Abyssivirga alkaniphila gen. nov., sp. nov., an alkane-degrading, anaerobic bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent system, and emended descriptions of Natranaerovirga pectinivora and Natranaerovirga hydrolytica.
A strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, syntrophic, alkane-degrading strain, L81T, was isolated from a biofilm sampled from a black smoker chimney at the Loki's Castle vent field. Cells were straight, rod-shaped, Gram-positive-staining and motile. Growth was observed at pH?6.2-9.5, 14-42?°C and 0.5-6?% (w/w) NaCl, with optima at pH?7.0-8.2, 37?°C and 3% (w/w) NaCl. Proteinaceous substrates, sugars, organic acids and hydrocarbons were utilized for growth. Thiosulfate was used as an external electron acceptor during growth on crude oil. Strain L81T was capable of syntrophic hydrocarbon degradation when co-cultured with a methanogenic archaeon, designated strain LG6, isolated from the same enrichment. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain L81T is affiliated with the family Lachnospiraceae, and is most closely related to the type strains of Natranaerovirga pectinivora (92?% sequence similarity) and Natranaerovirga hydrolytica (90%). The major cellular fatty acids of strain L81T were C15?:?0, anteiso-C15?:?0 and C16?:?0, and the profile was distinct from those of the species of the genus Natranaerovirga. The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids, four unidentified glycolipids and two unidentified phosphoglycolipids. The G+C content of genomic DNA was determined to be 31.7?mol%. Based on our phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic results, strain L81T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus of the family Lachnospiraceae, for which we propose the name Abyssivirga alkaniphila gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Abyssivirga alkaniphila is L81T (=DSM 29592T=JCM 30920T). We also provide emended descriptions of Natranaerovirga pectinivora and Natranaerovirga hydrolytica.
The peculiarities of dynamics of quantitative changes of some classes of lipid and phospholipid spectra of blood plasma of calves recovered after dyspepsia were studied. Obtained reliable changes of the blood plasma lipidogrammas testify to development of dyslipidemia. It is characterized by hypercholesterolemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia of recovered 30 days old calves 3 weeks after diseases symptoms past. These changes give evidence concerning deficiency of phosphatides choline fraction - main structural components of cell membranes. It was established that changes of lipid and phospholipid spectra of blood plasma caused by enteropathology can be corrected by the inclusion of reparative therapy preparations to dyspepsia treatment plan in particular--experimental phospholipid containing a drug, which is prepared on the basis of milk phospholipids--its natural source for newborn calves.
Lymphocyte functions are dependent on fatty acid composition of membranes, and impaired functions can predispose patients to infection after burn injury. The current study was designed to describe changes in lymphocyte-phospholipid composition and lymphocyte-related immune functions from early to late recovery time points after burn injury.
Firefighter's Burn Treatment Center, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Subjects (n = 10) with >10% total body surface burn area.
Blood was drawn from subjects at specific time points (0 days to >50 days) after burn injury. Fatty acid composition of the major phospholipid classes of isolated lymphocytes was determined by using gas liquid chromatography. Lymphocyte phenotypes and proliferation ([(3)H]-thymidine uptake and interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma production) in response to mitogens were determined. Lymphocyte phospholipid 20:4n-6 content was 30% to 60% lower early compared with late postburn time points (p
Four bacterial strains, LFT 1.7T, LT2C 2.5, LT4C 2.8 and TM 4.6, were isolated from great scallop (Pecten maximus) larvae and tank seawater in a Norwegian hatchery and characterized by a polyphasic approach including determination of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genomic traits. All were Gram-stain-negative, motile rods, oxidase- and catalase-positive and required sea salts for growth. Major fatty acids present were summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c/C16?:?1?6c), summed feature 8 (C18?:?1?7c or C18?:?1?6c), C16?:?0, C14?:?0, summed feature 2 (C14?:?0 3-OH/iso-C16?:?1 I), C12?:?0 3-OH and C12?:?0. Strain LFT 1.7T contained menaquinone MK-6 as the sole respiratory quinone. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that all strains formed a distinct lineage within the genus Arcobacter with a low similarity to known species (94.77-95.32?%). The DNA G+C content was 28.7?mol%. Results of in silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity confirmed that the isolates constitute a novel species of Arcobacter, for which the name Arcobacter lekithochrous sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LFT 1.7T (=CECT 8942T=DSM 100870T).
A facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and non-motile bacterium was isolated from permafrost sediment cores in the Kolyma lowland, Siberia, Russia. The permafrost isolate clustered with members of the genus Cohnella on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and showed the highest sequence similarity to Cohnella saccharovorans CJ22T (96.3?%), followed by Cohnella cellulosilytica FCN3-3T (96.0?%) and Cohnella panacarvi KCTC 13060T (96.0?%). The chemotaxonomic characteristics (quinone system, cellular fatty acids and polar lipid profile) of strain 20.16T were consistent with members of the genus Cohnella. The peptidoglycan diaminoacids included meso-diaminopimelic acid and a small amount of ll-diaminopimelic acid. The molar ratio and composition of major amino acids (meso-diaminopimelic acid, alanine, and glutamic acid) correspond to the peptydoglycan type A1?. The estimated genome size of strain 20.16T is 4.34?Mb (lower than those in other Cohnella species). The genome has a G+C?content of 50.5?mol% and encodes 4843 predicted genes, of these 4740 are protein-coding ones. The results of chemotaxonomic, physiological and biochemical characterization allowed clear differentiation of strain 20.16T from the closest Cohnella species. Based on data provided, a new species Cohnella kolymensis sp. nov. is proposed, with 20.16T (=VKM B-2846T=DSM 104983T) as the type strain.
