scheduled physical education (PE). Activity was categorised as sedentary (SED), light physical activity (LPA) or moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) using age-specific thresholds. They examined sex differences across PA intensities during each time period and compliance with recommended guidelines.
Girls accumulated less MVPA and more SED than boys throughout the school day (MVPA -10.6 min; SED +13.9 min) recess (MVPA -1.6 min; SED +1.7 min) and lunch (MVPA -3.1 min; SED +2.9 min). Girls accumulated less MVPA (-6.2 min), less LPA (-2.5 min) and more SED (+9.4 min) than boys during regular class time. Fewer girls than boys achieved PA guidelines during school (90.9% vs 96.2%), recess (15.7% vs 34.1%) and lunch (16.7% vs 37.4%). During PE, only 1.8% of girls and 2.9% of boys achieved the PA guidelines. Girls and boys accumulated similar amounts of MVPA, LPA and SED.
The MVPA deficit in girls was due to their sedentary behaviour as opposed to LPA. Physical activity strategies that target girls are essential to overcome this deficit. Only a very small percentage of children met physical activity guidelines during PE. There is a great need for additional training and emphasis on PA during PE. In addition schools should complement PE with PA models that increase PA opportunities across the school day.
Strategies for combating increasing childhood obesity is called for. School settings have been pointed out as potentially effective settings for prevention. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of four additional Physical Education (PE) lessons/week in primary schools on body composition and weight status in children aged 8-13.
Children attending 2nd to 4th grade (n?=?632) in 10 public schools, 6 intervention and 4 control schools, participated in this longitudinal study during 2 school years.
Primary: Body Mass Index (BMI) and Total Body Fat percentage (TBF%) derived from Dual Energy X ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Secondary: the moderating effect of overweight/obesity (OW/OB) and adiposity based on TBF% cut offs for gender.
Intervention effect on BMI and TBF% (BMI: ß -0.14, 95% CI: -0.33; 0.04, TBF%: ß -0.08, 95% CI:-0.65;0.49) was shown insignificant. However, we found significant beneficial intervention effect on prevalence of OW/OB based on BMI (OR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11;0.72). The intervention effect on adiposity based on TBF% cut offs was borderline significant (OR 0.64, 95% CI:0. 39; 1.05).
Four additional PE lessons/week at school can significantly improve the prevalence of OW/OB in primary schoolchildren. Mean BMI and TBF% improved in intervention schools, but the difference with controls was not significant. The intervention had a larger effect in children who were OW/OB or adipose at baseline.
The purpose of this article is to examine the current health promotion orientation of youth sports clubs in Finland in view of the standards created previously for the health promoting sports club (HPSC). Ninety-seven youth sports clubs participated, and 273 sports club officials and 240 coaches answered the questionnaires. To describe clubs health promotion orientations, an HPSC index was created. The HPSC index was formulated on sub-indices by factor analysis. The sub-indices were: policy, ideology, practice and environment indexes. The results indicate that youth sports clubs are fairly health promoting in general. On average, the clubs fulfilled 12 standards for HPSC out of 22. Every fourth club was categorized as higher health promoting (> or = 15 fulfilled standards), and every third as lower health promoting (
The impact of a routine with the traditional organization of motor activity, a more extensive motor regimen with additional lessons of physical training, eurhythmics, and swimming, as well as a motor regimen of prophylactic and health-improving orientation of the Health School, which is at the most integrated into an educational process, on exercise performance, lung capacity, carpal muscle strength, physical fitness, and nonspecific resistance was studied in 156 first-to-second-form pupils at a two-year follow-up. The traditional motor regimen was found to fail to significantly increase functional parameters. Higher increment rates of the study parameters were observed with the extensive motor regimen. The Health School motor regimen providing a uniform motor activity distribution in the first and second half of a day and a predominance of a dynamic component over a statistical one was also favorable to the maintenance of increment rates of the parameters at 2 years of the follow-up, which implies the developing nature of this regimen. Hygienic recommendations to optimize the traditional motor regimen were worked out for full-day school pupils.
