OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated the accuracy of reported current and historical weights and of menstrual status in teenage girls with eating disorders. METHOD: Reported current weight in one interview was compared with measured weight at another occasion. Reported historical weights were compared with documented weights from growth charts of the school health services. Reports of menstrual status from two different interviews were compared. RESULTS: The overall correlation between reported and measured/documented weight was high. Current weight was reported with high accuracy in all diagnostic groups and without tendencies to underreport. Patients with bulimia nervosa, but not those with anorexia nervosa, underreported their historical top weight. The most common reason for large discrepancies between reported and documented historical weights was that the two weights compared referred to different time points. The reports on menstrual status were divergent for 13% of the patients, most notably 4 of 15 patients on oral contraceptives had been categorized as having menstruations in one of the interviews. CONCLUSION: Reported weight history and menstrual status are of high accuracy in teenage girls with eating disorders.
There is an accumulating body of research related to the psychosomatic study of blood pressure. One variable that has received attention is defense use. We examined the relation between defense use and blood pressure in men and women of different ages.
A random sample of 667 participants was selected from a population-based study. Resting blood pressure was obtained, and each participant was rated for defense use by a trained observer using Defense-Q. An Adaptive Defense Profile (ADP) score was calculated for each participant, and this score was related to blood pressure.
Regression analyses revealed a significant main effect for the ADP score for both diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Those persons with higher ADP scores had lower diastolic and systolic blood pressure. As well, a significant Age x Sex x ADP score interaction was found for diastolic blood pressure. Older women with a less ADP score had higher diastolic blood pressure.
These findings suggest the continued investigation of defense use and blood pressure.
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and comorbidity of persisting attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adult psychiatric outpatients. Consecutive patients, first visits excluded, at a general psychiatric outpatient clinic were offered a screening for childhood ADHD with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). One hundred and forty-one patients out of 398 (35%) completed and returned the scale. Patients above or near cut-off for ADHD (n=57) were offered an extensive clinical evaluation with psychiatric as well as neuropsychological examination. The attrition was analysed regarding age, sex and clinical diagnoses. Out of the screened sample, 40% had scores indicating possible childhood ADHD. These 57 patients were invited to the clinical part of the study, but 10 declined assessment, leaving 47 (37 women and 10 men) who were actually examined. Thirty of these (21 women and nine men) met diagnostic criteria for ADHD at the time of examination. Among the patients with ADHD, affective disorders were the most common psychiatric diagnoses. The rate of alcohol and/or substance abuse, as noted in the medical records, was also high in the ADHD group. In the WURS-screened group, 22% (30 patients assessed as part of this study and one person with ADHD previously clinically diagnosed) were shown to have persisting ADHD. Therefore, it is clearly relevant for psychiatrists working in general adult psychiatry to have ADHD in mind as a diagnostic option, either as the patient's main problem or as a functional impairment predisposing for other psychiatric disorders.
The adjustment of sleep-wake patterns and the circadian temperature rhythm was monitored in nine Royal Norwegian Air-force volunteers operating P-3 aircraft during a westward training deployment across nine time zones. Subjects recorded all sleep and nap times, rated nightly sleep quality, and completed personality inventories. Rectal temperature, heart rate, and wrist activity were continuously monitored. Adjustment was slower after the return eastward flight than after the outbound westward flight. The eastward flight produced slower readjustment of sleep timing to local time and greater interindividual variability in the patterns of adjustment of sleep and temperature. One subject apparently exhibited resynchronization by partition, with the temperature rhythm undergoing the reciprocal 15-h delay. In contrast, average heart rates during sleep were significantly elevated only after westward flight. Interindividual differences in adjustment of the temperature rhythm were correlated with some of the personality measures. Larger phase delays in the overall temperature waveform (as measured on the 5th day after westward flight) were exhibited by extraverts, and less consistently by evening types.
