Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates the psychometric properties of the translated Danish version of self-report measures sensitive to the different aspects and dimensions of dysfunction in affect regulation prevalent in BPD.
This study comprised a group of women diagnosed with BPD (n = 29) and a comparison group of healthy subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures.
Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate components of affect regulation by self-report measures than the comparison group of healthy subjects. Our results also provided partial support for the psychometric appropriateness and clinical relevance of the translated Danish version of affect regulation measures.
The normative reference range indicated by our results makes the measures useful as a practical assessment tool.
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a) offers an alternative model for Personality Disorders (PDs) in Section III, which consists in part of a pathological personality traits criterion measured with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). The PID-5 selfreport instrument currently exists in the original 220-item form, a short 100-item form, and a brief 25-item form. For clinicians and researchers, the choice of a particular PID- 5 form depends on feasibility, but also reliability and validity. The goal of the present study was to examine the psychometric qualities of all 3 PID-5 forms, simultaneously, based on a Danish sample (N = 1376) of 451 psychiatric outpatients and 925 community-dwelling participants. Scale reliability and factorial validity were satisfactory across all 3 PID-5 forms. The correlational profiles of the short and brief PID-5 forms with clinician-rated PD dimensions were nearly identical with that of the original PID-5 (rICC = .99 and .95, respectively). All 3 forms discriminated appropriately between psychiatric patients and community-dwelling individuals. This supports that all 3 PID-5 forms can be used to reliably and validly assess PD traits and provides initial support for the use of the abbreviated PID-5 forms in a European population. However, only the original 220-item form and the short 100-item form capture all 25 trait facets, and the brief 25-item form may be ideally limited to preliminary screening or situations with substantial time restrictions.
Affect integration, or the capacity to utilize the motivational and signal properties of affect for personal adjustment, is assumed to be an important aspect of psychological health and functioning. Affect integration has been operationalized through the affect consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine discrete affects. A semistructured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI) and separate Affect Consciousness Scales (ACSs) have been developed to specifically assess these aspects of affect integration. This study explored the construct validity of AC in a Norwegian clinical sample including estimates of reliability and assessment of structure by factor analyses. External validity issues were addressed by examining the relationships between scores on the ACSs and self-rated symptom- and interpersonal problem measures as well as independent, observer-based ratings of personality disorder criteria and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
In 1972, Beck introduced an inventory (BDI) for rapid screening of depression. The associations between the BDI and the risk of breast cancer (BC) are rarely considered together in prospective studies.
In an extension of the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast cancer symptoms were semi-structurally interviewed in-depth as well as asked to complete standardised questionnaires (Forsen, Spielberger, MADRS), and all study variables were obtained before any diagnostic procedures were carried out. BDI was used to evaluate the depression of the study participants.
The clinical examinations and biopsies showed BC in 34 patients, benign breast disease (BBD) in 53 patients, and 28 individuals were shown to be healthy (HSS). There was a trend for the women with HSS to have less sadness (BDI mean score, 0.27) than those of the BC (BDI mean score, 0.56) and BBD groups (BDI mean score, 0.49). The HSS group tended to be less pessimistic (BDI mean score, 0.15) than the patients in the BC group (BDI mean score, 0.44) and in the BBD group (BDI mean score, 0.42). The HSS group also had less self-accusation (BDI mean score, 0.19) than the patients in the BC group (BDI mean score, 0.50) and the patients in the BBD group (BDI mean score, 0.62). The HSS group also reported less work inhibition and weight loss than the patients in the BC group and in the BBD group. The mean sum of the scores of BDI variables was significantly lower in the HSS group (BDI mean score, 7.1) than in the BC (BDI mean score, 8.4) or BBD groups (BDI mean score, 8.8).
