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Accentuation of suicides but not homicides with rising latitudes of Greenland in the sunny months.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature89091
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2009;9:20
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Björkstén Karin S
Kripke Daniel F
Bjerregaard Peter
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institutet, SLSO, Psykiatri Södra Stockholm, Sköntorpsvägen 29, 2 tr., SE-120 38 Arsta, Sweden. Karin.Sparring.Bjorksten@ki.se
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2009;9:20
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - trends
Alcoholism - epidemiology
Cause of Death - trends
Child
Crime Victims - statistics & numerical data
Female
Forensic Medicine
Greenland - epidemiology
Homicide - statistics & numerical data - trends
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Photoperiod
Population Surveillance
Seasons
Suicide - statistics & numerical data - trends
Wounds, Gunshot - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Seasonal variation in suicides has been shown in many countries. We assessed the seasonality and the variation with latitude in suicides and homicides, and the impact of alcohol on the seasonality in suicides. METHODS: Official computerized registers on causes of death in all Greenland during 1968-2002 were used. Sales data on beer from one of the major food store chains for July 2005-June 2006 were examined. Seasonal variation was assessed by Rayleigh's test for circular distributions. RESULTS: There were a total of 1351 suicides and 308 homicides. The suicides rate varied from 4.2/100 000 person-years in 1971 to 128.4/100 000 person-years in 1987. The homicide rate varied from 2.1/100000 person-years in 1969-1970 to 34.8/100 000 person-years in 1988. Out of the 1351 suicides, 80.5% were committed by men and 19.5% by women. Median age was 25 years (n = 1351; Range 11-84 years). Violent methods of suicide were used in 95% of all cases (n = 1286). Out of the 308 homicide victims, 61% were men and 39% were women, and 13% were killed in multiple homicide events.There was a significant seasonal variation with peaks in June and troughs in the winter in all suicide cases (n = 1351, r = 0.07; Z = 7.58, p
PubMed ID
19422728 View in PubMed
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Adaptation of Circadian Neuronal Network to Photoperiod in High-Latitude European Drosophilids.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294233
Source
Curr Biol. 2017 Mar 20; 27(6):833-839
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-20-2017
Author
Pamela Menegazzi
Elena Dalla Benetta
Marta Beauchamp
Matthias Schlichting
Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Author Affiliation
Neurobiology and Genetics, Theodor Boveri Institute, Biocentre, University of Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg, Germany.
Source
Curr Biol. 2017 Mar 20; 27(6):833-839
Date
Mar-20-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Circadian Clocks - genetics
Drosophila - genetics - physiology
Drosophila Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Finland
Locomotion
Male
Nerve Net - physiology
Photoperiod
Species Specificity
Tanzania
Abstract
The genus Drosophila contains over 2,000 species that, stemming from a common ancestor in the Old World Tropics, populate today very different environments [1, 2] (reviewed in [3]). We found significant differences in the activity pattern of Drosophila species belonging to the holarctic virilis group, i.e., D. ezoana and D. littoralis, collected in Northern Europe, compared to that of the cosmopolitan D. melanogaster, collected close to the equator. These behavioral differences might have been of adaptive significance for colonizing high-latitude habitats and hence adjust to long photoperiods. Most interestingly, the flies' locomotor activity correlates with the neurochemistry of their circadian clock network, which differs between low and high latitude for the expression pattern of the blue light photopigment cryptochrome (CRY) and the neuropeptide Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) [4-6]. In D. melanogaster, CRY and PDF are known to modulate the timing of activity and to maintain robust rhythmicity under constant conditions [7-11]. We could partly simulate the rhythmic behavior of the high-latitude virilis group species by mimicking their CRY/PDF expression patterns in a laboratory strain of D. melanogaster. We therefore suggest that these alterations in the CRY/PDF clock neurochemistry might have allowed the virilis group species to colonize high-latitude environments.
