From 1953 through 1955 a total of 2364 individuals between o and 18 years were discharged from the Stockholm Child Guidance Clinics. Among these patients 125 (68 boys, 57 girls) were under the age of 3 years. A follow-up study was conducted 30 years later on this sample using records from psychiatric clinics and data from official registers of problematic behaviours. The majority of the infants when seen at the Child Guidance Clinics were judged to be mentally healthy or to have shown mild environmental reactions. However sixty per cent of these patients were identified in at least one of the registers during the follow-up period. Thus the initial evaluation was not prognostic of the future development. Boys developed mainly social maladjustment, whereas girls more often applied for psychiatric care during the follow-up. Significant prognostic factors in the 1950s were gender and parental psychiatric diagnosis.
The effects of return migration on emotional well-being were studied in those school-aged children and adolescents who had returned to northern Finland from Sweden during 1984 and 1985. Each of the 320 returning children and adolescents was assigned a control from the same class at school, matched for age and sex, who had not emigrated. According to a parent questionnaire, the returning boys were irritable more often than the control boys, and they also scored higher on the self-report scale "Children's Depression Inventory." In the teachers' evaluations (Rutter B2 Scale), the returning boys had psychiatric disorders more often than their controls. For both returning boys and girls, overall scholastic achievement was poorer than in the controls, but performance in foreign languages (mainly English) was better. If the father was absent from the family, this was reflected in the scholastic achievement and emotional well-being of both the returnees and the control subjects. How well the children coped with their return to Finland was also affected by what the language of instruction had been in Sweden, whether there had been a language change upon returning to Finland and how much mental preparation there had been for moving.
Active commuting to school by walking or cycling can have positive impact on children's health and development. The study investigates the prevalence of active commuting to school in Sweden, a setting where it is facilitated and promoted; and how active commuting varies according to socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics.
Self-reports from a national sample of Swedish children (11- to 15-year-olds, n = 4415) and a regional one from Stockholm County (13-year-olds, n = 1008) on transport to school were compared. The association that active commuting has with socio-demographic (gender, school grade, Swedish origin, type of housing, urbanicity in the local area), and socio-economic characteristics (household socio-economic status, family car ownership) was studied using logistic regression, controlling for car ownership and urbanicity, respectively.
Active commuting was high (62.9% in the national sample) but decreased with age-76% at the age of 11 years, 62% at the age of 13 years and 50% at the age of 15 years-whereas public transport increased (19-43%). Living in an apartment or row-house (compared with detached house) and living in a medium-sized city (compared with a metropolitan area) was associated with active commuting. In urban areas, active commuting was more common in worker households compared with intermediate- to high-level salaried employees.
Active commuting is common but decreases with age. Active commuting differed based on housing and urbanicity but not based on gender or Swedish origin, and impact of socio-economic factors differed depending on level of urbanicity.
An adaptation of a Norwegian modified short version of Christiansen & Goldman's Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire for Adolescents (AEQ-A) was examined in this survey. Subjects were 924 Norwegian seventh graders, with an average age of 13.3 years. From the original 90 items, 27 items representing all seven original scales were used in this study. Factor analysis did not create any preferred new factor solution compared to Christiansen & Goldman's original factors. Internal consistency of the seven AEQ-A scales ranged from 0.37 to 0.72 on Cronbach's alpha. All seven AEQ-A scales correlated significantly with self-reported alcohol use as was expected, and this study also replicated the relative importance of the social enhancement scale. This was the first study using AEQ-A in a non-English-speaking culture. The generalizability of alcohol outcome expectancies was strongly supported. The present study indicates that the Norwegian version of AEQ-A possesses a level of concurrent validity and internal reliability that is acceptable compared to the original scales, and can serve as a useful instrument in behavioral research on alcohol use among Norwegian adolescents in the years to come.
The adolescent years, being a period of unique developmental changes, are of great interest in understanding suicidal behavior. The occurrence of completed suicide by age in 1-year age groups in adolescence and young adulthood was studied via official Finnish mortality statistics and the population statistics. Suicide rates increased sharply by age during adolescence, starting somewhat earlier among boys than among girls. During the periods of rapidly rising and high suicide rates in the 1970s and 1980s among boys, the increase in suicide rates started at a younger age than during a spell of lower rates in the 1960s.
Acquisition curves for six substances were compared for adolescents in two samples separated by a 5-year interval. Individual variations in initiation ages were found for different substances, but the general pattern of exposures to drugs was essentially stable over the time interval. The findings suggest that there appears to be a range of first experience with drugs that extends from 13 to 16 years. Special emphasis was given to the implications which the findings have for education and intervention programs, and for further research.
The Toronto Adolescent Longitudinal Study was launched in 1977 to examine personality development in a non-clinical sample of children from ages ten through 19 over an eight year period. Following a description of their conceptualized model of personality and of the nature of the study, the authors summarize their findings which suggest new perspectives in three areas of adolescent personality development: 1) the subphases of adolescence, 2) the routes of passage through which adolescents proceed, and 3) adolescent turmoil.
A questionnaire survey was carried out among 898 Norwegian adolescents age twelve to twenty. The study focused on the relation between adolescents' alcohol use on one side and estimated drinking norms (peers' drinking) together with attributed opinion norms (parents' and friends' acceptance of adolescents' alcohol use) on the other. On average, 5% of students in 7th, 8th, and 9th grade reported weekly alcohol use. They overestimated the number of fellow students using alcohol every week seven-fold. Students' estimates were significantly related to self-reported alcohol use. Even in high-school (10th, 11th and 12th grade) where 29% reported weekly alcohol use, students overestimated number of weekly drinkers among friends and fellow students by two-fold. Contrary to the results from a previous study conducted in Norway, in this study opinions attributed to both friends and parents about adolescents' alcohol use were significantly related to the students' own alcohol use. Estimated behavior norms and attributed opinion norms explained 46% of the observed variance in students' self-reported frequency of drinking. In a health promotion context, these results point to the importance of correcting student misconceptions about how often friends and fellow students drink alcohol.
Forty-nine women who attended a surgical emergency department after being battered are the subjects of this prospective study. The childhood and adolescence of the women had been marked by abuse and violence in the parental home. Most of the women had suffered prolonged, repeated battering. Fifty-one per cent of the women and 88% of their male assailants were considered to be heavy consumers of alcohol and in over half of the cases of battering both the man and the women had been drinking. In most cases the women's own children were present when the mother was beaten. One third of the women stated that they were highly dependent on the man in question emotionally. It is concluded that social heredity, heavy consumption of alcohol and emotional dependence on the male assailant are major reasons for the woman's inability to break away from a relationship characterized by repeated battering.
The aim of this study was to investigate developmental factors related to deviant sexual preferences in a sample of 118 sexual aggressors against women. For each subject, developmental factors were collected through a semistructured interview, whereas sexual preferences were assessed phallometrically using French translations of audiotaped stimuli developed by G. G. Abel, E. B. Blanchard, J. V. Becker, and A. Djenderedjian (1978). Using multiple regression analyses, our results showed that a sexually inappropriate family environment, use of pornography during childhood and adolescence, and deviant sexual fantasies during childhood and adolescence are related to the development of deviant sexual preferences. These results are in agreement with Knight and Sims-Knight's model of sexual aggression (R. A. Knight & J. E. Sims-Knight, in press).