Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates the psychometric properties of the translated Danish version of self-report measures sensitive to the different aspects and dimensions of dysfunction in affect regulation prevalent in BPD.
This study comprised a group of women diagnosed with BPD (n = 29) and a comparison group of healthy subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures.
Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate components of affect regulation by self-report measures than the comparison group of healthy subjects. Our results also provided partial support for the psychometric appropriateness and clinical relevance of the translated Danish version of affect regulation measures.
The normative reference range indicated by our results makes the measures useful as a practical assessment tool.
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a) offers an alternative model for Personality Disorders (PDs) in Section III, which consists in part of a pathological personality traits criterion measured with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). The PID-5 selfreport instrument currently exists in the original 220-item form, a short 100-item form, and a brief 25-item form. For clinicians and researchers, the choice of a particular PID- 5 form depends on feasibility, but also reliability and validity. The goal of the present study was to examine the psychometric qualities of all 3 PID-5 forms, simultaneously, based on a Danish sample (N = 1376) of 451 psychiatric outpatients and 925 community-dwelling participants. Scale reliability and factorial validity were satisfactory across all 3 PID-5 forms. The correlational profiles of the short and brief PID-5 forms with clinician-rated PD dimensions were nearly identical with that of the original PID-5 (rICC = .99 and .95, respectively). All 3 forms discriminated appropriately between psychiatric patients and community-dwelling individuals. This supports that all 3 PID-5 forms can be used to reliably and validly assess PD traits and provides initial support for the use of the abbreviated PID-5 forms in a European population. However, only the original 220-item form and the short 100-item form capture all 25 trait facets, and the brief 25-item form may be ideally limited to preliminary screening or situations with substantial time restrictions.
Affect integration, or the capacity to utilize the motivational and signal properties of affect for personal adjustment, is assumed to be an important aspect of psychological health and functioning. Affect integration has been operationalized through the affect consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine discrete affects. A semistructured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI) and separate Affect Consciousness Scales (ACSs) have been developed to specifically assess these aspects of affect integration. This study explored the construct validity of AC in a Norwegian clinical sample including estimates of reliability and assessment of structure by factor analyses. External validity issues were addressed by examining the relationships between scores on the ACSs and self-rated symptom- and interpersonal problem measures as well as independent, observer-based ratings of personality disorder criteria and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
In 1972, Beck introduced an inventory (BDI) for rapid screening of depression. The associations between the BDI and the risk of breast cancer (BC) are rarely considered together in prospective studies.
In an extension of the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast cancer symptoms were semi-structurally interviewed in-depth as well as asked to complete standardised questionnaires (Forsen, Spielberger, MADRS), and all study variables were obtained before any diagnostic procedures were carried out. BDI was used to evaluate the depression of the study participants.
The clinical examinations and biopsies showed BC in 34 patients, benign breast disease (BBD) in 53 patients, and 28 individuals were shown to be healthy (HSS). There was a trend for the women with HSS to have less sadness (BDI mean score, 0.27) than those of the BC (BDI mean score, 0.56) and BBD groups (BDI mean score, 0.49). The HSS group tended to be less pessimistic (BDI mean score, 0.15) than the patients in the BC group (BDI mean score, 0.44) and in the BBD group (BDI mean score, 0.42). The HSS group also had less self-accusation (BDI mean score, 0.19) than the patients in the BC group (BDI mean score, 0.50) and the patients in the BBD group (BDI mean score, 0.62). The HSS group also reported less work inhibition and weight loss than the patients in the BC group and in the BBD group. The mean sum of the scores of BDI variables was significantly lower in the HSS group (BDI mean score, 7.1) than in the BC (BDI mean score, 8.4) or BBD groups (BDI mean score, 8.8).
The results of this study do not support a specific link between BDI and breast cancer risk. However, the patients with BC and BBD tended to have an increased risk for depressive symptoms.
The objective of this methodological pilot study was to make a contribution to the French-language validation of the Depressive Adjective Check List (DACL) Set 2 of Forms, E, F, G trait version (Lubin, 1981) and to that of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL-R; Zuckerman & Lubin, 1985). The importance of the study was to validate the French-language translation of these instruments to assess nonclinical depression or dysphoria and affect in two French- and English-speaking convenience sample groups. The Check Lists were administered to 183 Canadian subjects 60 years of age and over of both sexes from rural areas in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, Canada. In order to ensure that the words chosen carried the same connotation as in the English language, a translation-retranslation technique was used. The data collected from this study suggest that the DACL Form G would be most valid to use with either language and/or site in the protocol for future studies.
