A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to height have been detected. Calcium metabolism is important for the skeleton and accordingly also for adult height. Therefore, in the present study, nine SNPs related to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were related to height in 9471 subjects. Relation with height was evaluated with linear regression for trend across SNP genotypes with age and gender as covariates. After correcting for multiple testing, significant associations with height were found for two SNPs related to the VDR gene (rs1544410 (Bsml) and rs7975232 (Apal)), one SNP related to serum 25(OH)D (rs3829251 at the DHCR7/NADSYN1 gene), one SNP related to serum calcium (rs1459015 at the PTH gene) and one SNP related to serum phosphate (rs1697421 at the ALPL gene). For rs3829251, the mean differences in height between major and minor homozygotes were 1.5-2.0 cm (P
Serum valuse for calcium, phosphate and albumin have been determined in a population study of 2322 49-50-year-old men participating in a health examination survey. Calcium and albumin were significantly correlated (r = 0.34) but adjustment for albumin only caused minor effects on the distribution of calcium. No inverse relationship was found between calcium and phosphate. Seasonal variations over the three years of the health survey could not be established for either calcium or phosphate, whereas there was a slight tendency for albumin to decline during summer. The prevalence of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in this population of men up to the age of 50 was 0.3% and among those with recurrent renal stones 5.3%. All subjects with verified HPT had a history of recurrent renal stones. One man on thiazide treatment had a slight elevation of calcium which returned to normal after cessation of the drug. No other case of hypercalcemia besides those caused by HPT was found. Mean values and frequency distributions for calcium, phosphate and albumin were almost identical in renal stone formers and matched controls. Hence it seems likely that other factors than those which markedly affect serum levels of calcium and phosphate are of major importance in common renal stone formation.
This randomized clinical trial is designed to assess whether the prevention and/or correction of anemia, by immediate versus delayed treatment with erythropoietin alfa in patients with chronic kidney disease, would delay left ventricular (LV) growth. Study design and sample size calculations were based on previously published Canadian data.
One hundred seventy-two patients were randomly assigned. The treatment group received therapy with erythropoietin alfa subcutaneously to maintain or achieve hemoglobin (Hgb) level targets of 12.0 to 14.0 g/dL (120 to 140 g/L). The control/delayed treatment group had Hgb levels of 9.0 +/- 0.5 g/dL (90 +/- 5 g/L) before therapy was started: target level was 9.0 to 10.5 g/dL (90 to 105 g/L). Optimal blood pressure and parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphate level targets were prescribed; all patients were iron replete. The primary end point is LV growth at 24 months.
One hundred fifty-two patients were eligible for the intention-to-treat analysis: mean age was 57 years, 30% were women, 38% had diabetes, and median glomerular filtration rate was 29 mL/min (0.48 mL/s; range, 12 to 55 mL/min [0.20 to 0.92 mL/s]). Blood pressure and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use were similar in the control/delayed treatment and treatment groups at baseline. Erythropoietin therapy was administered to 77 of 78 patients in the treatment group, with a median final dose of 2,000 IU/wk. Sixteen patients in the control/delayed treatment group were administered erythropoietin at a median final dose of 3,000 IU/wk. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for the primary outcome of mean change in LV mass index (LVMI) from baseline to 24 months, which was 5.21 +/- 30.3 g/m2 in the control/delayed treatment group versus 0.37 +/- 25.0 g/m2 in the treatment group. Absolute mean difference between groups was 4.85 g/m2 (95% confidence interval, -4.0 to 13.7; P = 0.28). Mean Hgb level was greater in the treatment group throughout the study and at study end was 12.75 g/dL (127.5 g/L in treatment group versus 11.46 g/dL [114.6 g/L] in control/delayed treatment group; P = 0.0001). LV growth occurred in 20.1% in the treatment group versus 31% in the control/delayed treatment group (P = 0.136). In patients with a stable Hgb level, mean LVMI did not change (-0.25 +/- 26.7 g/m2), but it increased in those with decreasing Hgb levels (19.3 +/- 28.2 g/m2; P = 0.002).
This trial describes disparity between observational and randomized controlled trial data: observed and randomly assigned Hgb level and LVMI are not linked; thus, there is strong evidence that the association between Hgb level and LVMI likely is not causal. Large randomized controlled trials with unselected patients, using morbidity and mortality as outcomes, are needed.
