To evaluate an intervention aimed at enriching day centres for people with psychiatric disabilities by exploring staff experiences from developing and implementing the intervention.
Each staff group developed a tailor-made intervention plan, following a manual, for how to enrich the day centre. They received supervision and support from the research team. The study was based on focus-group interviews with a total of 13 staff members at four day centres. Narrative analysis with a thematic approach was used. A first round resulted in one narrative per centre. These centre-specific narratives were then integrated into a common narrative that covered all the data.
A core theme emerged: User involvement permeated the implementation process and created empowerment. It embraced four themes forming a timeline: "Mix of excitement, worries and hope", "Confirmation and development through dialogue, feedback and guidance", "The art of integrating new activities and strategies with the old", and "Empowerment-engendered future aspirations".
The users' involvement and empowerment were central for the staff in accomplishing the desired changes in services, as were their own reflections and learning. A possible factor that may have contributed to the positive outcomes was that those who were central in developing the plan were the same as those who implemented it.
More knowledge is needed about the role of perceived control in the associations between different perceptions of daily occupations and positive health outcomes. The aim was to explore the associations between different subjective perceptions of daily occupations, in terms of occupational balance, occupational meaning, occupational value and satisfaction with occupations, and life satisfaction, and the role of perceived control in those associations.
A questionnaire including questions about perceptions of daily occupations, perceived control and life satisfaction were answered by a random sample of 488 middle-aged Swedish women. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to test the associations between perceptions of daily occupations and life satisfaction, and the role of perceived control.
After adjustments for perceived control women who perceived a high level of satisfaction with work and leisure, occupational balance, occupational meaning and occupational value perceived greater life satisfaction than the other women. Perceived control was not significant in the model.
It seems that occupational balance and occupational meaning were pivotal for the women's life satisfaction, but satisfaction with work and leisure, as well as perceived occupational value, was also of importance. The assumption that perceived control would have a role in the association between perceptions of occupations and life satisfaction was not confirmed.
The results indicate that occupational therapists need to focus on occupational balance, occupational meaning, occupational value and satisfaction with work and leisure to promote positive health outcomes, in terms of life satisfaction, when working with middle-aged female clients.
A self-report instrument assessing work-related factors among people with psychiatric disabilities would be useful when trying to match possible employment or prevocational opportunities with people's desires and capacities. The aim of this study was to explore the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct and criterion validity of the Worker Role Self-Assessment (WRS) in this group as well as possible floor and ceiling effects. The participants were 283 clients from day centers for people with psychiatric disabilities and from outpatient units for people with psychosis. They completed the WRS and instruments selected to assess construct validity in terms of convergent (motivation for work and current activity level as reference variables) and discriminant validity (quality of life and self-rated health as reference variables). Two factors were identified, one tapping beliefs in a future worker role and one reflecting current capacities and routines. The internal consistency for the scale as a whole was good at 0.84. The factor reflecting a future worker role correlated as expected with the reference variables used to assess convergent and discriminant validity, whereas current capacities and routines showed a moderate association with quality of life and self-rated health, assumed to indicate discriminant validity. Criterion validity was shown in that those who had recent work experiences scored higher than the others on WRS. No floor or ceiling effects were identified. The findings indicate acceptable psychometric properties of the WRS. Further development is still warranted, however; the factor solution needs to be replicated and the construct validity should be further established.
To investigate how day center attendees with psychiatric disabilities perceived their worker role and the importance of current work situation and personal factors in that respect.
Two-hundred attendees completed the Worker Role Self-assessment and questionnaires addressing possible predictors of the worker role: current employment situation, satisfaction with that situation, and a personal factor (encompassing self-esteem, self-mastery and engagement). Structural equation modeling was used.
A model indicated two worker role factors; belief in a future worker role (WR1) and current capacities and routines (WR2). WR1 was positively influenced by having a job, younger age and the personal factor. Satisfaction with current work situation (usually unemployment) was negatively associated with WR1. The personal factor was single predictor of WR2. The attendees rated WR2 more positively than WR1.
The personal factor was crucial for both WR1 and WR2. Work-related factors were only important for WR1. The more negative rating of belief in a future worker role may be interpreted as mistrust in the services. The attendees' positive ratings of capacities indicate, however, that they had a rehabilitation potential to develop. Enhancing self-esteem, mastery and engagement may be an avenue for staff in efforts to support the attendee's worker role.
This study investigated predictors of quality of life among persons with schizophrenia and other psychoses. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesised that objective life circumstances, self-variables, psychopathology, activity level, satisfaction with daily activities, and satisfaction with medical care would be determinants of quality of life. 134 persons were investigated, and the analysis was based on Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). A model with two quality of life variables, General quality of life and Security, fitted the data best. A self-variable, Sense of self, and Satisfaction with daily activities, Psychopathology, and Satisfaction with medical care served as mediators and explained the variation in the quality of life variables. External to the mediators, and related to these, were Activity level, Educational level, and Independent living. In conclusion, a self-variable showed the strongest association with quality of life, but two aspects that should be feasible to influence in mental health care, daily activity and medical care, contributed to the subjects' self-rated quality of life. These results render a somewhat optimistic view on how to accomplish a better self-perceived quality of life among people with severe mental illness.
