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A 10-week randomized trial comparing eccentric vs. concentric hamstring strength training in well-trained soccer players.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49656
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004 Oct;14(5):311-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
Roald Mjølsnes
Arni Arnason
Tor Østhagen
Truls Raastad
Roald Bahr
Author Affiliation
Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Norwegian University of Sport and Physical Education, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004 Oct;14(5):311-7
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Comparative Study
Humans
Knee - physiology
Male
Muscles - physiology
Physical Education and Training - methods
Physical Fitness
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Soccer
Time Factors
Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of a 10-week training program with two different exercises -- traditional hamstring curl (HC) and Nordic hamstrings (NH), a partner exercise focusing the eccentric phase -- on muscle strength among male soccer players. METHODS: Subjects were 21 well-trained players who were randomized to NH training (n = 11) or HC training (n = 10). The programs were similar, with a gradual increase in the number of repetitions from two sets of six reps to three sets of eight to 12 reps over 4 weeks, and then increasing load during the final 6 weeks of training. Strength was measured as maximal torque on a Cybex dynamometer before and after the training period. RESULTS: In the NH group, there was an 11% increase in eccentric hamstring torque measured at 60 degrees s(-1), as well as a 7% increase in isometric hamstring strength at 90 degrees, 60 degrees and 30 degrees of knee flexion. Since there was no effect on concentric quadriceps strength, there was a significant increase in the hamstrings:quadriceps ratio from 0.89 +/- 0.12 to 0.98 +/- 0.17 (11%) in the NH group. No changes were observed in the HC group. CONCLUSION: NH training for 10 weeks more effectively develops maximal eccentric hamstring strength in well-trained soccer players than a comparable program based on traditional HC.
PubMed ID
15387805 View in PubMed
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Acute impact of submaximal resistance exercise on immunological and hormonal parameters in young men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9539
Source
J Sports Sci. 2003 Dec;21(12):1001-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2003
Author
Alfons Ramel
Karl-Heinz Wagner
Ibrahim Elmadfa
Author Affiliation
Unit for Nutrition Research, University of Iceland, PO Box Nyi Gardur, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. ramel@hi.is
Source
J Sports Sci. 2003 Dec;21(12):1001-8
Date
Dec-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
CD4-CD8 Ratio
Comparative Study
Hematocrit
Humans
Hydrocortisone - blood
Killer Cells, Natural - physiology
Leukocyte Count
Lymphocyte Count
Male
Monocytes - physiology
Neutrophils - physiology
Norepinephrine - blood
Physical Education and Training - methods
Reference Values
T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer - physiology
T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory - physiology
Time Factors
Abstract
In this study, we examined the acute effects of submaximal resistance exercise on immunological and hormonal parameters in 7 resistance-trained and 10 non-resistance-trained males. The participants, who were aged 29.5 +/- 7.1 years (mean +/- s), performed submaximal resistance exercise at 75% of their one-repetition maximum. Blood samples were taken before, during, immediately after, and 30, 60 and 120 min after exercise and analysed for leukocyte subpopulations and stress hormones. Total leukocytes, neutrophils and monocytes increased during exercise, reaching their maximum 2 h after exercise. Lymphocytes increased during exercise, T-helper cells returned to resting values after exercise, and natural killer cells and T-suppressor cells decreased below resting values. The CD4/CD8 ratio decreased during exercise but increased during recovery. The resistance-trained participants tended to have lower T-helper cell counts before, during and immediately after exercise and a lower CD4/CD8 ratio during recovery than the non-resistance-trained participants. Plasma cortisol correlated positively with leukocytes during exercise (r = 0.572, P
PubMed ID
14748457 View in PubMed
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An active school model to promote physical activity in elementary schools: action schools! BC.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158817
Source
Br J Sports Med. 2008 May;42(5):338-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2008
Author
P-J Naylor
H M Macdonald
D E R Warburton
K E Reed
H A McKay
Author Affiliation
School of Exercise Science, Physical and Health Education, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
Source
Br J Sports Med. 2008 May;42(5):338-43
Date
May-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia
Child
Exercise - physiology
Female
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Male
Physical Education and Training - methods
Physical Fitness - physiology
Schools
Socioeconomic Factors
Walking - physiology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To assess the impact of an active school model on children's physical activity (PA).
16-month cluster randomised controlled trial.
10 elementary schools in Greater Vancouver, BC.
515 children aged 9-11 years.
Action Schools! BC (AS! BC) is an active school model that provided schools with training and resources to increase children's PA. Schools implemented AS! BC with support from either external liaisons (liaison schools, LS; four schools) or internal champions (champion schools, CS; three schools). Outcomes were compared with usual practice (UP) schools (three schools).
PA was measured four times during the study using pedometers (step count, steps/day).
Boys in the LS group took 1175 more steps per day, on average, than boys in the UP group (95% CI: 97 to 2253). Boys in the CS group also tended to have a higher step count than boys in the UP group (+804 steps/day; 95% CI: -341 to 1949). There was no difference in girls' step counts across groups.
