The 2 Ã? 2 model of perfectionism posits that the 4 within-person combinations of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., pure SOP, mixed perfectionism, pure SPP, and nonperfectionism) can be distinctively associated with psychological adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between the 4 subtypes of perfectionism proposed in the 2 Ã? 2 model (Gaudreau & Thompson, 2010) and academic outcomes (i.e., academic satisfaction and grade-point average [GPA]) differed across 2 sociocultural groups: Asian Canadians and European Canadians. A sample of 697 undergraduate students (23% Asian Canadians) completed self-report measures of dispositional perfectionism, academic satisfaction, and GPA. Results replicated most of the 2 Ã? 2 model's hypotheses on ratings of GPA, thus supporting that nonperfectionism was associated with lower GPA than pure SOP (Hypothesis 1a) but with higher GPA than pure SPP (Hypothesis 2). Results also showed that mixed perfectionism was related to higher GPA than pure SPP (Hypothesis 3) but to similar levels as pure SOP, thus disproving Hypothesis 4. Furthermore, results provided evidence for cross-cultural differences in academic satisfaction. While all 4 hypotheses were supported among European Canadians, only Hypotheses 1a and 3 were supported among Asian Canadians. Future lines of research are discussed in light of the importance of acknowledging the role of culture when studying the influence of dispositional perfectionism on academic outcomes.
Sustainable food systems are those in which diverse foods are produced in close proximity to a market. A dynamic, adaptive knowledge base that is grounded in local culture and geography and connected to outside knowledge resources is essential for such food systems to thrive. Sustainable food systems are particularly important to remote and Aboriginal communities, where extensive transportation makes food expensive and of poorer nutritional value. The Learning Garden program was developed and run with two First Nation communities in northwestern Ontario. With this program, the team adopted a holistic and experiential model of learning to begin rebuilding a knowledge base that would support a sustainable local food system. The program involved a series of workshops held in each community and facilitated by a community-based coordinator. Topics included cultivated gardening and forest foods. Results of survey data collected from 20 Aboriginal workshop participants are presented, revealing a moderate to low level of baseline knowledge of the traditional food system, and a reliance on the mainstream food system that is supported by food values that place convenience, ease, and price above the localness or cultural connectedness of the food. Preliminary findings from qualitative data are also presented on the process of learning that occurred in the program and some of the insights we have gained that are relevant to future adaptations of this program.
The link between physical activity (PA) and prevention of disease, maintenance of independence, and improved quality of life in older adults is supported by strong evidence. However, there is a lack of data on population levels in this regard, where PA level has been measured objectively. The main aims were therefore to assess the level of accelerometer-determined PA and to examine its associations with self-reported health in a population of Norwegian older adults (65-85 years).
This was a part of a national multicenter study. Participants for the initial study were randomly selected from the national population registry, and the current study included those of the initial sample aged 65-85 years. The ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer was used to measure PA for seven consecutive days. A questionnaire was used to register self-reported health. Univariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni adjustments were used for comparisons between multiple groups.
A total of 560 participants had valid activity registrations. Mean age (SD) was 71.8 (5.6) years for women (n=282) and 71.7 (5.2) years for men (n=278). Overall PA level (cpm) differed considerably between the age groups where the oldest (80-85 y) displayed a 50% lower activity level compared to the youngest (65-70 y). No sex differences were observed in overall PA within each age group. Significantly more men spent time being sedentary (65-69 and 70-74 years) and achieved more minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) (75-79 years) compared to women. Significantly more women (except for the oldest), spent more minutes of low-intensity PA compared to men. PA differed across levels of self-reported health and a 51% higher overall PA level was registered in those, with "very good health" compared to those with "poor/very poor health".
Norwegian older adults PA levels differed by age. Overall, the elderly spent 66% of their time being sedentary and only 3% in MVPA. Twenty one percent of the participants fulfilled the current Norwegian PA recommendations. Overall PA levels were associated with self-reported health.
To define a grade in the Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) that would differentiate between esthetically acceptable and unacceptable occlusions and that would also be both subjectively and objectively meaningful.
Dental appearance and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need were analyzed in a group of Finnish young adults (171 males, 263 females, age range 16-25 years). Subjective data were gathered using a questionnaire, and the respondents were requested to score their dental appearance on a visual analog type 10-grade scale. Professional assessment of dental appearance was performed by two orthodontists using the AC of the IOTN. The cutoff value between esthetically acceptable and unacceptable occlusions was defined using receiver operating characteristic curves.
Sixty-six percent of orthodontically treated and 74% of the untreated respondents were satisfied with their own dental appearance. Every third respondent reported one or more disturbing traits in their dentition. The most frequently expressed reason for dissatisfaction was crowding; girls expressed dissatisfaction more often than boys did (P = .005). A self-perceived treatment need was reported infrequently by 8% of orthodontically treated and 6% of untreated respondents. In the logistic regression analysis, self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment was the only significant factor explaining dissatisfaction with own dental esthetics. On the applied scales, grades 1 and 2 fulfilled the criteria for satisfactory dental esthetics.
The results suggest that the AC grade 3 could serve as a cutoff value between esthetically acceptable and unacceptable occlusions.
