The relationship between the acute response to rape and the symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was studied in 55 victims of rape and attempted rape during the first two weeks after the assault. The results show that in the majority of victims the response to rape within the first two weeks displays the symptoms of PTSD, although the criterion of duration is not fulfilled. Specific features of the response to rape, like shame, guilt and suicidal ideation are discussed. The importance of early detection to enable the administration of adequate treatment is emphasized and suggestions for further research are offered.
A questionnaire used by Rohsenow in 1983 was administered to 87 alcoholic men and women taking part in rehabilitation programs at local Swedish outpatient rehabilitation clinics. The purpose was to explore their alcohol-related expectancies for themselves and for others and to compare these with the results from other similar studies in other cultures. The answers, scored according to Rohsenow's eight factors, indicated that alcoholics expected larger positive and negative effects for others than for themselves. This discrepancy was slightly modified by such variables as sex, age, and drinking habits. Alcoholics in Sweden seem to have alcohol-related expectancies similar to those of social drinkers both in Sweden and in other Western countries.
Factors that predicted the outcome of drug treatment (alprazolam or imipramine) of panic disorder were studied in a sample of 123 Scandinavian patients participating in a multicenter placebo-controlled 8-week trial. The attrition rate was 95% for alprazolam, 73% for imipramine and 46% for placebo. For the intention-to-treat and 3-week-completer samples, drugs and anxiety symptoms at baseline were the best predictors of improvement on the Global Improvement Scale and on symptom scales focusing on panic attacks, phobic behavior and anticipatory anxiety. For completers of the 8-week trial, only baseline scores predicted outcome. Generally, more severe symptoms at baseline predicted a worse outcome. A subsample of patients had a marked placebo response. Avoidance, sex, age, childhood psychopathology and previous treatment experience had no or only a weak impact on the outcome. The relationship between panic disorder and mood disorder is presented elsewhere.
Human family and twin studies have established considerable heritable components influencing individual differences in personality traits as assessed by self-report questionnaires. We have investigated a trinucleotide repeat polymorphism in the androgen receptor gene and personality traits. Healthy Swedish subjects (n = 335) were assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality inventory. There were tendencies (P > or = 0.006) in some scales indicating possible relationships between the androgen receptor allele length and personality traits related to dominance and aggression. However, after correction for multiple testing, no significant differences were found. We conclude that no significant association could be found between the androgen receptor polymorphism investigated and any personality trait, although the tendencies found are worthwhile subjects for replication attempts.
In an epidemiological population study 87 subjects were studied with home sleep recordings. Nineteen subjects had minor psychiatric disorders: six subjects had a minor depression, six subjects had a generalized anxiety disorder, and seven subjects had a mild vegetative discomfort syndrome. Syndrome profiles of the three groups, using the AMDP system, showed a significantly higher degree of insomnia in the anxiety group than in the depressive group. The mean rapid eye movement (REM) latency in the anxiety group was significantly longer than in the other groups, including normals. The study showed a slight tendency towards a reduced REM latency in the minor depressives, but no statistical significance was obtained.
The relationship between monthly alcohol consumption over the past 6 months and facial symmetry perception ability was examined in young sober women with typical college-age drinking patterns. Facial symmetry detection performance was inversely related to typical monthly alcohol consumption, r (41) = -0.57, p
The aim of this study was to examine the association between asthma, ear problems, and dental anxiety in children in a population-based cross-sectional study. The population included four municipalities in the County of North Jutland, Denmark, in 2001. A total of 1235 children aged 6-8 yr, and their parents, were identified. Data were obtained from a prescription database, from parental-answered questionnaires, and from dental records. Children with asthma were defined as children that had received prescriptions for both inhaled beta2-agonists and corticosteroids during the past year. Data on ear problems and dental anxiety were obtained from the questionnaires. Dental anxiety was measured using the Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS). Use of asthma-drugs was associated with dental anxiety (odds ratio = 1.70; 95% confidence interval 0.90-3.22). A history of often ear problems was also associated with dental anxiety (odds ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval 1.20-2.80). It is concluded that asthma and ear problems may be risk factors for dental anxiety in children.
AIMS: To evaluate whether being born small for gestational age (SGA) was associated with an increased frequency of preschool behavioral problems. STUDY DESIGN: Follow-up study at 5 years of age. SUBJECTS: A population based cohort of 318 term infants who were SGA, defined as having a birthweight less than the 15th percentile for gestational age, and without major handicap such as cerebral palsy or mental retardation, and a random control sample of 307 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. OUTCOME MEASURES: The Personality Inventory for Children and the Yale Children's Inventory (completed by the mothers), and child behavior during psychometric testing. RESULTS: Behavior problems was not more common among the SGA children. The results were not confounded by a wide range of parental demographic and child rearing factors, including maternal non-verbal problem solving abilities, child rearing style, and maternal psychological distress. However, the parental factors explained 13% of the variance in a summary score of child behavior compared to 1% explained by SGA vs. AGA status. The SGA children were not more sensitive to the negative impacts of parental risk factors than AGA controls. The study does not address the outcome of severely growth-retarded SGA infants. CONCLUSION: Being born moderately SGA is not a significant risk factor for preschool behavior problems.
This study analyzed the borderline traits of a sample of community alcoholics drawn from a rural and a metropolitan area of the province of Quebec. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule and other questions from the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines were administered. About one-third of the sample of alcoholics showed a high number of borderline traits, a proportion similar to that found in institutionalized samples elsewhere. The borderline alcoholics tended to be younger and they all came from the urban area. This result suggests that alcoholics are probably better tolerated in rural areas and are less likely to adopt a pathological behaviour.
A short Type-A behaviour pattern scale was tested on 3,221 Finnish state employees (65% men, mean age 38.7 years, and 22% with at least college-level vocational education). The Type-A sum score varied with age, sex and work status, but not with basic education. Respondents were further assigned to two extreme groups according to the Type-A sum score: the Type A's in the highest and -B's in the lowest quartile. Of those aged 40 years or more (n = 1,460), the persons with the Type-A behaviour pattern reported typical severe angina pectoris symptoms more frequently than the Type B's. There were no differences, however, in the frequency of typical mild angina pectoris symptoms between the Type A's and B's. The Type-A and -B men differed significantly in the frequency of a previous severe chest pain attack suggesting a possible myocardial infarction.