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Epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in Edmonton. Phobic disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature219175
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1994;376:36-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
Author
C L Dick
B. Sowa
R C Bland
S C Newman
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1994;376:36-44
Date
1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alberta - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Mental Disorders - classification - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Personality Assessment
Phobic Disorders - classification - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Sex Factors
Software
Abstract
3258 randomly selected adult household residents of the city of Edmonton were interviewed by trained lay interviewers using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS). Using DMS-III criteria, hierarchy-free, the lifetime prevalence for all phobias was 8.9%. Rates for women (11.7%) were almost twice those for men (6.1%). The age at which first phobic symptoms had been reported by 50% of subjects was 12 years for men and 6 years for women. High rates of comorbidity with depression, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence and obsessive-compulsive disorder were found in all types of phobia, an important point in clinical management.
PubMed ID
8178683 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of ICD-10 harmful use of alcohol and alcohol dependence among the rural population in Udmurtia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205361
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 1998 May-Jun;33(3):255-64
Publication Type
Article
Author
S. Pakriev
V. Vasar
A. Aluoja
J. Shlik
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Tartu, Estonia.
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 1998 May-Jun;33(3):255-64
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcohol-Related Disorders - classification - diagnosis - epidemiology
Alcoholism - classification - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - classification - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Phobic Disorders - classification - diagnosis - epidemiology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Russia - epidemiology
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
A sample of 855 rural adult inhabitants in Udmurtia was interviewed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1:1 (CIDI) to investigate the incidence and prevalence of alcohol-related disorders. Harmful use of alcohol and alcohol dependence affected 37.1% of the population according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R in a lifetime period. The incidence of alcohol dependence in the previous year was 0.8% (1.4% in men, 0.4% in women). Alcohol-related disorders were more common in men (72.6%) than in women (10.3%). Correlates of alcohol dependence were sex (69.3% in men, 3.7% in women), lower education (40.1%) and being divorced in men (77.8%). Alcohol dependence had a high comorbidity with social phobia in Udmurt men and with depression in Russian men.
PubMed ID
9632051 View in PubMed
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Setting diagnostic thresholds for social phobia: considerations from a community survey of social anxiety.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218718
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 1994 Mar;151(3):408-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1994
Author
M B Stein
J R Walker
D R Forde
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 1994 Mar;151(3):408-12
Date
Mar-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Phobic Disorders - classification - diagnosis - epidemiology
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Telephone
Abstract
The goal of this study was to gain a broader perspective on social anxiety in the community than has been achieved by epidemiologic surveys to date.
The authors conducted a telephone survey of social anxiety among 526 randomly selected respondents in a medium-sized Canadian city.
Sixty-one percent of the respondents reported being much or somewhat more anxious than other people in at least one of the seven social situations surveyed. Speaking to a large audience (i.e., public speaking) was the most frequently feared situation (endorsed by 55.0% of the respondents), followed by speaking to a small group of familiar people (24.9%), dealing with people in authority (23.3%), attending social gatherings (14.5%), speaking to strangers or meeting new people (13.7%), and eating (7.1%) or writing (5.1%) in front of others. When the threshold for caseness was systematically modified--by altering the required level of psychosocial interference or distress or by including or excluding subjects with pure public speaking phobia--the rate of "social anxiety syndrome" in the community varied from 1.9% to 18.7%; 7.1% was the prevalence when the criteria were set to conform with DSM-III-R.
Social anxiety is common in the community, but precise delineation of the prevalence of "social phobia" depends heavily on where the diagnostic threshold is set. If DSM-III-R criteria had been applied in previous epidemiologic studies, it is likely that those studies would have documented prevalences of social phobia that are several times as high as the currently accepted rates.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Apr;152(4):653-47694933
PubMed ID
8109650 View in PubMed
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Social phobia subtypes in the general population revealed by cluster analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196483
Source
Psychol Med. 2000 Nov;30(6):1335-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2000
Author
T. Furmark
M. Tillfors
H. Stattin
L. Ekselius
M. Fredrikson
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Source
Psychol Med. 2000 Nov;30(6):1335-44
Date
Nov-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Cluster analysis
Female
Humans
Male
Models, Psychological
Phobic Disorders - classification - diagnosis - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Reproducibility of Results
Sampling Studies
Severity of Illness Index
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Epidemiological data on subtypes of social phobia are scarce and their defining features are debated. Hence, the present study explored the prevalence and descriptive characteristics of empirically derived social phobia subgroups in the general population.
To reveal subtypes, data on social distress, functional impairment, number of social fears and criteria fulfilled for avoidant personality disorder were extracted from a previously published epidemiological study of 188 social phobics and entered into an hierarchical cluster analysis. Criterion validity was evaluated by comparing clusters on the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Finally, profile analyses were performed in which clusters were compared on a set of sociodemographic and descriptive characteristics.
Three clusters emerged, consisting of phobics scoring either high (generalized subtype), intermediate (non-generalized subtype) or low (discrete subtype) on all variables. Point prevalence rates were 2.0%, 5.9% and 7.7% respectively. All subtypes were distinguished on both SPS and SIAS. Generalized or severe social phobia tended to be over-represented among individuals with low levels of educational attainment and social support. Overall, public-speaking was the most common fear.
Although categorical distinctions may be used, the present data suggest that social phobia subtypes in the general population mainly differ dimensionally along a mild moderate-severe continuum, and that the number of cases declines with increasing severity.
PubMed ID
11097074 View in PubMed
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Social phobia symptoms, subtypes, and severity: findings from a community survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196679
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000 Nov;57(11):1046-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2000
Author
M B Stein
L J Torgrud
J R Walker
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, 8950 Villa La Jolla Dr, Suite 2243, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. mstein@ucsd.edu
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000 Nov;57(11):1046-52
Date
Nov-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alberta - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Disability Evaluation
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Manitoba - epidemiology
Phobic Disorders - classification - diagnosis - epidemiology
Prevalence
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
Our goals were (1) to ascertain the range of functional impairment attributable to social phobia in a community sample, and (2) to verify the existence of social phobia subtypes in the community, and report on their relative prevalence, severity, and levels of impairment.
Community surveys were conducted contemporaneously in Winnipeg, Manitoba, and in Alberta, with a total of 1956 respondents. Instruments included the Comprehensive International Diagnostic Interview-Version 2.1 module for DSM-IV social phobia, enhanced with 6 additional (for a total of 12) social phobic situational probes to provide a more comprehensive assessment of possible subtypes, and additional questions about specific functional impairment due to social phobia.
Of those persons in the community surveyed, most had no (60.4%) or few (ie, 1-3) (27.8%) social fears; few persons (3.4%) had many (ie, >/=7). Among those with DSM-IV social phobia (7.2%), classification based on number (normally distributed with median of 3, mode of 5) or content (eg, speaking-only vs other fears; performance-only vs interactional fears) of social fears failed to yield a defensible subtyping solution. Impairment increased linearly as the number of social fears was increased, with no clear threshold evident.
Social phobia is associated with substantial impairment in multiple functional domains. Support for subtyping based on the extent or pattern of social fears was not provided. Rather, social phobia in the community seems to exist on a continuum of severity, with a greater number of feared situations associated with greater disability.
PubMed ID
11074870 View in PubMed
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