The Toronto Adolescent Longitudinal Study was launched in 1977 to examine personality development in a non-clinical sample of children from ages ten through 19 over an eight year period. Following a description of their conceptualized model of personality and of the nature of the study, the authors summarize their findings which suggest new perspectives in three areas of adolescent personality development: 1) the subphases of adolescence, 2) the routes of passage through which adolescents proceed, and 3) adolescent turmoil.
To test the hypothesis that adoptees are overrepresented among a sample of clinic-referred boys with gender identity problems (N = 238). To compare the adoptees and nonadoptees on demographic, behaviour problem, and gender-typed measures.
The percentage of clinic-referred boys with gender identity problems adopted in the first 2 years of life ("early adoptees") was compared to the base rate of boys adopted in Ontario. Parent-report and behavioural measures were used to compare the early adoptees with "late adoptees" (adopted after the second year of life) and nonadoptees.
The percentage of boys with gender identity problems who were early adoptees (7.6%) was significantly higher than the base rate of males adopted in Ontario in the first 2 years of life (1.5%). Both the early and late adoptees were significantly less intelligent than the nonadoptees. The early adoptees also had significantly higher externalizing T scores on the Child Behavior Checklist than did the late adoptees and the nonadoptees. The 3 groups did not differ in the percentage who met the complete Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for gender identity disorder and on 4 other measures of gender-typed behaviour.
Adoptees are overrepresented among clinic-referred boys with gender identity problems. The reasons for this finding are not clear but may be accounted for by general risk factors that increase the likelihood of clinical referral or by psychosocial and biological factors associated with adoption.
To examine the relationship between remission of psychiatric disorders and age.
We interviewed 3258 randomly selected adult residents of Edmonton using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), which yielded DIS/DSM-III diagnoses. Remission was defined as being free of symptoms of the index lifetime disorder in the year preceding the interview, this being the difference between the lifetime and one-year prevalence. For each age group, the proportion of cases with and without symptoms in the preceding year was calculated. Numbers and proportions of cases were estimated after adjusting to the census population and weighting for household size. Only the more common disorders were examined; any comorbidities were ignored.
Drug abuse or dependence, antisocial personality disorder (in both sexes), and alcohol abuse or dependence (in men) all showed remission rates that increased with age. Panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) showed a decreased likelihood of remission with increasing age. Major depression and phobias showed little tendency to remission with age. Considering all disorders together, the one-year remission rate for all ages combined was only 33.2%, with a tendency for lower remission rates to be found in those aged 55 to 64.
As may be expected, antisocial personality, drug abuse or dependence, and alcohol abuse or dependence tend to show increased remission rates with increasing age. In OCD and panic disorder, the low rates of remission found in all age groups indicate that these disorders produce significant long-term morbidity. For depression, which had an overall remission rate of less than 50%, the stable low rate of remission probably indicates not only the difficulties of treatment but also the low rates at which cases get treated.
There is a lack of longitudinal studies assessing the significance of alexithymia on the emergence of mental illnesses. We aimed to evaluate the potential effect of alexithymia on postpartum anxiety and depression symptoms in a sample of parents to be.
In a pregnancy cohort, longitudinal data were available from three time points (gestational weeks 18-20, and 3 and 12 months postpartum) for 100 mothers and 65 fathers. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used to assess alexithymia, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to evaluate anxiety symptoms and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to assess depression. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the effect of alexithymia on the symptom scale score changes from baseline.
Both in mothers and fathers, the TAS-20 total score was significantly correlated with the STAI and EPDS scores at several time-points, with a higher TAS-20 score indicating more symptoms. In the regression analyses, the association of alexithymia with later symptoms became non-significant in mothers. However, in fathers, the TAS-20 score had a statistically significant effect on the increase of the STAI score at 3 months postpartum (p?=?0.006). For the separate TAS-20 subscales, difficulty identifying feelings had a significant effect on the increase of anxiety by 12 months postpartum (p?=?0.023) and difficulty describing feelings on the increase by 3 months postpartum (p?