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Adolescent homicides in Finland: offence and offender characteristics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171077
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2006 Dec 20;164(2-3):110-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-20-2006
Author
Camilla Hagelstam
Helinä Häkkänen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Criminal and Forensic Psychology Research Group, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2006 Dec 20;164(2-3):110-5
Date
Dec-20-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adult
Aged
Child
Conduct Disorder - epidemiology
Crime Victims - statistics & numerical data
Developmental Disabilities - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Forensic Psychiatry
Homicide - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Intelligence
Male
Methods
Middle Aged
Motivation
Personality Disorders - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Self-Injurious Behavior - epidemiology
Sex Factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Unemployment - statistics & numerical data
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Approximately 9% of the homicides in Finland are committed by adolescents under 20 years of age. The purpose of this study was to investigate the offence and offender characteristics in homicidal adolescents. Forensic psychiatric evaluation statements of adolescent offenders accused of a homicide during 1990-2001 were reviewed retrospectively (n=57). In 38% of the cases, there were multiple offenders. In 58% of the cases, the victim was an acquaintance, in 25% a stranger, in 12% a family member and in 5% of the cases an (ex)intimate partner. Sixty-nine percent of the offenders were intoxicated and 21% under the influence of drugs at the time of the killing. The most frequent motives were an argument (25%) and a robbery (25%). Sixty-four percent of the offenders had developmental problems and 42% had a crime history. Approximately half were diagnosed as having a conduct or a personality disorder, but 32% of the offenders were considered not to suffer from a mental illness or substance abuse. For 63%, the level of intellectual functioning was average or above average. There were signs of more than one form of violence in 54% of the cases and 28% of the cases contained excessive violence. The use of multiple and excessive violence was significantly related to the offender age, multiple offenders, offender-victim relationship and substance abuse, but not related to having developmental problems, crime history or mental illness.
PubMed ID
16426787 View in PubMed
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Affective disorders among patients with borderline personality disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118152
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e50930
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Hege Nordem Sjåstad
Rolf W Gråwe
Jens Egeland
Author Affiliation
Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, Norway. hege.nordem.sjastad@siv.no
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e50930
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Borderline Personality Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Outpatients - psychology
Prevalence
Abstract
The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders.
In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N?=?36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N?=?1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N?=?2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice.
More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders.
The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar spectrum. This association may reflect an etiological relationship or diagnostic overlapping criteria.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23236411 View in PubMed
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Aggression as a mediator of genetic contributions to the association between negative parent-child relationships and adolescent antisocial behavior.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature79587
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Mar;16(2):128-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2007
Author
Narusyte Jurgita
Andershed Anna-Karin
Neiderhiser Jenae M
Lichtenstein Paul
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Box 281, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. jurgita.narusyte@ki.se
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Mar;16(2):128-37
Date
Mar-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Aggression
Antisocial Personality Disorder - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Models, Genetic
Parent-Child Relations
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Abstract
Previous research suggests that the association between conflictual parent-child relationships and maladjustment among adolescents is influenced by genetic effects emanating from the adolescents. In this study, we examined whether these effects are mediated by childhood aggression. The data come from the Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD), a Swedish longitudinal study including 1,314 twin pairs followed from age 13-14 to 16-17. Early adolescent aggression, parental criticism, and delinquency in later adolescence were rated by parents and children at different time points. Multivariate genetic structural equation models were used to estimate genetic and environmental influences on these constructs and on their covariation. The results showed that approximately half of the genetic contribution to the association between parental criticism and delinquency was explained by early adolescent aggression. It suggests that aggression in children evokes negative parenting, which in turn influences adolescent antisocial behavior. The mechanism proposed by these findings is consistent with evocative gene-environment correlation.
