Little attention has been devoted to the effects on children's respiratory health of exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) in ambient air from local industrial emissions. Most studies on the effects of SO(2) have assessed its impact as part of the regional ambient air pollutant mix.
To examine the association between exposure to stack emissions of SO(2) from petroleum refineries located in Montreal's (Quebec) east-end industrial complex and the prevalence of active asthma and poor asthma control among children living nearby.
The present cross-sectional study used data from a respiratory health survey of Montreal children six months to 12 years of age conducted in 2006. Of 7964 eligible households that completed the survey, 842 children between six months and 12 years of age lived in an area impacted by refinery emissions. Ambient SO(2) exposure levels were estimated using dispersion modelling. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for the association between yearly school and residential SO(2) exposure estimates and asthma outcomes. Adjustments were made for child's age, sex, parental history of atopy and tobacco smoke exposure at home.
The adjusted PR for the association between active asthma and SO(2) levels was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.39) per interquartile range increase in modelled annual SO(2). The effect on poor asthma control was greater (PR=1.39 per interquartile range increase in modelled SO(2) [95% CI 1.00 to 1.94]).
Results of the present study suggest a relationship between exposure to refinery stack emissions of SO(2) and the prevalence of active and poor asthma control in children who live and attend school in proximity to refineries.
Arctic shipping and oil exploration are expected to increase, as sea ice extent is reduced. This enhances the risk for accidental oil spills throughout the Arctic, which emphasises the need to quantify potential consequences to the marine ecosystem and to evaluate risk and choose appropriate remediation methods. This study investigated the sensitivity of Arctic marine plankton to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of heavy fuel oil. Arctic marine phytoplankton and copepods (Calanus finmarchicus) were exposed to three WAF concentrations corresponding to total hydrocarbon contents of 0.07?mg?l-1, 0.28?mg?l-1 and 0.55?mg?l-1. Additionally, the potential phototoxic effects of exposing the WAF to sunlight, including the UV spectrum, were tested. The study determined sub-lethal effects of WAF exposure on rates of key ecosystem processes: primary production of phytoplankton and grazing (faecal pellet production) of copepods. Both phytoplankton and copepods responded negatively to WAF exposure. Biomass specific primary production was reduced by 6, 52 and 73% and faecal pellet production by 18, 51 and 86% with increasing WAF concentrations compared to controls. The phototoxic effect reduced primary production in the two highest WAF concentration treatments by 71 and 91%, respectively. This experiment contributes to the limited knowledge of acute sub-lethal effects of potential oil spills to the Arctic pelagic food web.
Oil and gas exploration and marine transport in the Arctic region have put the focus on the ecological risk of the possibly exposed organisms. In the present study, the impacts of sea ice, extreme light regime, various polar region-specific physiological characteristics in polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and their effects on xenobiotic distribution and metabolism are studied. A Bayesian belief network is used to model individual fish toxicity. The enzyme activity in the fish liver and other pertinent organs is used as a proxy for cellular damage and repair and is subsequently linked to toxicity in polar cod. Seasonal baseline variation in enzyme production is also taken into consideration. The model estimates the probability of exposure concentration to cause cytotoxicity and circumvents the need to use the traditionally obtained No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC). Instead, it uses biotransformation enzyme activity as a basis to estimate the probability of individual cell damages.
The article presents results obtained in study of relationship between polymorph variants of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes with reproductive and thyroid diseases risk in female workers of petrochemical industry, when compared with reference group females. Variants TD and DD of CYP1A2 gene appeared to be associated with nodes formation in uterus and breast in female workers and reference group females. Following liability markers are obtained: homozygous in rare allele genotype CC of CYP1A1 gene for reproductive and thyroid diseaes (fibrous cystic mastopathy and nodular goitre), heterozygous genotype AG of CYP1A1 gene in uterine myoma and fibrous cystic mastopathy, homozygous in deleted T genotype of CYP1A2 gene in autoimmune thyroiditis. Occupational hazards and long length of service at hazardous industries increase effects of rare alleles of the genes studied.
