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Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131962
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23254
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Richard R Schneider
Grant Hauer
Dan Farr
W L Adamowicz
Stan Boutin
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ministik99@telus.net
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23254
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Animals
Conservation of Natural Resources - economics - methods
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Ecosystem
Geography
Humans
Oil and Gas Fields
Petroleum - economics
Resource Allocation - economics - methods
Abstract
Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21858046 View in PubMed
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Active and uncontrolled asthma among children exposed to air stack emissions of sulphur dioxide from petroleum refineries in Montreal, Quebec: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124918
Source
Can Respir J. 2012 Mar-Apr;19(2):97-102
Publication Type
Article
Author
Leylâ Deger
Céline Plante
Louis Jacques
Sophie Goudreau
Stéphane Perron
John Hicks
Tom Kosatsky
Audrey Smargiassi
Author Affiliation
Direction de santé publique de l' Agence de las sante services sociaux de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Québec.
Source
Can Respir J. 2012 Mar-Apr;19(2):97-102
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Anti-Asthmatic Agents - therapeutic use
Asthma - chemically induced - drug therapy - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Industrial Waste - adverse effects
Infant
Male
Petroleum Pollution - adverse effects
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Little attention has been devoted to the effects on children's respiratory health of exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) in ambient air from local industrial emissions. Most studies on the effects of SO(2) have assessed its impact as part of the regional ambient air pollutant mix.
To examine the association between exposure to stack emissions of SO(2) from petroleum refineries located in Montreal's (Quebec) east-end industrial complex and the prevalence of active asthma and poor asthma control among children living nearby.
The present cross-sectional study used data from a respiratory health survey of Montreal children six months to 12 years of age conducted in 2006. Of 7964 eligible households that completed the survey, 842 children between six months and 12 years of age lived in an area impacted by refinery emissions. Ambient SO(2) exposure levels were estimated using dispersion modelling. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for the association between yearly school and residential SO(2) exposure estimates and asthma outcomes. Adjustments were made for child's age, sex, parental history of atopy and tobacco smoke exposure at home.
The adjusted PR for the association between active asthma and SO(2) levels was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.39) per interquartile range increase in modelled annual SO(2). The effect on poor asthma control was greater (PR=1.39 per interquartile range increase in modelled SO(2) [95% CI 1.00 to 1.94]).
Results of the present study suggest a relationship between exposure to refinery stack emissions of SO(2) and the prevalence of active and poor asthma control in children who live and attend school in proximity to refineries.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22536578 View in PubMed
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Acute oil exposure reduces physiological process rates in Arctic phyto- and zooplankton.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300168
Source
Ecotoxicology. 2019 Jan; 28(1):26-36
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2019
Author
Signe Lemcke
Johnna Holding
Eva Friis Møller
Jakob Thyrring
Kim Gustavson
Thomas Juul-Pedersen
Mikael K Sejr
Author Affiliation
Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark. signelemcke@gmail.com.
Source
Ecotoxicology. 2019 Jan; 28(1):26-36
Date
Jan-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Copepoda - drug effects - physiology
Feces - chemistry
Food chain
Petroleum Pollution - adverse effects
Photosynthesis - drug effects
Phytoplankton - drug effects - physiology
Water Pollutants, Chemical - adverse effects
Zooplankton - drug effects - physiology
Abstract
Arctic shipping and oil exploration are expected to increase, as sea ice extent is reduced. This enhances the risk for accidental oil spills throughout the Arctic, which emphasises the need to quantify potential consequences to the marine ecosystem and to evaluate risk and choose appropriate remediation methods. This study investigated the sensitivity of Arctic marine plankton to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of heavy fuel oil. Arctic marine phytoplankton and copepods (Calanus finmarchicus) were exposed to three WAF concentrations corresponding to total hydrocarbon contents of 0.07?mg?l-1, 0.28?mg?l-1 and 0.55?mg?l-1. Additionally, the potential phototoxic effects of exposing the WAF to sunlight, including the UV spectrum, were tested. The study determined sub-lethal effects of WAF exposure on rates of key ecosystem processes: primary production of phytoplankton and grazing (faecal pellet production) of copepods. Both phytoplankton and copepods responded negatively to WAF exposure. Biomass specific primary production was reduced by 6, 52 and 73% and faecal pellet production by 18, 51 and 86% with increasing WAF concentrations compared to controls. The phototoxic effect reduced primary production in the two highest WAF concentration treatments by 71 and 91%, respectively. This experiment contributes to the limited knowledge of acute sub-lethal effects of potential oil spills to the Arctic pelagic food web.
PubMed ID
30460435 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adhesion of mechanically and chemically dispersed crude oil droplets to eggs of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299352
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Nov 01; 640-641:138-143
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-01-2018
Author
Bjørn Henrik Hansen
Lisbet Sørensen
Patricia Almeira Carvalho
Sonnich Meier
Andy M Booth
Dag Altin
Julia Farkas
Trond Nordtug
Author Affiliation
SINTEF Ocean AS, Environment and New Resources, Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address: bjorn.h.hansen@sintef.no.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Nov 01; 640-641:138-143
Date
Nov-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Gadiformes - physiology
Gadus morhua - physiology
Ovum - chemistry
Petroleum - analysis
Petroleum Pollution
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Crude oil accidentally spilled into the marine environment undergoes natural weathering processes that result in oil components being dissolved into the water column or present in particulate form as dispersed oil droplets. Oil components dissolved in seawater are typically considered as more bioavailable to pelagic marine organisms and the main driver of crude oil toxicity, however, recent studies indicate that oil droplets may also contribute. The adhesion of crude oil droplets onto the eggs of pelagic fish species may cause enhanced transfer of oil components via the egg surface causing toxicity during the sensitive embryonic developmental stage. In the current study, we utilized an oil droplet dispersion generator to generate defined oil droplets sizes/concentrations and exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) to investigate if the potential for dispersed oil droplets to adhere onto the surface of eggs was species-dependent. The influence of a commercial chemical dispersant on the adhesion process was also studied. A key finding was that the adhesion of oil droplets was significantly higher for haddock than cod, highlighting key differences and exposure risks between the two species. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the differences in oil droplet adhesion may be driven by the surface morphology of the eggs. Another important finding was that the adhesion capacity of oil droplets to fish eggs is significantly reduced (cod 37.3%, haddock 41.7%) in the presence of the chemical dispersant.
PubMed ID
29859431 View in PubMed
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Aging and shiftwork: the effects of 20 years of rotating 12-hour shifts among petroleum refinery operators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200163
Source
Exp Aging Res. 1999 Oct-Dec;25(4):323-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
M A Bourdouxhe
Y. Quéinnec
D. Granger
R H Baril
S C Guertin
P R Massicotte
M. Levy
F L Lemay
Author Affiliation
Occupational Health and Safety Research Institute (IRSST), Montreal, Quebec, Canada. bourdouxhe.madeleine@irsst.qc.ca
Source
Exp Aging Res. 1999 Oct-Dec;25(4):323-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aging - physiology
Canada
Health status
Humans
Industry
Middle Aged
Petroleum
Work Schedule Tolerance
Abstract
The survey was conducted in a Canadian refinery where operators have been working rotating 12-hour shifts for 20 years. A multidisciplinary approach was adopted, based on 12 sources of data. Descriptive statistics and chronoergonomic observations were used. The most marked consequences of the schedule were observed among former shiftworkers. Among current shift workers, sleep deficit, chronic fatigue, health problems, and disruption of social and family life were the most serious effects observed. Aging and under-staffing, however, interact with schedule by necessitating overtime and reducing the actual number of rest days, which in turn affects fatigue and reliability. In the near future, the low replacement rate of the workforce and the limitations on reassignment of aging workers to day shifts will probably prevent the selection process from playing its "protective" role. Besides, with the 5-year delay of the retirement age, the harmful effects in older operators active over the next 5-10 years may prove greater than those observed in this study.
PubMed ID
10553514 View in PubMed
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[A health-promoting approach to the study of morbidity with temporary loss of work capacity among oil workers in western Siberia]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature72829
Source
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Istor Med. 1996 Nov-Dec;(6):16-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
E A Ovcharov
Source
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Istor Med. 1996 Nov-Dec;(6):16-9
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
English Abstract
Female
Fossil Fuels
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Petroleum
Risk factors
Siberia - epidemiology
Abstract
Social and economic instability induced a drastic increase in the incidence of diseases involving temporary disability among the oilmen of West Siberia in recent years. Multifactorial analysis disclosed the principal risk factors causing the formation of groups of subjects falling ill frequently and for a long time. The structure of risk factors in the multifactorial model of incidence of diseases with temporary disability has changed recently, reflecting the situation in Russia. The sanological approach to studies of morbidity helps effectively develop a system of complex measures aimed at primary prevention, which should be adapted to the local conditions. One approach is the creation of screening tests to be used in prophylactic check-ups, based on estimation of the threshold (critical) number of risk factors.
PubMed ID
9235262 View in PubMed
Less detail