PubMed ID
17136502 View in PubMed
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Alcoholism and depression in adopted-out daughters of alcoholics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature13153
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1977 Jul;34(7):751-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1977
Author
D W Goodwin
F. Schulsinger
J. Knop
S. Mednick
S B Guze
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1977 Jul;34(7):751-5
Date
Jul-1977
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adoption
Adult
Alcohol Drinking
Alcoholism - complications - epidemiology - genetics
Amnesia - etiology
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology
Comparative Study
Culture
Denmark
Depression - genetics
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Personality Disorders - epidemiology
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Social Environment
Socialization
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
Forty-nine daughters of alcoholics were compared to 47 daughters of nonalcholics; both groups of women (average age, 35 years) had been adopted by nonrelatives early in life. Two women in each group were alcoholic or problem drinkers. Although this is above the expected rate of alcoholism among women, the numbers are too small to draw definite conclusions. Almost all were light drinkers. Daughters of alcoholics had no more depression than controls, indicating that alcoholism in the biological parents did not increase the risk of depression in daughters raised by foster parents. Environmental factors may be important in both alcoholism and depression in women, since both tended to be correlated with psychopathology in the foster parents.
PubMed ID
879972 View in PubMed
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Alcohol problems, mental disorder and mental health among suicide attempters 5-9 years after treatment by child and adolescent outpatient psychiatry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80173
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2006;60(5):351-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Skarbø Tove
Rosenvinge Jan H
Holte Arne
Author Affiliation
Nordland Hospital and Department of Psychology, University of Tromsø, Norway. Tove.Skarboe@nlsh.no
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2006;60(5):351-8
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alcoholism - epidemiology - psychology
Ambulatory Care
Child
Community Mental Health Centers
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Mental health
Motivation
Norway
Personality Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Personality Inventory
Recurrence
Referral and Consultation - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Many studies report associations between alcohol problems, mental disorder, mental health and suicidal behaviour. Still, more knowledge is needed about possible differential characteristics of these factors in risk groups. This naturalistic and retrospective study included former patients who received emergency treatment in child and adolescent outpatient clinics for their mental health problems. One hundred patients were personally interviewed 5-9 years after treatment referral about alcohol problems and mental disorders. Also, they completed questionnaires about 11 indicators of mental health. At the follow-up, those who had attempted suicide during the follow-up period had more alcohol problems and mental disorders than the non-attempters. However, no association was found between suicide attempt in the follow-up period and the mental health indicators. Among the attempters, a high psychological burden as indicated by mental health disorders and poor mental health were associated with suicide re-attempt (lifetime) and an intention to die.
PubMed ID
17050292 View in PubMed
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Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines: potential markers of immunologic dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128706
Source
World J Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Sep;14(7):528-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Morsi W Abdallah
Nanna Larsen
Jakob Grove
Bent Nørgaard-Pedersen
Poul Thorsen
Erik L Mortensen
David M Hougaard
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Aarhus University Faculty of Health Sciences , Aarhus , Denmark.
Source
World J Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Sep;14(7):528-38
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
Amniotic Fluid - immunology - physiology
Biological Markers - metabolism
Case-Control Studies
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology - genetics - immunology
Cohort Studies
Compulsive Personality Disorder - epidemiology - immunology
Cytokines - adverse effects - physiology
Denmark
Female
Humans
Inflammation - immunology - metabolism - pathology
Inflammation Mediators - adverse effects - physiology
Pregnancy
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.
AF samples of 331 ASD cases and 698 controls were analyzed for inflammatory cytokines using Luminex xMAP technology utilizing a historic birth cohort. Clinical data were retrieved from nationwide registers, and case-control differences in AF cytokine levels were assessed using chi-square tests, logistic and tobit regression models.
Overall, individuals with ASD had significantly elevated AF levels of TNF-a and TNF-ß compared to controls. Analyzing individuals diagnosed only with ICD-10 codes yielded significantly elevated levels of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-a and TNF-ß in ASD patients. Restricting analysis to infantile autism cases showed significantly elevated levels of IL-4, TNF-a and TNF-ß compared to controls with no psychiatric comorbidities. Elevated levels of IL-6 and IL-5 were found in individuals with other childhood psychiatric disorders (OCPD) when compared to controls with no psychiatric comorbidities.
AF samples of individuals with ASD or OCPD showed differential cytokine profiles compared to frequency-matched controls. Further studies to examine the specificity of the reported cytokine profiles in ASD and OCPD are required.
