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41 records – page 1 of 5.

[Ceriometric quantitative determination of some pharmaceutical preparations]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature13286
Source
Farm Zh. 1975;30(3):88-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
1975

A compilation of fatal and control concentrations of drugs in postmortem femoral blood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11133
Source
J Forensic Sci. 1997 Jan;42(1):79-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1997
Author
H. Druid
P. Holmgren
Author Affiliation
Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
Source
J Forensic Sci. 1997 Jan;42(1):79-87
Date
Jan-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Blood Chemical Analysis - methods
Chromatography, Gas - methods
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid - methods
Femoral Vein
Forensic Medicine - methods
Humans
Pharmaceutical Preparations - analysis
Postmortem Changes
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Toxicology - methods
Abstract
A compilation of postmortem femoral blood concentrations of drugs is presented. The samples are collected from cases in which the cause of death was: A) certified intoxication by one substance alone, B) certified intoxication by more than one substance and/or alcohol, and C) certified other cause of death without incapacitation due to drugs. The concentrations were compared with blood concentrations detected in suspected drugged drivers (D), and with previously published fatal and therapeutic concentrations. The special features of this compilation are: 1) exclusively femoral blood concentrations are quoted, 2) all analyses are based on samples handled according to a standardized, quality-controlled procedure, 3) two control groups are included, and 4) one-substance-only intoxications are separated from other intoxications. The material is based on a selection of 15,800 samples sent to the Department of Forensic Chemistry in Link?ping, Sweden, during 1992 to 1995 from the six forensic pathology units in Sweden, and the list includes 83 drugs. The compilation includes drugs, where previously published data are scarce. Furthermore, the data gathered from cases with other cause of death than intoxication (group C) constitute a new kind of reference information, which probably offers a better estimate of obviously non fatal levels in postmortem blood than any compilation of therapeutic concentrations in living subjects. The possible factors influencing postmortem drug concentrations are discussed.
PubMed ID
8988577 View in PubMed
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Contribution of pharmaceuticals, fecal bacteria and endotoxin to the inflammatory responses to inland waters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258274
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2014 Aug 1;488-489:228-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1-2014
Author
Ahmed El Marghani
Ajay Pradhan
Asmerom Seyoum
Hazem Khalaf
Torbjön Ros
Lars-Håkan Forsberg
Tomas Nermark
Lisa Osterman
Ulf Wiklund
Per Ivarsson
Jana Jass
Per-Erik Olsson
Author Affiliation
Örebro Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro SE-70182, Sweden.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2014 Aug 1;488-489:228-35
Date
Aug-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacteria - growth & development
Cells, Cultured
Endotoxins - analysis - toxicity
Environmental monitoring
Fresh Water - chemistry - microbiology
Humans
Immunity - drug effects
Pesticides - analysis
Pharmaceutical Preparations - analysis
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
The increasing contamination of freshwater with pharmaceuticals, surfactants, pesticides and other organic compounds are of major concern. As these contaminants are detected at trace levels in the environment it is important to determine if they elicit biological responses at the observed levels. In addition to chemical pollutants, there is also a concern for increasing levels of bacteria and other microorganisms in freshwater systems. In an earlier study, we observed the activation of inflammatory systems downstream of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in southern Sweden. We also observed that the water contained unidentified components that were pro-inflammatory and potentiated the immune response in human urinary bladder epithelial cells. In order to determine if these effects were unique for the studied site or represent a common response in Swedish water, we have now performed a study on three WWTPs and their recipient waters in central Sweden. Analysis of immune responses in urinary bladder epithelial cells, monocyte-like cells and blood mononuclear cells confirm that these waters activate the immune system as well as induce pro-inflammatory responses. The results indicate that the cytokine profiles correlate to the endotoxin load of the waters rather than to the levels of pharmaceuticals or culturable bacteria load, suggesting that measurements of endotoxin levels and immune responses would be a valuable addition to the analysis of inland waters.