Airway symptoms and lung function among male workers in an area polluted from an oil tank explosion.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267816
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2014 Sep;56(9):953-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
Jens-Tore Granslo
Magne Bråtveit
Bjørg Eli Hollund
Stein Håkon Låstad Lygre
Cecilie Svanes
Bente Elisabeth Moen
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2014 Sep;56(9):953-8
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects
Cross-Sectional Studies
Explosions
Hazardous Substances - adverse effects
Humans
Lung Diseases - chemically induced
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Petroleum - adverse effects
Respiratory Function Tests
Respiratory System
Young Adult
Abstract
To assess whether working in an industrial harbor where an oil tank exploded was associated with more airway symptoms and lower lung function in men 1.5 years later.
In a cross-sectional study of 180 men, 18 to 67 years old, airway symptoms and lung function among men who worked in the industrial harbor at the time of the explosion was compared with those of working men with residence more than 20 km away. Regression analyses are adjusted for smoking, occupational exposure, atopy, recent infection, and age.
Exposed men had significantly more upper (ORirritated nose = 2.89 [95% confidence interval = 1.31 to 6.37]) and lower (ORdyspnea uphill = 3.79 [95% confidence interval = 1.69 to 8.46]) airway symptoms, and some indication of more reversible airway obstruction than unexposed workers.
Men working in an area with an oil tank explosion had more airway symptoms and indication of more airway obstruction 1.5 years after the event.
PubMed ID
25153304 View in PubMed
Less detail

[AKAN (Labor Committee for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse) in the North Sea]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12568
Source
Sykepleien. 1987 Aug 28;74(14):29
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-28-1987

411 records – page 1 of 42.