PubMed ID
28262491 View in PubMed
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Source
Evolution. 2004 Aug;58(8):1748-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2004
Author
Bradshaw William E
Zani Peter A
Holzapfel Christina M
Author Affiliation
Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-5289, USA. bradshaw@darkwing.uoregon.edu
Source
Evolution. 2004 Aug;58(8):1748-62
Date
Aug-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Climate
Culicidae - genetics - physiology
Environment, Controlled
Evolution
Geography
North America
Photoperiod
Reproduction - physiology
Selection (Genetics)
Temperature
Abstract
Only model organisms live in a world of endless summer. Fitness at temperate latitudes reflects the ability of organisms in nature to exploit the favorable season, to mitigate the effects of the unfavorable season, and to make the timely switch from one life style to the other. Herein, we define fitness as Ry, the year-long cohort replacement rate across all four seasons, of the mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, reared in its natural microhabitat in processor-controlled environment rooms. First, we exposed cohorts of W. smithii, from southern, midlatitude, and northern populations (30-50 degrees N) to southern and northern thermal years during which we factored out evolved differences in photoperiodic response. We found clear evidence of evolved differences in heat and cold tolerance among populations. Relative cold tolerance of northern populations became apparent when populations were stressed to the brink of extinction; relative heat tolerance of southern populations became apparent when the adverse effects of heat could accumulate over several generations. Second, we exposed southern, midlatitude, and northern populations to natural, midlatitude day lengths in a thermally benign midlatitude thermal year. We found that evolved differences in photoperiodic response (1) prevented the timely entry of southern populations into diapause resulting in a 74% decline in fitness, and (2) forced northern populations to endure a warm-season diapause resulting in an 88% decline in fitness. We argue that reciprocal transplants across latitudes in nature always confound the effects of the thermal and photic environment on fitness. Yet, to our knowledge, no one has previously held the thermal year constant while varying the photic year. This distinction is crucial in evaluating the potential impact of climate change. Because global warming in the Northern Hemisphere is proceeding faster at northern than at southern latitudes and because this change represents an amelioration of the thermal environment and a concomitant increase in the duration of the growing season, we conclude that there should be more rapid evolution of photoperiodic response than of thermal tolerance as a consequence of global warming among northern, temperate ectotherms.
PubMed ID
15446427 View in PubMed
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Affective responses to changes in day length in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45723
Source
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005 Jun;30(5):438-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
Brian J Prendergast
Randy J Nelson
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. prendergast@uchicago.edu
Source
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005 Jun;30(5):438-52
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anxiety - psychology
Attention - physiology
Behavior, Animal - physiology
Body Weight - physiology
Conflict (Psychology)
Cricetinae
Depression - psychology
Emotions - physiology
Exploratory Behavior - physiology
Female
Light
Motor Activity - physiology
Muscle, Skeletal - physiology
Phodopus
Photoperiod
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Smell - physiology
Startle Reaction - physiology
Swimming - psychology
Abstract
The goal of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that day length influences anxious- and depressive-like behaviors in reproductively photoperiodic rodents. Male and female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were exposed to long (16 h light/day; LD) or short (8 h light/day; SD) photoperiods beginning at the time of weaning (day 18). Two weeks later hamsters were subjected to a series of behavioral tests to quantify anxiety-and depressive-like behaviors. In an elevated plus maze, SD males exhibited longer latencies to enter an open arm, entered fewer open arms, and spent less time exploring open arms relative to LD hamsters. SD males were likewise slower to enter either of the distal arms of a completely enclosed T-maze, and in a hunger-motivated exploratory paradigm SD males were slower to enter an open arena for food as compared to LD males. In a forced-swimming model of behavioral despair, SD males exhibited immobility sooner, more often, and for a greater total amount of time relative to LD males. Total activity levels, aversiveness to light, olfactory function, and limb strength were unaffected by SD, suggesting that the behavioral changes consequent to SD are not attributable to sensory or motor deficits, but rather may arise from changes in general affective state. The anxiogenic and depressive effects of SD were largely absent in female hamsters. Together the results indicate that adaptation to short photoperiods is associated with increased expression of anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors relative to those observed under LD photoperiod conditions.
PubMed ID
15721056 View in PubMed
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[Age-dependent characteristics of blood plasma oxidative and antioxidative reactions to the hypobaric hypoxia and different duration of the photoperiod]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81093
Source
Fiziol Zh. 2006;52(3):84-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Iasins'ka O V
Source
Fiziol Zh. 2006;52(3):84-9
Date
2006
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging - blood
Altitude
Animals
Anoxia - blood
Atmospheric Pressure
Catalase - blood
Lipid Peroxides - blood
Male
Photoperiod
Rats
Superoxide Dismutase - blood
Abstract
The effect of hypobaric hypoxia (6 hours everyday 7 days) under different duration of the photoperiod on oxidative (malonic aldehide and dienal conjugates) and antioxidative (catalase and superoxide dismutase activity) systems in the blood plasma of adult and infantile albino male rats were investigated. It is concluded that there is an age-dependent reaction of oxidative and antioxidative systems to the combined action of hypobaric hypoxia and different duration of the photoperiod. Reactions of pro- and antioxidative systems of adult and infantile rats were approximately the same under the conditions of a long-term darkness-and hypoxia but in the infants they were less manifested under the combined action of hypoxia and natural light or long-term lightening. Hypoxia combined with all varieties of photoperiod activate antioxidative system in both age groups but only in infantile rats the process of peroxidation was reducing.