This study examined adolescents' attitudes of cosmetic surgery, as well as the relationships between these attitudes, body appreciation, body ideal internalization, and fashion blog reading. The sample comprised 110 (60 boys, 50 girls) late adolescents (mean age 16.9 years) from a Swedish high school. The results indicated that younger adolescents seem somewhat more accepting of cosmetic surgery. This was especially the case for boys' acceptance of social motives for obtaining cosmetic surgery (boys' M=2.3±1.55 vs. girls' M=1.7±0.89). Girls', and to a limited extent boys', internalization of the thin ideal was related to more favorable cosmetic surgery attitudes. Athletic ideal internalization and body appreciation were unrelated to these attitudes. Finally, girls who frequently read fashion blogs reported higher thin ideal internalization, and also demonstrated a slight tendency of more cosmetic surgery consideration.
As the physical consequences of accidental falls in the elderly are well-researched, the long-term associations between falls and quality of life and related concepts are less known. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the long-term relations between falls and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (LS) over six years in the general elderly population. One thousand three hundred and twenty-one subjects (aged 60-93 years), from the general population in the south of Sweden, were included in a baseline assessment and a follow-up after six years. HRQoL was measured with the SF-12 and LS with the life satisfaction index A (LSI-A). The differences in mean scores between fallers at baseline (n=113) and non-fallers were statistical analyzed. Furthermore, the prediction of falls on the outcomes was analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model adjusted for multiple confounding factors. Fallers scored significant lower in HRQoL and LS at baseline and after six years, compared to non-fallers, especially in the SF-12 physical component (p=
The aim was to study achieved competences in temporomandibular disorders (TMD)/orofacial pain (OP) at two universities by comparing student's knowledge and understanding, satisfaction with their education and confidence in their clinical competences of TMD/OP.
The study was conducted in collaboration between Malmö University, Sweden—which uses problem-based learning—and the University of Naples Federico II, Italy—which uses traditional educational methods. Final-semester dental students responded to a self-report questionnaire regarding their knowledge and understanding, interpretation of cases histories, clinical experience, satisfaction and confidence in clinical examination, management and treatment evaluation.
No significant difference was found between the students regarding knowledge and understanding. Eighty-seven per cent of the Malmö students and 96% of the Naples students met the criterion on achieved competence. Malmö students had a higher per cent of correct diagnoses than Naples students in the interpretation of case histories. Overall, Malmö students reported most clinical experience and higher confidence than Naple students.
The main findings were that students from Malmö and Naples were, similar in knowledge and understanding of TMD/OP and in satisfaction with their clinical competences. However, Malmö students perceived more confidence in clinical management of patients with TMD/OP. This may reflect that, besides the theoretical part of the programme, a sufficient level of clinical exposure to patients with TMD/OP is essential to gain competences in TMD/OP.
This paper describes the follow-up phase of a pilot collaborative initiative between the University of Papua New Guinea and James Cook University aimed at determining the relevance of an Indigenous Australian Family Wellbeing (FWB) empowerment program in the context of Papua New Guinea (PNG). It describes opportunities and challenges involved in adapting and sustaining the FWB approach to the PNG context. Two evaluation questionnaires were administered to 60 course participants.
Findings revealed that the course was relevant, adaptable and could readily be integrated with other health programs. In the context of PNG's target to meet its United Nations Millennium Development Goals by 2015, the Family Wellbeing approach offers an innovative approach to enhance existing health and community development initiatives.
A longitudinal research project began in 1993 of Norwegian, Swedish and American mothers' perception of her family's dynamics and adaptation during childbearing and childrearing. Results indicated that Swedish mothers adapted better than other mothers. In 2003, a mixed design study was conducted with original Swedish mothers that aimed to describe the experience of motherhood, the meaning mothers attached to events in their lives that made adaptation necessary, and ways in which they achieved adaptation. Fourteen mothers completed quantitative instruments and 13 of those mothers were interviewed. Audiotaped interviews were transcribed and analysed for themes using a protocol based on a model of family resiliency. Quantitative findings revealed statistically significant findings in areas of children, mother's work outside the home and families in which a major illness had occurred. Qualitative findings revealed that protective factors far outweighed vulnerability and risk factors. Mothers' satisfaction with life manifested itself in love of home, contentment with employment, fulfillment from an active and healthy life and support from a society that provides a wide range of social benefits for the family. Vulnerability occurred primarily when mothers were tired, lacked personal time or someone in the family was experiencing a serious illness. Results of this study enhance the scholarly scientific knowledge about the uniqueness of Swedish mothers, and increased understanding of family dynamics and adaptation. Many of the findings relate in some way to overall social benefits and supports available for families.
This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants with (a) Down syndrome (DS; n = 114), (b) cleft lip/palate (CLP; n = 179), and (c) no disability (ND; n = 99,122). Responses on the Satisfaction With Life Scale and a short version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist were analyzed using structural equation modeling, including latent growth curves. Satisfaction and distress levels were highly diverse in the sample, but fairly stable over time (retest correlations: .47-.68). However, the birth of a child with DS was associated with a rapid decrease in maternal life satisfaction and a corresponding increase in psychological distress observed between pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. The unique effects from DS on changes in satisfaction (Cohen's d = -.66) and distress (Cohen's d = .60) remained stable. Higher distress and lower life satisfaction at later assessments appeared to reflect a persistent burden that was already experienced 6 months after birth. CLP had a temporary impact (Cohen's d = .29) on maternal distress at 6 months. However, the overall trajectories did not differ between CLP and ND mothers. In sum, the birth of a child with DS influences maternal psychological distress and life satisfaction throughout the toddler period, whereas a curable condition like CLP has only a minor temporary effect on maternal psychological distress.