BACKGROUND: Type D personality is an emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Type D Scale (DS14) and the impact of Type D on anxiety and depression in cardiac patients. METHOD: Cardiac patients (n = 707) completed the DS14, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. A subgroup (n = 318) also completed the DS14 at 3 or 12 weeks. RESULTS: The two-factor structure of the DS14 was confirmed; the subscales negative affectivity and social inhibition were shown to be valid, internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87/0.91; mean inter-item correlations = 0.49/0.59), and stable over 3 and 12 weeks (r = 0.85/0.78; 0.83/0.79; ps
Interpersonal relating has been a focus of attention in psychiatry for decades. To address this domain, a self-rating scale, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP; Horowitz, Rosenberg, Baer, Ureño, & Villaseñor, 1988), was developed. Analysis of the psychometric properties of IIP presented in this article was performed by principal component analysis (PCA) for the purpose of obtaining subscales with a balanced, bipolar dimensionality. The model was validated by the resulting dimensions' ability to discriminate among different categories of personality disorders (PDs). The problem of a General Complaint factor affecting PCAs of questionnaires such as the IIP is discussed thoroughly, and ways of avoiding the problem are outlined. We present a three-dimensional structure of the IIP with both theoretically appealing and statistically robust dimensions of Assertiveness, Sociability, and Interpersonal Sensitivity based on 48 (out of 127) items. Balanced, additive indexes using the subset of 48 items appeared psychometrically sound by showing much lower correlations internally and less confounding from the General Complaint factor than extant indexes derived from the IIP. External validity seemed to be bolstered by all subscales' discriminating significantly between different PDs versus no PDs, on both cluster and single diagnosis levels. Our analysis seemed to substantiate the reliability (scalability) of three dimensions of the IIP tapping different areas of the interpersonal relational field.
Personality is considered as an important aspect that can affect symptoms and social function in persons with schizophrenia. The personality questionnaire Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) has not previously been used in psychotic disorder.
To investigate if SSP has a similar internal consistency and factor structure in a psychosis population as among healthy controls and if patients with psychotic disorders differ from non-psychotic individuals in their responses to the SSP.
Patients with psychotic disorders (n?=?107) and healthy controls (n?=?119) completed SSP. SSP scores were analyzed for internal consistency and case-control differences by Cronbach's alfa and multiple analysis of covariance, respectively.
Internal consistencies among patients were overall similar to that of controls. The patients scored significantly higher in seven (Somatic trait anxiety, Psychic trait anxiety, Stress susceptibility, Lack of assertiveness, Detachment, Embitterment, Mistrust) and lower in three (Physical trait aggression, Verbal trait aggression, Adventure seeking) of the 13 scales of the inventory. In three scales (Impulsiveness, Social desirability and Trait irritability) there was no significant difference between the scoring of patients and healthy controls.
The reliability estimates suggest that SSP can be used by patients with psychotic disorders in stable remission. Patients score higher on neuroticism-related scales and lower on aggression-related scales than controls, which is in accordance with earlier studies where other personality inventories were used.
The factor structure of SCL-90-R items and scales was analyzed using both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results of CFA studies at the item-level failed to support the original nine-factor model, as well as several alternative models and EFA suggested very different dimensionality, depending on which criteria were used. Analyses at the scale-level (i.e. the nine original symptom dimensions) suggested that a one- or two-factor model was satisfactory according to descriptive goodness of fit criteria. However, using the likelihood ratio test, specification of four factors was necessary to avoid rejection. According to the likelihood ratio test in a multi-group analysis, a lack of factorial invariance across gender was indicated. Moreover, the factorial structure of the instrument was clearly different across levels of negative affectivity (NA); the dimensionality was substantially higher in the low-NA group as compared to the high-NA group. It is concluded that we are confronted with a profound structural indeterminacy problem and that factor analytic methods and model acceptance criteria alone are insufficient to solve this problem. The indeterminacy problem can be accounted for, at least in part, by the complex logical-semantical structure of SCL-90-R items and scales and the role of the NA trait as a structure generating factor.
Internationally, the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) is a well established questionnaire for assessment of personality in accordance with the Five Factor Model. The instrument has been translated into many languages including Swedish.
The aim of this study was to make a psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version of NEO-PI-R based on a sample from the general population.
Postal questionnaires were sent to a random sample of 1250 persons (n = 766 responders).
The test showed satisfactory internal consistency in the broad factors as well as the facets. A factor analysis indicated that the factors were similar but not identical to those obtained in American studies. In sum, The Swedish version of the NEO-PI-R shows satisfactory psychometric properties and the instrument will continue to be a valuable tool in psychological research and in clinical practice.