The article outlines the life and activities of academician N. P. Kravkov (1865-1924), the founder of pharmacology in Russia. During his 25 years of service as Head of the Department of Pharmacology at the Military Medical Academy in St. Petersburg, N. P. Kravkov established a large national school of pharmacological science. He was the author of a number of fundamental discoveries, which enriched the Russian and world science.
Objectives of hospital-based post-doctoral general dentistry programs in Canada were assessed by questionnaire. Seventy percent (14 of 20) of the program directors responded. Educational goals and objectives were assessed in professional skills and practice management, public health and preventive dentistry, oral medicine and pathology, special needs patient care, trauma and emergency care, restorative/prosthodontic care, endodontics, orthodontics/pediatric dentistry, oral surgery, periodontics, pharmacology, and functioning in a hospital. High rankings of proficiency were related to primary care, restorative/prosthodontic, endodontic, and surgical care. Emergency care, sedation, and pharmacology were also ranked highly. Lower rankings of proficiency were reported in orthodontics, aspects of public health dentistry, practice management, and advanced oral and maxiliofacial surgery. When the results of the Canadian survey were compared with those of a survey of US post-doctoral general dentistry programs, substantial similarity was seen. The findings support continuing reciprocity in accreditation standards between the Canadian and American Commissions on Dental Education and Dental Accreditation.
OBJECTIVE: To develop a working model with which prescribing behaviour among general practitioners might be influenced. DESIGN: Intervention based on feedback on prescribing rates and problem-oriented educational outreach visits, using educational material and local opinion leaders. Randomised study with three parallel intervention groups of general practitioners, which also served as controls for each other. The pharmacotherapeutic fields chosen were hypertension, peptic ulcer/dyspepsia and depression. Prescription data were retrieved from the electronic patient records for periods of 1 year before and after the intervention. SETTING: Six health care centres and three continuing medical education groups in Stockholm. SUBJECTS: Forty general practitioners. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Drug prescribing rates and patterns before and after the intervention. RESULTS: In the hypertension field, desired trends in fractional prescribing (favouring diuretics and beta blocking agents) were recorded, with a significant (P
The health care environment requires that practitioners have sufficient mathematical skills to perform accurate, safe and effective medication administration. This is a highly responsible and nursing task, which is performed daily. In this study 364 nurses and 282 graduating nursing students in Finland completed the Medication Calculation Skills Test (MCS Test). According to the findings students lacked accurate mathematical skills, while nurses attained higher scores in the test. Nurses with an upper secondary school education managed better with the calculation problems than nurses with a lower basic education. Students who had an excellent mark (9-10) in mathematics, had studied mathematics longer at high school and were more satisfied with the amount of medication calculation instructions and scored higher in the MCS Test than others. The differences between the nurses' and students' mathematical skills were significant. The MCS Test could be used to measure one's own skills and to give information of the mathematical skill level for constructing a nursing curriculum or additional training for clinical practice.
PURPOSES AND OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to investigate the pharmacological skills of Finnish nurses and graduating nursing students, to determine how pharmacological skills are related to background factors and to identify differences between nurses and students and, finally, to examine how the instrument used, the Medication Calculation Skills Test, works.
Pharmacology is a relevant and topical subject. In several studies, however, pharmacological skills of nurses and nursing students have been found insufficient. In addition, pharmacology as a subject is found to be difficult for both nursing students and nurses.
The study was evaluative in nature; the data were collected using the Medication Calculation Skills Test, developed for the purposes of this study. The instrument was used to gather information on background factors and self-rated pharmacological and mathematical skills and to test actual skills in these areas.
Results concerning pharmacological skills are reported in this paper. The maximum Medication Calculation Skills Test score was 24 points. The mean score for nurses was 18.6 and that for students 16.3. Half of (50%) the students attained a score of 67% and 57% of nurses attained a score of 79%.
Nurses and students had some deficiencies in their pharmacological skills. Nurses had better pharmacological skills than students according to both self-ratings and actual performance on the test.
It is vitally important that nurses have adequate pharmacological skills to administer medicines correctly. This study showed that the Medication Calculation Skills Test seems to work well in measuring pharmacological skills, even though it needs further evaluation. Findings from this study can be used when planning the nursing curriculum and further education for Registered Nurses.
The kinesiology concept is used worldwide and by many different professional groups with scientific aspirations. Yet nobody seems to know much about where it comes from and why it came into existence. This article traces the origins of the concept back to one of Sweden's greatest cultural exports of the nineteenth century - Swedish gymnastics - and the efforts of especially Swedish physiotherapists and physical educators to spread its scientific doctrines throughout the world. Primarily their goal was to convert the representatives of conventional medicine (pharmacology) into a more mechanical mode of understanding and curing illness (physiotherapy). While following in the footsteps of one physiotherapist/physical educator -'the father of kinesiology'- and examining the ideological and historical conditions his so-called 'mission' was ruled by, the social construction of knowledge and science is made visible in a way seldom highlighted in the history of medicine and physical education.
Problem-based learning (PBL) can be described as a learning environment where the problem drives the learning. This technique usually involves learning in small groups, which are supervised by tutors. It is becoming evident that PBL in a small-group setting has a robust positive effect on student learning and skills, including better problem-solving skills and an increase in overall motivation. However, very little research has been done on the educational benefits of PBL in a large classroom setting. Here, we describe a PBL approach (using tutorless groups) that was introduced as a supplement to standard didactic lectures in University of British Columbia Okanagan undergraduate biochemistry classes consisting of 45-85 students. PBL was chosen as an effective method to assist students in learning biochemical and physiological processes. By monitoring student attendance and using informal and formal surveys, we demonstrated that PBL has a significant positive impact on student motivation to attend and participate in the course work. Student responses indicated that PBL is superior to traditional lecture format with regard to the understanding of course content and retention of information. We also demonstrated that student problem-solving skills are significantly improved, but additional controlled studies are needed to determine how much PBL exercises contribute to this improvement. These preliminary data indicated several positive outcomes of using PBL in a large classroom setting, although further studies aimed at assessing student learning are needed to further justify implementation of this technique in courses delivered to large undergraduate classes.
About every second decision of a medical doctor concerns drug therapy. On the basis of a representative Norwegian study, which analyzed fatal drug reactions in stationary patients of internal medicine wards by autopsy and plasma drug concentrations, in Germany 58,000 fatalities are occurring in this patient population. The treating physicians classified only 6% of drug induced fatalities as such. Therefore, the risk of drug therapy is grossly underestimated. In half of the cases medication errors were causative and therefore these could potentially all be avoided. In addition to improved pre- and postgraduate education in clinical pharmacology the use of computer-based expert systems would be a decisive step to optimize drug therapy.