The results of this study do not support a specific link between BDI and breast cancer risk. However, the patients with BC and BBD tended to have an increased risk for depressive symptoms.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) Section III offers an alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs), including 25 pathological personality trait facets organized into 5 trait domains. To maintain continuity with the categorical PD diagnoses found in DSM-5 Section II, specified sets of facets are configured into familiar PD types. The current study aimed to evaluate the continuity across the Section II and III models of PDs. A sample of 142 psychiatric outpatients were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and rated with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II disorders. We investigated whether the DSM-5 Section III facet-profiles would be associated with their respective Section II counterparts, as well as determining whether additional facets could augment the prediction of the Section II disorders. Results showed that, overall, the interview-rated DSM-5 Section II disorders were most strongly associated with expected self-reported Section III traits. Results also supported the addition of facets not included in the proposed Section III PD criteria. These findings partly underscore the continuity between the Section II and III models of PDs and suggest how it may be enhanced; however, additional research is needed to further evaluate where continuity exists, where it does not exist, and how the traits system could be improved. (PsycINFO Database Record
The objective of this methodological pilot study was to make a contribution to the French-language validation of the Depressive Adjective Check List (DACL) Set 2 of Forms, E, F, G trait version (Lubin, 1981) and to that of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL-R; Zuckerman & Lubin, 1985). The importance of the study was to validate the French-language translation of these instruments to assess nonclinical depression or dysphoria and affect in two French- and English-speaking convenience sample groups. The Check Lists were administered to 183 Canadian subjects 60 years of age and over of both sexes from rural areas in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, Canada. In order to ensure that the words chosen carried the same connotation as in the English language, a translation-retranslation technique was used. The data collected from this study suggest that the DACL Form G would be most valid to use with either language and/or site in the protocol for future studies.
BACKGROUND: Type D personality is an emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Type D Scale (DS14) and the impact of Type D on anxiety and depression in cardiac patients. METHOD: Cardiac patients (n = 707) completed the DS14, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. A subgroup (n = 318) also completed the DS14 at 3 or 12 weeks. RESULTS: The two-factor structure of the DS14 was confirmed; the subscales negative affectivity and social inhibition were shown to be valid, internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87/0.91; mean inter-item correlations = 0.49/0.59), and stable over 3 and 12 weeks (r = 0.85/0.78; 0.83/0.79; ps
Interpersonal relating has been a focus of attention in psychiatry for decades. To address this domain, a self-rating scale, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP; Horowitz, Rosenberg, Baer, Ureño, & Villaseñor, 1988), was developed. Analysis of the psychometric properties of IIP presented in this article was performed by principal component analysis (PCA) for the purpose of obtaining subscales with a balanced, bipolar dimensionality. The model was validated by the resulting dimensions' ability to discriminate among different categories of personality disorders (PDs). The problem of a General Complaint factor affecting PCAs of questionnaires such as the IIP is discussed thoroughly, and ways of avoiding the problem are outlined. We present a three-dimensional structure of the IIP with both theoretically appealing and statistically robust dimensions of Assertiveness, Sociability, and Interpersonal Sensitivity based on 48 (out of 127) items. Balanced, additive indexes using the subset of 48 items appeared psychometrically sound by showing much lower correlations internally and less confounding from the General Complaint factor than extant indexes derived from the IIP. External validity seemed to be bolstered by all subscales' discriminating significantly between different PDs versus no PDs, on both cluster and single diagnosis levels. Our analysis seemed to substantiate the reliability (scalability) of three dimensions of the IIP tapping different areas of the interpersonal relational field.
The structure of personality variation is discussed from the perspective of the lexical approach, which is based on the examination of relations among personality-descriptive adjectives that are indigenous to various languages. The results of this approach--which reveal a cross-culturally replicated set of six dimensions--are described. Specifically, the obtained structure corresponds rather closely to the Five-Factor Model, but differs from that model in the nature of the Agreeableness and Emotionality/Neuroticism factors and also in the existence of a sixth factor known as Honesty-Humility. It is suggested that the emergence of this structure provides support for attempts to establish a cross-culturally generalizable structural model that could summarize normal and abnormal personality variation.
Spanish-language measures of the Big Five personality dimensions are needed for research on Hispanic minority populations. Three studies were conducted to evaluate a Spanish version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI) (O. P. John et al., 1991) and explore the generalizability of the Big Five factor structure in Latin cultural groups. In Study 1, a cross-cultural design was used to compare the Spanish and English BFI in college students from Spain and the United States, to assess factor congruence across languages, and to test convergence with indigenous Spanish Big Five markers. In Study 2, a bilingual design was used to compare the Spanish and English BFI in a college-educated sample of bilingual Hispanics and to test convergent and discriminant validity across the two languages as well as with the NEO Five Factor Inventory in both English and Spanish. Study 3 replicated the BFI findings from Study 2 in a working-class Hispanic bilingual sample. Results show that (a) the Spanish BFI may serve as an efficient, reliable, and factorially valid measure of the Big Five for research on Spanish-speaking individuals and (b) there is little evidence for substantial cultural differences in personality structure at the broad level of abstraction represented by the Big Five dimensions.