1?Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Federal Research Center Pushchino Center for Biological Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Nauki 3, Pushchino, Moscow, 142290, Russian Federation.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2019 Apr; 69(4):1081-1086
A psychrotolerant non-spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain K3ST, was isolated from a Yamal Peninsula cryopeg within permafrost. Strain K3ST grew at subzero temperatures and required Na+ for growth. The new bacterium was able to use lactate, formate, pyruvate, fumarate, alanine, ethanol and molecular hydrogen as electron donors in the presence of sulfate, and used sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur as electron acceptors in the presence of lactate. Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-EDTA were reduced without visible growth. Major polar lipids were ?hosphatidylserine, ?hosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipids, cardiolipin and aminolipid; major cellular fatty acids were C16?:?1?7, C16?:?0 and C18?:?1?7; and the predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-6 (H2). The genomic DNA G+C?content was found to be 42.33?mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the closest relative of the new isolate was Desulfovibrio ferrireducens strain 61T with 97.1?% 16S rRNA gene similarity. In addition, the ANI value between strain K3ST and D. ferrireducens 61T was 82.1?%. On the basis of the genomic and polyphasic taxonomy data of strain K3ST, we conclude that the strain is a representative of a novel species Desulfovibrio gilichinskyi sp. nov. (=VKM B-2877T=DSM 100341T).
A novel Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped bacterium designated strain PAMC 80007T was isolated from an active layer soil sample of Council, Alaska. Optimal growth of strain PAMC 80007T was observed at 30?°C, pH?7.0 and in the presence of 2?% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain PAMC 80007T belonged to the genus Domibacillus. This strain was closely related to Domibacillus enclensis (98.3?%), Domibacillus robiginosus (98.3?%) and Domibacillus indicus (97.2?%). Genomic DNA G+C content was 43.5?mol% and genomic relatedness analyses based on the average nucleotide identity and the genome-to-genome distance showed that strain PAMC 80007T is clearly distinguished from the closely related species of the genus Domibacillus. The major fatty acids (>5?%) were iso-C15?:?0 (24.7?%), C16?:?1?11c (16.8?%), anteiso-C15?:?0 (16.5?%), C16?:?0 (15.6?%) and anteiso-C17?:?0 (8.7?%). The major respiratory isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone-6 (MK-6) and menaquinone-7 (MK-7), and the polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoglycolipid, phospholipid and two unidentified lipids. meso-Diaminopimelic acid (type A1?) was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, and the major whole-cell sugar was ribose with a minor quantity of glucose. Results from a polyphasic study suggested that strain PAMC 80007T represents a novel species of the genus Domibacillus for which the name Domibacillus tundrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PAMC 80007T (?=?JCM 30371T?=?KCTC 33549T?=?DSM 29572T). An emended description of the genus Domibacillus is also provided.
Changes of the individual phospholipid fatty acid composition under the normothermal short-time ischemia with following reperfusion were investigated. Modification of the phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition under ischemia-reperfusion didn't bear total character and was more manifested in cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The decrease of short chain FA in these phospholipids (more than by 50%) was observed. The amount of unsaturated FA included in CL increased and whole the saturated ones decreased. This caused the rise of the unsaturation index. The selective type of the changes suggested that they had an adaptive character. The addition of the N-stearoilethanolamine (NSE) into the perfusion solution caused a normalization of saturated and unsaturated FA relative amount, as well as of omega-3 and omega-9 FA level in CL. The modification of the FA composition of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) was also found. The quantity of arachidonic acid in PC increased by 26% and the amount of stearinic acid enhanced in PS. The labeled N-([1-(14)C]-palmitoil)-ethanolamine was found in different lipid classes of the rat organs immediately 5 min following intraperitoneal injection. Approximately 1/3 of all incorporated label accumulated in the phospholipid fraction, and more than 50% of the labels were found in CL.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a diet supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic) and tocopherol, which are the base of a preparation "Tekom", on a composition of myocardial phospholipid fatty acids, as well as on the metabolism of eicosanoids, free radical processes and the contractility of isolated working heart in rats at ischemia/reperfusion. Added to the diet within 4 weeks, "Tekom" induced an increase in the content of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in membranes of cardiomyocytes, a decrease in vasoactive metabolites of arachidonic acid and limitation of free radical processes. "Tekom" inhibited cardiac arrhythmias in the isolated working hearts of rats and improved the cardiac pump function at ischemia/reperfusion.
The mechanism of essentiality of dietary phospholipid (PL) for larval fish is not clear. The main objective of the present study was to determine if the PL requirement of Atlantic cod larvae was due to any genetic impairment caused by functional immaturity. Cod larvae were sampled at 1, 3, 8, 13, 17, 18, 30, 42 and 60 days post hatch (dph) for transcriptome analysis using a recently developed microarray. The fatty acid profile and gene expression levels of cod larvae at 17 dph were compared after feeding differently enriched rotifers, which contained different DHA levels in PL. No significant differences (p