Personality is considered as an important aspect that can affect symptoms and social function in persons with schizophrenia. The personality questionnaire Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) has not previously been used in psychotic disorder.
To investigate if SSP has a similar internal consistency and factor structure in a psychosis population as among healthy controls and if patients with psychotic disorders differ from non-psychotic individuals in their responses to the SSP.
Patients with psychotic disorders (n?=?107) and healthy controls (n?=?119) completed SSP. SSP scores were analyzed for internal consistency and case-control differences by Cronbach's alfa and multiple analysis of covariance, respectively.
Internal consistencies among patients were overall similar to that of controls. The patients scored significantly higher in seven (Somatic trait anxiety, Psychic trait anxiety, Stress susceptibility, Lack of assertiveness, Detachment, Embitterment, Mistrust) and lower in three (Physical trait aggression, Verbal trait aggression, Adventure seeking) of the 13 scales of the inventory. In three scales (Impulsiveness, Social desirability and Trait irritability) there was no significant difference between the scoring of patients and healthy controls.
The reliability estimates suggest that SSP can be used by patients with psychotic disorders in stable remission. Patients score higher on neuroticism-related scales and lower on aggression-related scales than controls, which is in accordance with earlier studies where other personality inventories were used.
The factor structure of SCL-90-R items and scales was analyzed using both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results of CFA studies at the item-level failed to support the original nine-factor model, as well as several alternative models and EFA suggested very different dimensionality, depending on which criteria were used. Analyses at the scale-level (i.e. the nine original symptom dimensions) suggested that a one- or two-factor model was satisfactory according to descriptive goodness of fit criteria. However, using the likelihood ratio test, specification of four factors was necessary to avoid rejection. According to the likelihood ratio test in a multi-group analysis, a lack of factorial invariance across gender was indicated. Moreover, the factorial structure of the instrument was clearly different across levels of negative affectivity (NA); the dimensionality was substantially higher in the low-NA group as compared to the high-NA group. It is concluded that we are confronted with a profound structural indeterminacy problem and that factor analytic methods and model acceptance criteria alone are insufficient to solve this problem. The indeterminacy problem can be accounted for, at least in part, by the complex logical-semantical structure of SCL-90-R items and scales and the role of the NA trait as a structure generating factor.
Internationally, the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) is a well established questionnaire for assessment of personality in accordance with the Five Factor Model. The instrument has been translated into many languages including Swedish.
The aim of this study was to make a psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version of NEO-PI-R based on a sample from the general population.
Postal questionnaires were sent to a random sample of 1250 persons (n = 766 responders).
The test showed satisfactory internal consistency in the broad factors as well as the facets. A factor analysis indicated that the factors were similar but not identical to those obtained in American studies. In sum, The Swedish version of the NEO-PI-R shows satisfactory psychometric properties and the instrument will continue to be a valuable tool in psychological research and in clinical practice.
To estimate the validity and reliability of the Leadership and Management Inventory, a tool to measure the skills and abilities of first-line nurse managers.
The decision to develop an inventory reflects the need for an instrument that can measure the various skills and abilities first-line nurse managers should possess.
Factor analysis was conducted and internal consistency initially estimated on data from 149 registered nurses; a second sample of 197 health care personnel was used to test these results.
Principal component analysis of the first sample resulted in a preferred three-factor solution that explained 65.8% of the variance; Cronbach's alpha coefficient varied between 0.90 and 0.95. Analysis of the second sample also resulted in a three-factor solution that explained 64.2% of the variance; Cronbach's alpha coefficient varied from 0.88 to 0.96. For both samples, the factors were labelled 'interpersonal skills and group management', 'achievement orientation' and 'overall organizational view and political savvy'.
Results indicate that estimates of validity and reliability for the Leadership and Management Inventory can be considered acceptable.
The Leadership and Management Inventory can be used when first-line nurse managers' leadership and management skills and abilities are to be measured.
This study advances a measurement approach for the study of organizational culture in population-based occupational health research, and tests how different organizational culture types are associated with psychological distress, depression, emotional exhaustion, and well-being.
Data were collected over a sample of 1,164 employees nested in 30 workplaces. Employees completed the 26-item OCP instrument. Psychological distress was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (12-item); depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (21-item); and emotional exhaustion with five items from the Maslach Burnout Inventory general survey. Exploratory factor analysis evaluated the dimensionality of the OCP scale. Multilevel regression models estimated workplace-level variations, and the contribution of organizational culture factors to mental health and well-being after controlling for gender, age, and living with a partner.