Comment In: Am J Kidney Dis. 2005 Nov;46(5):970-316253741
OBJECTIVES: Sunlight exposure of the skin is known to be the most important source of vitamin D. The aims of this study were: (i) to estimate vitamin D status amongst sunlight-deprived individuals (veiled Arab women, veiled ethnic Danish Moslem women and Danish controls); and (ii) through food intake analysis to estimate the oral intake of vitamin D necessary to keep a normal vitamin D status in sunlight-deprived individuals. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study amongst randomly selected Moslem women of Arab origin living in Denmark. Age-matched Danish women were included as controls. To control for racial differences, a group of veiled ethnic Danish Moslem women (all Caucasians) was included. SETTING: Primary Health Care Centre, City Vest and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, University Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus Amtssygehus, Aarhus, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Sixty-nine Arab women (60 veiled, nine non-veiled) and 44 age-matched Danish controls were randomly selected amongst patients contacting the primary health care centre for reasons other than vitamin D deficiency. Ten ethnic Danish Moslem women were included through a direct contact with their community. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were used as estimates of vitamin D status. Intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) was used to control for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Alkaline phosphatase and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase were used as markers for osteomalacic bone involvement. Oral intake of vitamin D and calcium were estimated through a historical food intake interview performed by a trained clinical dietician. RESULTS: Veiled Arab women displayed extremely low values of 25-hydroxyvitamin D: 7.1 +/- 1.1 nmol L-1, compared with 17.5 +/- 2. 3 (P
Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the preferred surgical treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC). Little is known of how the operation affects bone metabolism and fracture risk. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate fracture risk and serum markers of bone metabolism following IPAA in a national cohort of Danish UC patients.
Diagnostic codes for 1757 patients and 8785 controls were obtained from the National Patient Register while blood results were collected from a regional database. Postoperative fracture free survival was evaluated on a Kaplan-Meier plot. Fracture hazard ratios (HR) after IPAA were calculated from Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.
Fracture risk after IPAA was significantly reduced (adjusted HR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.43; 0.55, p
OBJECTIVE: Hyperphosphatemia is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with chronic kidney disease. Relations of circulating calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (Pi) to long-term mortality risk in the community require further investigation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Associations of serum Ca and Pi to mortality were evaluated in a community-based cohort of 2176 men (mean age, 50.1 years). During follow-up (median, 29.8 years), 1009 men died, and 466 of these deaths resulted from cardiovascular causes. In Cox proportional hazards models, serum Pi and [CaxPi] were independent predictors of total mortality (hazard ratio per SD, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12; P=0.03; 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12; P=0.01) and cardiovascular mortality (1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.18; P=0.01; 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.19; P=0.008). Serum Ca was associated with risk of total mortality (1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P=0.02) and noncardiovascular mortality (1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.21; P=0.04). Results were consistent after multivariate adjustments in subsamples of individuals with estimated glomerular filtration rate >90 mL/min and low-to-normal serum Ca and Pi. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating Ca and Pi levels are associated with risks of total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality in the community, and their conjoint effects are additive. Additional studies are warranted to evaluate whether Ca and Pi are modifiable risk factors in the general population.
Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), PO Box 8905, 7491, Trondheim, Norway. email@example.com.
Vitamin D insufficiency is common in pregnant women worldwide. Regular prenatal exercise is considered beneficial for maternal and fetal health. There is a knowledge gap regarding the impact of prenatal exercise on maternal vitamin D levels. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a prenatal exercise program influenced serum levels of total, free and bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and related parameters. This is a post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial with gestational diabetes as the primary outcome.
Healthy, pregnant women from two Norwegian cities (Trondheim and Stavanger) were randomly assigned to a 12-week moderate-intensity exercise program (Borg perceived rating scale 13-14) or standard prenatal care. The intervention group (n?=?429) underwent exercise at least three times weekly; one supervised group training and two home based sessions. The controls (n?=?426) received standard prenatal care, and exercising was not denied. Training diaries and group training was used to promote compliance and evaluate adherence. Serum levels of 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, magnesium and vitamin D-binding protein were measured before (18-22?weeks' gestation) and after the intervention (32-36?weeks' gestation). Free and bioavailable 25(OH)D concentrations were calculated. Regression analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to assess the effect of the training regime on each substance with pre-intervention levels as covariates. In a second model, we also adjusted for study site and sampling month. Intention-to-treat principle was used.
A total of 724 women completed the study. No between-group difference in serum 25(OH)D and related parameters was identified by ANCOVA using baseline serum levels as covariates. The second model revealed a between-group difference in levels of 25(OH)D (1.9, 95% CI 0.0 to 3.8?nmol/L; p?=?0.048), free 25(OH)D (0.55, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.99?pmol/L; p?=?0.017) and bioavailable 25(OH)D (0.15 95% CI 0.01 to 0.29?nmol/L; p?=?0.036). No serious adverse events related to regular exercise were seen.
This study, a post hoc analysis, indicates that exercise may affect vitamin D status positively, and emphasizes that women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to perform regular exercise.
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00476567 , registered May 22, 2007.