It has been proposed that the multiple pressures of fishing and petroleum activities impact fish stocks in synergy, as fishing-induced demographic changes in a stock may lead to increased sensitivity to detrimental effects of acute oil spills. High fishing pressure may erode the demographic structure of fish stocks, lead to less diverse spawning strategies, and more concentrated distributions of offspring in space and time. Hence an oil spill may potentially hit a larger fraction of a year-class of offspring. Such a link between demographic structure and egg distribution was recently demonstrated for the Northeast Arctic stock of Atlantic cod for years 1959-1993. We here estimate that this variation translates into a two-fold variation in the maximal proportion of cod eggs potentially exposed to a large oil spill. With this information it is possible to quantitatively account for demographic structure in prospective studies of population effects of possible oil spills.
A study to evaluate congenital morphogenetic variants (CMGVs) and the association of the polymorphism of the xenobiotic detoxification and repair genes with cytogenetic parameters was conducted for the first time in children living in different climatic zones and areas polluted with primary petroleum refining products. Analysis of CMGVs and cytogenetic parameters in children points to the total genotoxic impact of oil pollutions. The children's higher sensitivity to environmental pollution is associated with the polymorphism of the detoxification gene, with the base excision repair gene XRCC1 in particular.
Crude oils from distinct geographical regions have distinct chemical compositions, and, as a result, their toxicity may be different. However, developmental toxicity of crude oils derived from different geographical regions has not been extensively characterized. In this study, flounder embryos were separately exposed to effluents contaminated by three crude oils including: Basrah Light (BLO), Pyrenees (PCO), and Sakhalin Vityaz (SVO), in addition to a processed fuel oil (MFO-380), to measure developmental toxicity and for gene expressions. Each oil possessed a distinct chemical composition. Edema defect was highest in embryos exposed to PCO and MFO-380 that both have a greater fraction of three-ring PAHs (33% and 22%, respectively) compared to BLO and SVO. Observed caudal fin defects were higher in embryos exposed to SVO and MFO-380, which are both dominated by naphthalenes (81% and 52%, respectively). CYP1A gene expressions were also highest in embryos exposed to SVO and MFO-380. Higher incidence of cardiotoxicity and lower nkx 2.5 expression were detected in embryos exposed to PCO. Unique gene expression profiles were observed in embryos exposed to crude oils with distinct compositions. This study demonstrates that crude oils of different geographical origins with different compositional characteristics induce developmental toxicity to different degrees.
A study on the effect oil pollution under normal and reduced salinity had on blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from the White Sea in an aquarium-based experiment and in the natural habitat revealed a change in gill total lipids as a compensatory response. The cholesterol concentration and the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio in gills were found to reflect the impact of the environmental factors (oil pollution and desalination), and evidence adaptive changes in the cell membrane structure. An elevated content of storage lipids (chiefly triacylglycerols) in the mussels in the aquarium experiment indicates, first of all, the uptake and accumulation of oil products in gill cells under both normal and reduced seawater salinity, while high triacylglycerols level in gill littoral mussels from 'control' biotope in the Gulf of Kandalaksha is primarily associated with the mussel?s pre-spawning period.
Cowi Denmark, Department of Water & Nature, Parallelvej 2, 2800, Kgs Lyngby, Denmark; National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet Building 201, 2800, Kgs Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address: email@example.com.
A mesocosm study with oil in ice was performed in Van Mijenfjorden in Svalbard to compare effects of the oil spill responses (OSR) in situ burning, chemical dispersion and natural attenuation on the physiological performance of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis. Seawater collected from the mesocosms in winter and spring was used in laboratory incubation experiments, where effects on fecal pellet production, egg production and hatching success were investigated over a period of 14?days. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) seawater concentrations were lowest in winter. Brine channel formation in spring resulted in an 18 times increase in PAH concentration in the chemical dispersion treatment (1.67?µg?L-1), and a 3 fold increase in the natural attenuation (0.36?µg?L-1) and in situ burning (0.04?µg?L-1) treatments. The physiological performance of female C. glacialis was unaffected by the PAH seawater concentrations. However, a higher mortality and deformity of nauplii was observed in the chemical dispersion treatment, highlighting the importance of considering secondary effects on next generation in future environmental risk assessment of OSR. This study shows that during the ice-covered period, chemical dispersion of oil spills leads to higher PAH exposure than natural attenuation and in situ burning, with potential consequences for recruitment of Arctic copepods.