PURPOSE: The study compared the perceived value of occupation among a sample of individuals with long-term mental illness to a sample of people not diagnosed with mental illness. As well, it investigated whether diagnostic and demographic factors were related to perceived occupational value among the individuals with mental illness. Finally, the study examined the relationship between occupational value and ratings of health and well-being. METHOD: One hundred and three individuals with mental illness and 28 healthy individuals were recruited for the study. RESULTS: Overall occupational value among the individuals diagnosed with mental illness differed only marginally from the healthy group, indicating that perceived occupational value was by and large not related to mental illness. Among the individuals with mental illness, having children living at home was related to occupational value. There were moderate to strong associations between occupational value and measures of health and well-being. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This study provides important insights into occupational value among individuals with persistent mental health problems and provides some preliminary evidence in support of the Value, Meaning and Occupation Model.
Meaningful everyday occupations are important for mental health and recovery and are provided by both community-based day centres (DCs) and clubhouses. It is unknown, however, if any of the two has more recovery-promoting features.
This nine-month longitudinal study compared DC and clubhouses, concerning the users' perceptions of unit and programme characteristics, and aspects of everyday occupations in terms of engagement and satisfaction. Stability over time in these respects, as well as motivation for participation and relationships with occupational engagement and satisfaction, were explored.
Participants from 10 DCs (n?=?128) and 5 clubhouses (n?=?57) completed self-report instruments.
DC attendees rated lower levels on two organizational factors; choice and ability to influence decisions, and the unit's social network. Motivation showed to be an important factor for perceived occupational engagement, which did not differ between the two groups. DC attendees were more satisfied with their everyday occupations at baseline, but that factor increased more in the clubhouse group and there was no group difference at follow-up. The unit and programme characteristics and occupational engagement showed stability over time.
Clubhouses seemed more advantageous and DC services may consider developing users' opportunities for choice and decision-making, and peer support.
Perceived control has been found to be of significance for patients with psychiatric disorders and may be regarded as an aspect of empowerment. Moreover, a sense of control has been identified as important for occupational performance, both in empirical research and in occupational therapy theory. This study aimed at investigating factors that might be of importance for perceived control: sociodemographic, clinical, and well-being variables. Another aim was to investigate whether perceived control served as a mediator between clinical variables, in terms of psychopathology, and well-being variables, in terms of perceived health. Sociodemographic data were collected from 177 subjects, most of them with psychosis diagnoses. They were also assessed regarding perceived control (locus of control and self-mastery) and different aspects of health and well-being. The findings showed that both clinical and well-being variables were consistently related to both aspects of perceived control. Moreover, the roles of self-mastery and locus of control as mediators of perceived health were identified. The results also identified some important sociodemographic factors that might promote a sense of control and empowerment, mainly educational level and friends. This study provided detailed knowledge of the role of perceived control for well-being among people with mental disorders. Strategies for how occupational therapists may promote a sense of control in this group are discussed.
The aim of this study was to describe asylum seekers' satisfaction with daily occupations and activity level while in a Danish asylum centre, and whether this changed over time. Another aim was to describe whether exposure to torture, self-rated health measures, and ADL ability were related to their satisfaction with daily occupations and activity level.
A total of 43 asylum seekers at baseline and 17 at follow-up were included. The questionnaires Satisfaction with Daily Occupations, Major Depression Inventory, WHO-5 Wellbeing, Pain Detect, a questionnaire covering torture, and basic social information were used as well as Assessment of Motor and Process Skills.
The results showed a low level of satisfaction with daily occupations at both baseline and follow-up. There was no statistically significant change in satisfaction or activity level between baseline and the follow-up. Associations between AMPS process skills--education, worst pain and activity level--were present at baseline, as was a relationship between AMPS process skills and satisfaction. At follow-up, associations between WHO-5 and satisfaction and activity level and between MDI scores and activity level were found.
Asylum seekers experience a low level of satisfaction with daily occupations, both at arrival and after 10 months in an asylum centre. There is a need for further research and development of occupation-focused rehabilitation methods for the asylum seeker population.
This article describes the results to expand and develop the use of the Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO-13) Scale. Data were collected in primary care before (I) and after intervention (II) among clients with stress-related disorders and musculoskeletal pain. The Cronbach's alpha values of the SDO-13 Scale were 0.80 and 0.88. Convergent validity was assessed against global occupational satisfaction and general health, resulting in rs = -0.65 (p