The positive effect of the AS! BC model on boys' PA is important in light of the current global trend of decreased PA.
PubMed ID
18272538 View in PubMed
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[A new method for human orotherapeutic training]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75018
Source
Lik Sprava. 1999 Mar;(2):139-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1999
Author
M I Volobuiev
Source
Lik Sprava. 1999 Mar;(2):139-42
Date
Mar-1999
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Adult
Altitude
Anoxia - physiopathology
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Humans
Male
Physical Education and Training - methods - statistics & numerical data
Physical Fitness - physiology
Time Factors
Abstract
On completing the main course we used regular hypoxic training to maintain an effect of sustenal regimen. The studies were made in young persons divided into three groups: control group, a group undergoing training according to standard regimen, and a group of sustenal regimen of training. Training under conditions of artificial mountain air improves physical and mental performance, psychoemotional state. Sustenal regimen of training is superior to standard regimen. Sustenal regimen of hypoxic training is to be employed in military, space, sports, and clinical medicine, as well as in case of a possible influence on the human body of stressogenic factors.
PubMed ID
10424069 View in PubMed
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The associations of physical activity with fracture risk--a 7-year prospective controlled intervention study in 3534 children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278550
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2016 Mar;27(3):915-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
J. Fritz
M E Cöster
J-Å Nilsson
B E Rosengren
M. Dencker
M K Karlsson
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2016 Mar;27(3):915-22
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon - methods
Bone Density - physiology
Child
Curriculum
Exercise - physiology
Female
Femur Neck - physiopathology
Follow-Up Studies
Fractures, Bone - epidemiology - physiopathology
Humans
Incidence
Life Style
Male
Muscle Strength - physiology
Muscle, Skeletal - physiopathology
Physical Education and Training - methods
Prospective Studies
Risk Assessment - methods
Spine - physiopathology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
This is the first study indicating an association between gradually diminished risk of fractures and years of increased physical activity. Our results could imply great benefits not only for the individual but also for the healthcare burden and cost of society.
Physical activity (PA) in childhood is associated with high bone mass and beneficial neuromuscular function. We investigate if increased PA also is associated with fracture risk.
We registered fractures in 3534 children aged 6 to 8 years at study start for up to 7 years; 1339 with 40 min of moderate PA every school day (intervention) and 2195 with the Swedish standard curriculum of 60 min of PA per school week (controls). In a subsample of 264 children, we measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD; g/cm(2)) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (femoral neck and total spine) and muscle strength (peak torque for knee extension and flexion; Nm) with computerized dynamometer at baseline and after 7 years. We estimated annual fracture incidence rate ratios (IRR) in the intervention group compared to the control group as well as changes in bone mass and muscle strength. Data is given as mean (95% CI).
The IRR of fractures decreased with each year of the PA intervention (r?=?-0.79; p?=?0.04). During the seventh year, IRR was almost halved [IRR 0.52 (0.27, 1.01)]. The intervention group had a statistically significant greater gain in total spine aBMD with a mean group difference of 0.03 (0.00, 0.05) g/cm(2) and peak flexion torque 180° with a mean group difference of 5.0 (1.5, 8.6) Nm.
Increased PA is associated with decreased fracture risk, probably in part due to beneficial gains in aBMD and muscle strength.
PubMed ID
26359184 View in PubMed
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Bone stress injuries are common in female military trainees: a preliminary study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151398
Source
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009 Nov;467(11):2962-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
Maria H Niva
Ville M Mattila
Martti J Kiuru
Harri K Pihlajamäki
Author Affiliation
Centre for Military Medicine, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009 Nov;467(11):2962-9
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Fractures, Stress - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Incidence
Injury Severity Score
Leg Injuries - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Military Personnel
Physical Education and Training - methods
Prognosis
Prospective Studies
Risk assessment
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Young Adult
Abstract
Although bone stress injuries are common in male military trainees, it is not known how common they are in female trainees. It also is unclear whether asymptomatic bone stress injuries heal if intensive training is continued. We prospectively followed 10 female trainees of a military Reserve Officer Course. The subjects underwent clinical and MRI examinations of the pelvis, thighs, and lower legs at the beginning, once during, and at the end of their 3-month course. We identified two to five injuries in every female trainee, all of whom already had the injuries at the beginning of the officer course. None of these injuries increased their severity despite vigorous training. Two-thirds were asymptomatic and low grade. Femoral and tibial shafts were the most common locations. Higher-grade injuries were more likely symptomatic, but regardless of the MRI findings, female trainees expressed only mild to moderate symptoms. Asymptomatic, low-grade bone stress injuries of the femoral and tibial shaft are common in female recruits undergoing heavy physical training. Because these injuries seem to remain constant or even disappear despite continued heavy physical activity, we do not recommend routine screening of asymptomatic trainees. As some bone stress fractures may have severe consequences (eg, in the femoral neck), symptomatic bone stress injuries should be examined and treated.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19384560 View in PubMed