During a natural hygienic experiment, the physical development, psychomotor activity, exercise performance, and readiness were evaluated in 6-year-old children, in whom physical education had been organized by routine and experimental programs, including health-improving swimming in the indoor pool of a preschool educational establishment. Exercises built up on the principle of plot-role playing games, by using the developing corrective exercises and psychological and pedagogical escort, were established to be highly effective. The proposed methods contribute to the timely harmonious development of a child, his movement characteristics, positively affect the neurofunctional status, by ensuring the optimum psychomotor development, and maintain a high exercise performance.
Effective interventions that target socioeconomic status (SES) differences to avoid the potential widening of inequalities in health are needed. Children at preschool age is a valuable intervention target since sedentary behaviors, physical activity (PA), dietary behaviors, and sleep habits, jointly called the energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs), are established in early childhood and tend to persist later in life. The interventions are most effective, when they focus on evidence-based factors. One potential factor associated with EBRBs and SES is children's stress regulation, which receives special attention in this study. Based on the socioecological approach, the combinations of multiple levels (e.g. individual, environmental, societal) of analysis and diverse methodologies (e.g. surveys, observations, biological measurements) are used to assess the healthfulness of environments (e.g. social, physical, learning, policy) in preschool and family settings. The intervention aimed to diminish SES differences in EBRBs is then conducted in the preschool setting.
The DAGIS study is divided into two phases. The first phase comprises focus group interviews and a cross-sectional survey. Parents and preschool personnel in low SES neighborhoods participated in interviews about children's sedentary behaviors, dietary behaviors, and PA in 2014. In the cross-sectional survey beginning in autumn 2015, preschools will be recruited from a random sample of preschools in 3-5 municipalities in Southern Finland. A total of 800 children will wear an accelerometer for seven days. Children's hair and saliva samples will be taken. Parents and preschool personnel will complete questionnaires on EBRBs, social and physical environments and SES factors. The quality of preschool environment is also observed. In the second phase, an intervention targeting to narrowing SES differences in EBRBs is conducted. The effects of the intervention will be evaluated in randomised controlled trial. The implementation of the intervention will also be evaluated.
If effective, this unique preschool-based study will be able to narrow the SES differences in preschool children's EBRBs. This study is anticipated to identify the most important modifiable factors in preschool and family environmental settings associated with children's EBRBs, especially in children from low SES backgrounds.
ISRCTN57165350 (January, 8th, 2015).
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A characteristic feature of the life activity of modern children and adolescents is the couch potato, mostly "sedentary" lifestyle. Biomedical and psychosocial significance of motor activity (MA) stipulates the necessity of the substantiation of scientific and methodological approaches to the formation of the motivation to exercises and sports in children. The purpose of the study was in the scientific substantiation and the delivery of medical, pedagogical and neurophysiological prerequisites for the formation of the motivation to increase MA in students in current conditions of their life activity. There were examined 189 students from 2-5th and 9th classes, out of them 65 students were observed in the dynamics of the school year; 585 students from the 1st-11th classes participated in the survey. Results of the study allowed to reveal the relation of students to the lessons of physical training, to evaluate the impact of a new educational program on the functional possibilities of the body of children from the special medical group "A" and to reveal the neurophysiological features of adolescents with different needs in motion.
The problem of health formation, maintenance and promotion in children and adolescents in a school setting requires a combined effort of the teacher, physician and psychologist within a single system such as valeological education for us to be able to deal with it in a successful way. The medical subblock of such a system is supposed to ensure the following--determination of the level of health and character of the existing disturbances in the pupil's health; monitoring of the health of schoolchildren and of the factors for the intraschool environment; writing up group as well as individualized prognoses and recommendations; coordination of sports-and-sanitation, curative-and-prophylactic, and psychohygienic measures; hygienic organization of the intraschool environment; creation of conditions for perfection of the pedagogues' activity to be made possible; and participation in the valeological education of the pupils' parents.