PubMed ID
24836131 View in PubMed
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Driving under the influence of other drugs than alcohol in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12254
Source
Acta Med Leg Soc (Liege). 1990;40:71-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990

Drugs and alcohol in hypothermia and hyperthermia related deaths: a retrospective study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12550
Source
J Forensic Sci. 1987 Nov;32(6):1704-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1987
Author
M L Kortelainen
Author Affiliation
Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
J Forensic Sci. 1987 Nov;32(6):1704-12
Date
Nov-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Catecholamines - urine
Ethanol - adverse effects - blood - urine
Female
Fever - chemically induced - metabolism
Humans
Hypothermia - chemically induced - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Pharmaceutical Preparations - analysis
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
Hypothermia and hyperthermia related cases recorded for the period 1973 to 1984 were collected from the files of the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Oulu, and the necropsy protocols including toxicological results were analyzed. The fact that similar alcohol concentrations were found in both types of fatalities points to the poikilothermic effect of alcohol in humans, as found in animal studies. Both types of deaths seem to be associated with the alcohol elimination phase. Antidepressants and neuroleptics were most often found in the hypothermia cases, but benzodiazepines were also quite frequently present. In spite of the diminished use of barbiturates, these still appear in hypothermia fatalities. Certain other drugs that affect thermoregulation were also noted in solitary cases. Extended toxicological analysis was seldom made in the cases of hyperthermia deaths, and no firm conclusions on the poikilothermic effect of psychotropic drugs could be reached, for example. Therapeutic drug concentrations did not alone predispose the subjects to hypothermia, but appeared in connection with alcohol consumption or chronic diseases.
PubMed ID
3430138 View in PubMed
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Drug screening of preserved oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature79477
Source
Clin Chem. 2007 Feb;53(2):300-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Øiestad Elisabeth Leere
Johansen Unni
Christophersen Asbjorg Solberg
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse, Oslo, Norway. elisabeth.oiestad@fhi.no
Source
Clin Chem. 2007 Feb;53(2):300-9
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Humans
Pharmaceutical Preparations - analysis
Reproducibility of Results
Saliva - chemistry
Sensitivity and specificity
Substance Abuse Detection - methods
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Oral fluid is an alternative matrix with potential applications in road-side drug screening, work-place testing, drug treatment programs, and epidemiological surveys. Development of methods for extensive drug screening in oral fluid is warranted. METHODS: We developed a liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for drug screening of preserved oral fluid collected with the Intercept collection device. Samples were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction with ethylacetate/heptane (4:1). LC-separation was achieved with an Atlantis dC18-column (2.1 x 50 mm, 3 microm particle). Mass detection was performed by positive ion mode electrospray LC-MS/MS and included the following drugs/metabolites: morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine, buprenorphine, methadone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, lysergic acid diethylamide, alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, diazepam, N-desmethyldiazepam, 3-OH-diazepam, fenazepam, flunitrazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, lorazepam, nitrazepam, 7-aminonitrazepam, oxazepam, zopiclone, zolpidem, carisoprodol, and meprobamat. RESULTS: Screening of 32 drugs was performed with a run time of 14 min. Within- and between-day relative CVs varied from 2.0% to 31.8% and from 3.6% to 39.1%, respectively. Extraction recoveries were >50% except for morphine (30%) and benzoylecgonine (0.2%). The concentrations of the lowest calibrator were 1 nmol/L (0.28 microg/L) to 500 nmol/L (68 microg/L), depending on the drug. CONCLUSION: The method allowed rapid and sensitive oral fluid screening for the most commonly abused drugs in Norway and will be used for a road-side survey of drug use in normal traffic.
PubMed ID
17158196 View in PubMed
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Drugs in fall versus non-fall accidents with major trauma - A population-based clinical and medico-legal autopsy study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298857
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2019 Mar; 296:80-84
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2019
Author
S Acosta
L Andersson
A Bagher
C J Wingren
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Sweden; Vascular Centre, Malmö, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Sweden. Electronic address: Stefan.acosta@med.lu.se.
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2019 Mar; 296:80-84
Date
Mar-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Accidental Falls - mortality
Accidents - mortality
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Emergency Service, Hospital
Female
Forensic Medicine
Forensic Toxicology
Hospital Mortality
Humans
Injury Severity Score
Male
Middle Aged
Pharmaceutical Preparations - analysis
Polypharmacy
Street Drugs - adverse effects - analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Wounds and Injuries - mortality
Young Adult
Abstract
The main aim of the present population-based study was to compare drugs in fall versus non-fall accidents causing major trauma, including both clinical and medico-legal autopsy data.
All individuals with accidents resulting in major trauma, a new injury severity score (NISS)>15 or lethal outcome was identified at hospital and/or the Department of Forensic Medicine between 2011 and 2013. Modified Downton Fall Risk Index ranged from 0 to 7, and was based on specific pharmaceuticals (max 5 points), previous fall (1 point) and cognitive impairment (1 point).
One hundred and four individuals with major traumatic accidents were identified, 38 (36.5%) died. The median modified Downton Fall Risk Index was 2 for fall accidents and 0 for non-fall accidents (p?