Exploratory factor analysis of OCP items revealed four factors explaining about 75% of the variance, and supported the structure of the Competing Values Framework. Factors were labeled Group, Hierarchical, Rational and Developmental. Cronbach's alphas were high (0.82-0.89). Multilevel regression analysis suggested that the four culture types varied significantly between workplaces, and correlated with mental health and well-being outcomes. The Group culture type best distinguished between workplaces and had the strongest associations with the outcomes.
This study provides strong support for the use of the OCP scale for measuring organizational culture in population-based occupational health research in a way that is consistent with the Competing Values Framework. The Group organizational culture needs to be considered as a relevant factor in occupational health studies.
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In this study we assessed the DSM-5 trait model in a large Danish sample (n = 1,119) with respect to reliability of the applied Danish version of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) self-report form by means of internal consistency and item discrimination. In addition, we tested whether the five-factor structure of the DSM-5 trait model can be replicated in a Danish independent sample using the PID-5 self-report form. Finally, we examined the hierarchical structure of DSM-5 traits. In terms of internal consistency and item discrimination, the applied PID-5 scales were generally found reliable and functional; our data resembled the five-factor structure of previous findings, and we identified a hierarchical structure from one to five factors that was conceptually reasonable and corresponded with existing findings. These results support the new DSM-5 trait model and suggest that it can be generalized to other languages and cultures.
OBJECTIVE: The study investigated whether results on the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire, which is used for diagnosis of seasonal affective disorder, differed by the season in which the questionnaire was completed. METHOD: Every third month from March 1997 to February 1998, a population-based panel of 200 men and women age 27-72 years in Gamvik, northern Norway, completed a standardized questionnaire that included all items from the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire. RESULTS: The average score for seasonal affective disorder changed over the year. The difference between the highest score, in March, and the lowest, in September, was 8.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Results on the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire varied by season, but did not vary by seasonal differences in the amount of daylight.
Stability of personality traits over a five-year period in Swedish patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and non-psychotic individuals: a study using the Swedish universities scales of personality.
Personality is considered as an important aspect in persons with psychotic disorders. Several studies have investigated personality in schizophrenia. However, no study has investigated stability of personality traits exceeding three years in patients with schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the stability of personality traits over a five-year period among patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic individuals and to evaluate case-control differences.
Patients with psychotic disorders (n?=?36) and non-psychotic individuals (n?=?76) completed Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) at two occasions five years apart. SSP scores were analysed for effect of time and case-control differences by multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and within-subjects correlation.
MANCOVA within-subjects analysis did not show any effect of time. Thus, SSP mean scale scores did not significantly vary during the five-year interval. Within subject correlations (Spearman) ranged 0.30-0.68 and 0.54-0.75 for the different SSP scales in patients and controls, respectively. Patients scored higher than controls in SSP scales Somatic Trait Anxiety, Psychic Trait Anxiety, Stress Susceptibility, Lack of Assertiveness, Detachment, Embitterment, and Mistrust.
The stability of the SSP personality trait was reasonably high among patients with psychotic disorder, although lower than among non-psychotic individuals, which is in accordance with previous research.
Depressive personality is commonly seen in clinical practice, and today only one exclusive self-report instrument-the Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory (DPDI)-is available for its assessment based on the DSM-IV description of the construct.
The purpose of this research was to evaluate a Swedish version of this measure (DPDI-Swe) in terms of its reliability, internal structure, and convergent validity using related variables from the DSM-IV criteria for depressive personality disorder (DPD) and the proposed DPD trait set for DSM-5.
A non-clinical sample of 255 adults in southern Sweden completed a self-report package, which, in addition to DPD, included the assessment of self-esteem, optimism, hope, rumination, worry, depression, and anxiety. Quality of life was also measured.
Results indicated that the DPDI-Swe was internally consistent (a = 0.96). Exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation yielded three components, together accounting for 48.21% of the variance in DPDI-Swe scores. There were strong positive associations between the DPDI-Swe and measures of depression, anxiety, rumination, and worry, and strong negative associations between the DPDI-Swe and measures of self-esteem, optimism, hope, and quality of life. These significant relationships remained, albeit slightly diminished, after statistically controlling for current depressed mood.
The DPDI-Swe appears to be a reliable and valid measure of DPD, and it is available for clinical and research use.
The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a self-report personality questionnaire based on Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality, which accounts for both normal and abnormal variation in the two major components of personality, temperament and character. Normative data for the Swedish TCI based on a representative Swedish sample of 1,300 adults are presented, and the psychometric properties of the questionnaire are discussed. The structure of the Swedish version replicates the American version well for the means, distribution of scores, and relationships within the between scales and subscales. Further, the Swedish inventory had a reliable factor structure and test-retest performance. The results of this study confirm the theory of temperament and character as a seven-factor model of personality.