PubMed ID
16909761 View in PubMed
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Age-related changes in the transmission properties of the human lens and their relevance to circadian entrainment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98067
Source
J Cataract Refract Surg. 2010 Feb;36(2):308-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Line Kessel
Jesper Holm Lundeman
Kristina Herbst
Thomas Vestergaard Andersen
Michael Larsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology, Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Nordre Ringvej 57, DK-2600 Glostrup, Denmark. linkes01@glo.regionh.dk
Source
J Cataract Refract Surg. 2010 Feb;36(2):308-12
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aging - physiology
Circadian Rhythm - physiology
Humans
Lens, Crystalline - physiology - radiation effects
Light
Middle Aged
Photoperiod
Rod Opsins - metabolism
Spectrum Analysis
Tissue Donors
Young Adult
Abstract
PURPOSE: To characterize age-related changes in the transmission of light through noncataractous human lenses. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark. METHODS: The spectral transmission of white light was measured along the visual axis in the most central part of the lens in vitro in intact human donor lenses over a wide range of ages. RESULTS: The study evaluated 28 intact human donor lenses of 15 donors aged 18 to 76 years. Increasing age was associated with gradually decreasing transmission at all visible wavelengths, most prominently at shorter wavelengths. Empirical formulas describing the age-related loss of transmission were created for each spectral color. At 480 nm, the absorption peak for melanopsin, transmission decreased by 72% from the age of 10 years to the age of 80 years. CONCLUSION: The age-related decrease in spectral transmission through the human lens could be modeled by a simple algorithm that may be useful in the design of intraocular lenses that mimic the characteristics of the human lens and in studies of color vision, psychophysics, and melanopsin activation.
PubMed ID
20152615 View in PubMed
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Alteration of testicular response to long photoperiod by transient exposure to short photoperiod in collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6829
Source
J Reprod Fertil. 1997 Mar;109(2):257-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1997
Author
B A Gower
T R Nagy
M H Stetson
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark 19716, USA.
Source
J Reprod Fertil. 1997 Mar;109(2):257-62
Date
Mar-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Newborn - growth & development - physiology
Arvicolinae - growth & development - physiology
Body Weight
Male
Organ Size
Photoperiod
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Seminal Vesicles - anatomy & histology
Sexual Maturation - physiology
Testis - anatomy & histology - growth & development - physiology
Abstract
The reproductive response of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus) to photoperiod is unique for rodents. Whereas most reproductively photoresponsive rodents show maximal gonadal growth when exposed to long photoperiod (long day), collared lemmings show delayed maturation when born and maintained under this condition. However, transfer of lemmings from short photoperiod (short day) to long day results in maximal gonadal growth, indicating that the response to long day depends upon photoperiod history. We hypothesized that the slowing of maturation observed in animals born and maintained on long day reflects an inability to respond fully to long day, resulting from the absence of previous exposure to short day. To determine whether young lemmings born in long day are capable of being stimulated by long day, we exposed them at weaning (19 days of age) to 1, 6 or 10 weeks of short day, and then challenged them with a second exposure to long day. Relative to animals transferred permanently to short day at weaning, lemmings exposed to 6 weeks of short day showed accelerated gonadal growth after both 5 and 10 weeks of subsequent exposure to long day, and those exposed to 10 weeks of short day had larger testes after 6 weeks of long day. Thus, during transient exposure to short day, the animals acquired sensitivity to the stimulatory effects of long day. The responses of body mass, bifid claw width and pelage colour to the photoperiod manipulations did not parallel that of the gonads, indicating independent regulation of somatic and reproductive parameters. The unique way in which the reproductive system of collared lemmings responds to photoperiod may reflect evolution in an environment where the production of offspring during periods of unchanging long day (for example, the Arctic summer) is not selectively advantageous.
PubMed ID
9155735 View in PubMed
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Altered regulation of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 causes the unique vernalisation response in an arctic woodland strawberry accession.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292105
Source
New Phytol. 2017 Nov; 216(3):841-853
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2017
Author
Elli A Koskela
Takeshi Kurokura
Tuomas Toivainen
Anita Sønsteby
Ola M Heide
Daniel J Sargent
Sachiko Isobe
Laura Jaakola
Hrannar Hilmarsson
Paula Elomaa
Timo Hytönen
Author Affiliation
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Viikki Plant Science Centre, University of Helsinki, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
New Phytol. 2017 Nov; 216(3):841-853
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Flowers - physiology
Fragaria - genetics - physiology
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Genetics, Population
Norway
Photoperiod
Plant Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Seasons
Abstract
Vernalisation requirement is an agriculturally important trait that postpones the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the spring. The family Rosaceae includes many agriculturally important fruit and berry crops that suffer from crop losses caused by frost injury to overwintering flower buds. Recently, a vernalisation-requiring accession of the Rosaceae model woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has been identified in northern Norway. Understanding the molecular basis of the vernalisation requirement in this accession would advance the development of strawberry cultivars better adapted to temperate climate. We use gene silencing, gene expression analysis, genetic mapping and population genomics to study the genetic basis of the vernalisation requirement in woodland strawberry. Our results indicate that the woodland strawberry vernalisation requirement is endemic to northern Norwegian population, and mapping data suggest the orthologue of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1) as the causal floral repressor. We demonstrate that exceptionally low temperatures are needed to downregulate FvTFL1 and to make these plants competent to induce flowering at low postvernalisation temperatures in the spring. We show that altered regulation of FvTFL1 in the northern Norwegian woodland strawberry accession postpones flower induction until the spring, allowing plants to avoid winter injuries of flower buds that commonly occur in temperate regions.