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The Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport (CBS-S): A psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277569
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016 Jan;26(1):116-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
A. Carlsson
C. Lundqvist
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016 Jan;26(1):116-23
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Athletes - education - psychology
Chi-Square Distribution
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Goals
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Leadership
Least-Squares Analysis
Male
Physical Education and Training - methods - standards
Professional Competence - standards
Psychometrics - standards
Reproducibility of Results
Self Concept
Sports - education - psychology - standards
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Translations
Young Adult
Abstract
The present study validated a Swedish version of the 47-item Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport (CBS-S). Sample 1 consisted of 506 team sport athletes [262 men and 244 women; mean age: 22.20, standard deviation (SD)?=?3.90] distributed across 41 coaches at the two highest national levels of various sports. Athletes completed the CBS-S and established questionnaires of coaching behaviors (LSS), self-confidence (CSAI-2R), and coach-athlete relationship (CART-Q). An additional sample of 39 basketball players (21 men and 18 women; mean age?=?17.40, SD?=?2.39) completed the CBS-S twice, approximately 4 weeks apart. Confirmatory factor analysis showed an acceptable model fit for the seven-factor version of the CBS-S, although two items of the negative personal rapport subscale displayed insufficient factor loadings. Correlations between the subscales of the CBS-S and established instruments were in accordance with theoretical expectations, supporting the concurrent validity. Cronbach's alpha (>?0.82) for all dimensions provided support for the reliability of the CBS-S, and test-retest correlations indicated moderate stability over time. Cultural differences in the assessment of coaching behaviors and the usability of the CBS-S by coaches for self-reflection and development are discussed.
PubMed ID
25440429 View in PubMed
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Do team gymnasts compete in spite of symptoms from an injury?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature70955
Source
Br J Sports Med. 2004 Aug;38(4):398-401
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2004
Author
M L Harringe
S. Lindblad
S. Werner
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgical Sciences, Sports Medicine Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. marita.harringe@kirurgi.ki.se
Source
Br J Sports Med. 2004 Aug;38(4):398-401
Date
Aug-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Attitude to Health
Competitive Behavior
Cooperative Behavior
Female
Gymnastics - injuries - psychology
Humans
Injury Severity Score
Male
Physical Education and Training - methods
Recurrence
Risk factors
Sweden
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Gymnasts practise many hours a week, and symptoms from injuries do not seem to stop them from continuing with practice. They may even compete with symptoms from injuries, which could increase the risk of reinjury, or of the occurrence of a more severe injury. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether team gymnasts compete at high level in spite of symptoms from an injury. METHODS: 188 male and female competitors participating in the Swedish Cup for juniors and seniors answered a questionnaire about symptoms from injuries on the day of the competition. RESULTS: More than half the gymnasts (58%) competed despite having symptoms from an injury on the day of the competition. More seniors than juniors competed in spite of symptoms from an injury (p = 0.006). Two of three team gymnasts (65%) reported symptoms from the lower extremities and around one in five (22%) reported back symptoms. Fifty five per cent of the gymnasts reported recurrence of an injury at the same site (reinjury). CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of symptoms from injuries on the day of competition. This did not stop the team gymnasts from competing.
PubMed ID
15273170 View in PubMed
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[Dynamics of the physical development of preschoolers with different motor regimens].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature237492
Source
Gig Sanit. 1986 Feb;(2):92-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1986

Effectiveness of training programmes for prepubescent children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature224211
Source
Sports Med. 1992 Mar;13(3):194-213
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1992
Author
R J Shephard
Author Affiliation
School of Physical and Health Education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto.
Source
Sports Med. 1992 Mar;13(3):194-213
Date
Mar-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Canada
Child
Growth - physiology
Humans
Oxygen consumption
Physical Education and Training - methods
Physical Endurance - physiology
Physical Fitness
Puberty - physiology
Stroke Volume
Abstract
Early investigators suggested that endurance training had little influence upon the aerobic function of the prepubescent child. It is shown that the twin explanations of this supposed phenomenon (a high intrinsic level of physical activity and an immaturity of biochemical systems) have little foundation. Moreover, critical examination of the original experiments shows a number of problems of experimental design, often including an inadequate sample size, a lack of control group, an inappropriate pattern of training relative to the initial fitness of the child, and too short a period of observation. Recent, well-designed studies all show a response in prepubescent children. Comparison with adults is hampered by difficulties in matching training intensity, but there is no immediate evidence that the training response of the prepubescent child is less than in an older person. The main basis for the increase of oxygen transport seems an increase of cardiac stroke volume. Plainly, the development of athletic performance and the attack upon cardiac risk factors can be begun before puberty, although in the average prepubescent it may be more important for the school programmes to develop positive, lifelong attitudes, than to maximise aerobic function.
PubMed ID
1579777 View in PubMed
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41 records – page 1 of 5.