Approximately 9% of the homicides in Finland are committed by adolescents under 20 years of age. The purpose of this study was to investigate the offence and offender characteristics in homicidal adolescents. Forensic psychiatric evaluation statements of adolescent offenders accused of a homicide during 1990-2001 were reviewed retrospectively (n=57). In 38% of the cases, there were multiple offenders. In 58% of the cases, the victim was an acquaintance, in 25% a stranger, in 12% a family member and in 5% of the cases an (ex)intimate partner. Sixty-nine percent of the offenders were intoxicated and 21% under the influence of drugs at the time of the killing. The most frequent motives were an argument (25%) and a robbery (25%). Sixty-four percent of the offenders had developmental problems and 42% had a crime history. Approximately half were diagnosed as having a conduct or a personality disorder, but 32% of the offenders were considered not to suffer from a mental illness or substance abuse. For 63%, the level of intellectual functioning was average or above average. There were signs of more than one form of violence in 54% of the cases and 28% of the cases contained excessive violence. The use of multiple and excessive violence was significantly related to the offender age, multiple offenders, offender-victim relationship and substance abuse, but not related to having developmental problems, crime history or mental illness.
The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders.
In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N?=?36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N?=?1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N?=?2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice.
More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders.
The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar spectrum. This association may reflect an etiological relationship or diagnostic overlapping criteria.
Cites: Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2000 Summer;8(3):188-9510910415
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2012 May;169(5):476-8322737693
Cites: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001 Jun;58(6):590-611386989
Previous research suggests that the association between conflictual parent-child relationships and maladjustment among adolescents is influenced by genetic effects emanating from the adolescents. In this study, we examined whether these effects are mediated by childhood aggression. The data come from the Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD), a Swedish longitudinal study including 1,314 twin pairs followed from age 13-14 to 16-17. Early adolescent aggression, parental criticism, and delinquency in later adolescence were rated by parents and children at different time points. Multivariate genetic structural equation models were used to estimate genetic and environmental influences on these constructs and on their covariation. The results showed that approximately half of the genetic contribution to the association between parental criticism and delinquency was explained by early adolescent aggression. It suggests that aggression in children evokes negative parenting, which in turn influences adolescent antisocial behavior. The mechanism proposed by these findings is consistent with evocative gene-environment correlation.
Forty-nine daughters of alcoholics were compared to 47 daughters of nonalcholics; both groups of women (average age, 35 years) had been adopted by nonrelatives early in life. Two women in each group were alcoholic or problem drinkers. Although this is above the expected rate of alcoholism among women, the numbers are too small to draw definite conclusions. Almost all were light drinkers. Daughters of alcoholics had no more depression than controls, indicating that alcoholism in the biological parents did not increase the risk of depression in daughters raised by foster parents. Environmental factors may be important in both alcoholism and depression in women, since both tended to be correlated with psychopathology in the foster parents.
Many studies report associations between alcohol problems, mental disorder, mental health and suicidal behaviour. Still, more knowledge is needed about possible differential characteristics of these factors in risk groups. This naturalistic and retrospective study included former patients who received emergency treatment in child and adolescent outpatient clinics for their mental health problems. One hundred patients were personally interviewed 5-9 years after treatment referral about alcohol problems and mental disorders. Also, they completed questionnaires about 11 indicators of mental health. At the follow-up, those who had attempted suicide during the follow-up period had more alcohol problems and mental disorders than the non-attempters. However, no association was found between suicide attempt in the follow-up period and the mental health indicators. Among the attempters, a high psychological burden as indicated by mental health disorders and poor mental health were associated with suicide re-attempt (lifetime) and an intention to die.
The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.
AF samples of 331 ASD cases and 698 controls were analyzed for inflammatory cytokines using Luminex xMAP technology utilizing a historic birth cohort. Clinical data were retrieved from nationwide registers, and case-control differences in AF cytokine levels were assessed using chi-square tests, logistic and tobit regression models.
Overall, individuals with ASD had significantly elevated AF levels of TNF-a and TNF-ß compared to controls. Analyzing individuals diagnosed only with ICD-10 codes yielded significantly elevated levels of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-a and TNF-ß in ASD patients. Restricting analysis to infantile autism cases showed significantly elevated levels of IL-4, TNF-a and TNF-ß compared to controls with no psychiatric comorbidities. Elevated levels of IL-6 and IL-5 were found in individuals with other childhood psychiatric disorders (OCPD) when compared to controls with no psychiatric comorbidities.
AF samples of individuals with ASD or OCPD showed differential cytokine profiles compared to frequency-matched controls. Further studies to examine the specificity of the reported cytokine profiles in ASD and OCPD are required.
Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use is associated with aggressive and violent behaviour, but it remains uncertain if this relationship is causal in humans. We examined the link between AAS use and violent crime while controlling for polysubstance abuse and additional suggested risk factors for violence.
Cross-sectional study of a population-based sample.
In 2005, all Swedish-born male twins aged 20-47 years were invited to participate in the Swedish Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) survey of the Swedish Twin Register (response rate?=?60%).
A total of 10,365 male survey participants with information on AAS use.
Data on self-reported use of AAS, alcohol and other substances, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and personality disorder symptoms were linked to nation-wide, longitudinal register information on criminal convictions, IQ, psychological functioning and childhood socio-economic status (SES) covariates.
Any life-time use of AAS was associated strongly with conviction for a violent crime [2.7 versus 0.6% in convicted and non-convicted men, respectively; odds ratio (OR)?=?5.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?2.7-9.3]. However, this link was substantially reduced and no longer significant when controlling for other substance abuse (OR?=?1.6, 95% CI?=?0.8-3.3). Controlling for IQ, psychological functioning, ADHD, personality disorder symptoms and childhood SES did not reduce the risk further.
In the general population, co-occurring polysubstance abuse, but not IQ, other neuropsychological risks or socio-economic status, explains most of the relatively strong association between any anabolic androgenic steroid use and conviction for a violent crime.
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of ADHD and psychiatric comorbidity, including substance use in incarcerated women.
This was a cross-sectional study, consisting of two parts: (a) screening using the ADHD Self-Rating Scale (ASRS) and (b) diagnostic assessment using a structured interview.
A sample of 96 incarcerated women was screened and 56 underwent the diagnostic assessment. Twenty-nine percent of the women met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) diagnostic criteria for adult ADHD in the diagnostic assessment. Forty-four of the women had misuse of alcohol, and 83% had misuse of narcotics the year prior to the incarceration. The ASRS showed sensitivity of 1.0 and specificity of 0.66.
The prevalence rate of ADHD in incarcerated women was high and comparable to that in male offenders. Illicit stimulant use and antisocial personality disorder were significantly more common in women with ADHD. ASRS is useful as a screener in this population.
A sample of anorexia nervosa (AN) cases recruited after community screening were contrasted with an age-, sex-, and school-matched comparison (COMP) group with regard to comorbidity at age 21 years, approximately 6 years after the reported onset of the eating disorder. Both groups had originally been examined at age 16 years. Most of the AN cases no longer met criteria for AN, but many continued to meet criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) or eating disorder NOS. In addition, there was a high rate of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCDs). Affective disorders had been common throughout the follow-up period, but tended to follow the course of the eating disorder rather than to precede or postdate it. Underlying personality disorders tended to predict poor outcome.