PubMed ID
28815698 View in PubMed
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Ambient temperature effects on photo induced gonadal cycles and hormonal secretion patterns in Great Tits from three different breeding latitudes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95553
Source
Horm Behav. 2008 Jun;54(1):60-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2008
Author
Silverin Bengt
Wingfield John
Stokkan Karl-Arne
Massa Renato
Järvinen Antero
Andersson Nils-Ake
Lambrechts Marcel
Sorace Alberto
Blomqvist Donald
Author Affiliation
Department of Zoology, University of Göteborg, Sweden. bengt.silverin@zool.gu.se
Source
Horm Behav. 2008 Jun;54(1):60-8
Date
Jun-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Ecosystem
Geography
Gonadal Steroid Hormones - blood - secretion
Gonads - metabolism - physiology
Light
Luteinizing Hormone - blood
Male
Passeriformes - blood - metabolism - physiology
Photoperiod
Reproduction - physiology
Seasons
Temperature
Testis - anatomy & histology
Testosterone - blood
Abstract
The present study determines how populations of Great Tits (Parus major) breeding in southern, mid and northern European latitudes have adjusted their reproductive endocrinology to differences in the ambient temperature during the gonadal cycle. A study based on long-term breeding data, using the Colwell predictability model, showed that the start of the breeding season has a high predictability ( approximately 0.8-0.9) at all latitudes, and that the environmental information factor (I(e)) progressively decreased from mid Italy (I(e)>4) to northern Finland (I(e)
PubMed ID
18402961 View in PubMed
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Annual variation in daily light exposure and circadian change of melatonin and cortisol concentrations at a northern latitude with large seasonal differences in photoperiod length.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282655
Source
J Physiol Anthropol. 2016 Jul 19;36(1):6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-19-2016
Author
Mathias Adamsson
Thorbjörn Laike
Takeshi Morita
Source
J Physiol Anthropol. 2016 Jul 19;36(1):6
Date
Jul-19-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Circadian Rhythm - physiology
Female
Humans
Hydrocortisone - metabolism
Male
Melatonin - metabolism
Middle Aged
Photoperiod
Seasons
Sunlight
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
Seasonal variations in physiology and behavior have frequently been reported. Light is the major zeitgeber for synchronizing internal circadian rhythms with the external solar day. Non-image forming effects of light radiation, for example, phase resetting of the circadian rhythms, melatonin suppression, and acute alerting effects, depend on several characteristics of the light exposure including intensity, timing and duration, spectral composition and previous light exposure, or light history. The aim of the present study was to report on the natural pattern of diurnal and seasonal light exposure and to examine seasonal variations in the circadian change of melatonin and cortisol concentrations for a group of Swedish office workers.
Fifteen subjects participated in a field study that was carried out in the south of Sweden. Ambulatory equipment was used for monthly measurements of the daily exposure to light radiation across the year. The measurements included illuminance and irradiance. The subjects collected saliva samples every 4 h during 1 day of the monthly measuring period.
The results showed that there were large seasonal differences in daily amount of light exposure across the year. Seasonal differences were observed during the time periods 04:00-08:00, 08:00-12:00, 12:00-16:00, 16:00-20:00, and 20:00-24:00. Moreover, there were seasonal differences regarding the exposure pattern. The subjects were to a larger extent exposed to light in the afternoon/evening in the summer. During the winter, spring, and autumn, the subjects received much of the daily light exposure in the morning and early afternoon. Regarding melatonin, a seasonal variation was observed with a larger peak level during the winter and higher levels in the morning at 07:00.
This study adds to the results from other naturalistic studies by reporting on the diurnal and seasonal light exposure patterns for a group living at a northern latitude of 56° N, with large annual variations in photoperiod length. It seems to be seasonal variation in the lighting conditions, both concerning intensities as well as regarding the pattern of the light exposure to which people living at high latitudes are exposed which may result in seasonal variation in the circadian profile of melatonin.
Notes
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