PubMed ID
30710812 View in PubMed
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Environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals in Denmark after normal therapeutic use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199266
Source
Chemosphere. 2000 Apr;40(7):783-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2000
Author
F. Stuer-Lauridsen
M. Birkved
L P Hansen
H C Lützhøft
B. Halling-Sørensen
Author Affiliation
COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners, Lyngby, Denmark. fsl@cowi.dk
Source
Chemosphere. 2000 Apr;40(7):783-93
Date
Apr-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetaminophen - analysis - therapeutic use - toxicity
Aspirin - analysis - therapeutic use - toxicity
Biodegradation, Environmental
Denmark
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Humans
Pharmaceutical Preparations - analysis - metabolism
Risk assessment
Sewage - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Abstract
An environmental risk assessment is presented for the 25 most used pharmaceuticals in the primary health sector in Denmark. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) for the aquatic environment were calculated using conservative assumptions and all PECs exceeded 1 ng/l. Measured concentrations were in general within a factor of 2-5 of PECs and ranged from approximately 0.5 ng/l to 3 micrograms/l for nine of the pharmaceuticals reported in literature. The calculation of predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) based on aquatic ecotoxicity data was possible for six of the pharmaceuticals. PEC/PNEC ratio exceeded one for ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, and paracetamol. For estrogens the PEC/PNEC ratio approached one when non-standard test was used. The ratio was below one for estrogens (standard test), diazepam and digoxin. For the terrestrial compartment, toxicity data were not available, and no assessment was carried out. Comparisons of predicted concentrations of furosemide, ibuprofen, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin in sludge based on either preliminary experimental sludge-water partition coefficients (Kd), octanol-water coefficients (Kow) or acid-base constants (pKa) revealed large variations.
PubMed ID
10705557 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of human pharmaceutical emissions and concentrations in Swedish river basins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290762
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Dec 01; 572:508-519
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-01-2016
Author
C Lindim
J van Gils
D Georgieva
O Mekenyan
I T Cousins
Author Affiliation
ACES - Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: claudia.lindim@aces.su.se.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Dec 01; 572:508-519
Date
Dec-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Environmental monitoring
Humans
Pharmaceutical Preparations - analysis
Rivers - chemistry
Sweden
Waste Water - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
An emissions inventory for top consumed human pharmaceuticals in Sweden was done based on national consumption data, human metabolic rates and wastewater treatment removal rates. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface waters in Swedish river basins were predicted using estimated emissions from the inventory and river discharges. Our findings indicate that the top ten emitted pharmaceuticals in our study set of 54 substances are all emitted in amounts above 0.5ton/y to both surface waters and soils. The highest emissions to water were in decreasing order for Metformin, Furosemide, Gabapentin, Atenolol and Tramadol. Predicted emissions to soils calculated with the knowledge that in Sweden sludge is mostly disposed to soil, point to the highest emissions among the studied drugs coming from, in decreasing order, Metformin, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Gabapentin and Atenolol. Surface water concentrations in Sweden's largest rivers, all located in low density population zones, were found to be below 10ng/L for all substances studied. In contrast, concentrations in surface waters in Stockholm's metropolitan area, the most populous in Sweden, surpassed 100ng/L for four substances: Atenolol, Metformin, Furosemide and Gabapentin.
PubMed ID
27552129 View in PubMed
Less detail

Exposure and ecotoxicological risk assessment of mixtures of top prescribed pharmaceuticals in Swedish freshwaters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299451
Source
Chemosphere. 2019 Apr; 220:344-352
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2019
Author
C Lindim
D de Zwart
I T Cousins
S Kutsarova
R Kühne
G Schüürmann
Author Affiliation
ACES - Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: midnil@gmail.com.
Source
Chemosphere. 2019 Apr; 220:344-352
Date
Apr-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Aquatic Organisms - drug effects - growth & development
Ecotoxicology
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Fresh Water
Pharmaceutical Preparations - analysis - metabolism
Risk Assessment - methods
Sweden
Toxicity Tests
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
Surface water concentrations of 54 pharmaceuticals were predicted for seven major Swedish rivers and the Stockholm City area basins using the STREAM-EU model. These surface water concentrations were used to predict the ecotoxicological impact resulting from the exposure of aquatic organisms to this mixture of 54 pharmaceuticals. STREAM-EU model results indicated that
PubMed ID
30590300 View in PubMed
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41 records – page 1 of 5.