PubMed ID
22175527 View in PubMed
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Anabolic androgenic steroids and violent offending: confounding by polysubstance abuse among 10,365 general population men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277753
Source
Addiction. 2015 Jan;110(1):100-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
Lena Lundholm
Thomas Frisell
Paul Lichtenstein
Niklas Långström
Source
Addiction. 2015 Jan;110(1):100-8
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aggression - drug effects
Anabolic Agents - adverse effects
Androgens - adverse effects
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology
Crime - statistics & numerical data
Criminals - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Personality Disorders - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use is associated with aggressive and violent behaviour, but it remains uncertain if this relationship is causal in humans. We examined the link between AAS use and violent crime while controlling for polysubstance abuse and additional suggested risk factors for violence.
Cross-sectional study of a population-based sample.
In 2005, all Swedish-born male twins aged 20-47 years were invited to participate in the Swedish Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) survey of the Swedish Twin Register (response rate?=?60%).
A total of 10,365 male survey participants with information on AAS use.
Data on self-reported use of AAS, alcohol and other substances, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and personality disorder symptoms were linked to nation-wide, longitudinal register information on criminal convictions, IQ, psychological functioning and childhood socio-economic status (SES) covariates.
Any life-time use of AAS was associated strongly with conviction for a violent crime [2.7 versus 0.6% in convicted and non-convicted men, respectively; odds ratio (OR)?=?5.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?2.7-9.3]. However, this link was substantially reduced and no longer significant when controlling for other substance abuse (OR?=?1.6, 95% CI?=?0.8-3.3). Controlling for IQ, psychological functioning, ADHD, personality disorder symptoms and childhood SES did not reduce the risk further.
In the general population, co-occurring polysubstance abuse, but not IQ, other neuropsychological risks or socio-economic status, explains most of the relatively strong association between any anabolic androgenic steroid use and conviction for a violent crime.
PubMed ID
25170826 View in PubMed
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An epidemiological study of ADHD, substance use, and comorbid problems in incarcerated women in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260890
Source
J Atten Disord. 2015 Jan;19(1):44-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
Maija Konstenius
Henrik Larsson
Lena Lundholm
Bjorn Philips
Geurt van de Glind
Nitya Jayaram-Lindström
Johan Franck
Source
J Atten Disord. 2015 Jan;19(1):44-52
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antisocial Personality Disorder - epidemiology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Prisoners - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Prisons
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of ADHD and psychiatric comorbidity, including substance use in incarcerated women.
This was a cross-sectional study, consisting of two parts: (a) screening using the ADHD Self-Rating Scale (ASRS) and (b) diagnostic assessment using a structured interview.
A sample of 96 incarcerated women was screened and 56 underwent the diagnostic assessment. Twenty-nine percent of the women met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) diagnostic criteria for adult ADHD in the diagnostic assessment. Forty-four of the women had misuse of alcohol, and 83% had misuse of narcotics the year prior to the incarceration. The ASRS showed sensitivity of 1.0 and specificity of 0.66.
The prevalence rate of ADHD in incarcerated women was high and comparable to that in male offenders. Illicit stimulant use and antisocial personality disorder were significantly more common in women with ADHD. ASRS is useful as a screener in this population.
PubMed ID
22797213 View in PubMed
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Anorexia nervosa 6 years after onset: Part II. Comorbid psychiatric problems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216495
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 1995 Jan-Feb;36(1):70-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
M. Råstam
I C Gillberg
C. Gillberg
Author Affiliation
University of Göteborg, Child Neuropsychiatry Clinic, Sweden.
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 1995 Jan-Feb;36(1):70-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anorexia Nervosa - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Bulimia - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Empathy
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Mood Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Personality Assessment
Personality Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Social Adjustment
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
A sample of anorexia nervosa (AN) cases recruited after community screening were contrasted with an age-, sex-, and school-matched comparison (COMP) group with regard to comorbidity at age 21 years, approximately 6 years after the reported onset of the eating disorder. Both groups had originally been examined at age 16 years. Most of the AN cases no longer met criteria for AN, but many continued to meet criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) or eating disorder NOS. In addition, there was a high rate of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCDs). Affective disorders had been common throughout the follow-up period, but tended to follow the course of the eating disorder rather than to precede or postdate it. Underlying personality disorders tended to predict poor outcome.
PubMed ID
7705091 View in PubMed
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205 records – page 1 of 21.